(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archæology"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



i 



Ctansacttons 



THE SOCIETY 



OF 



Biblical Archaeology, 



9, CONDUIT STREET, W, 



VOL. V. 



LONDON: 

LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 

1877. 






HABBUOM AMD tOMB. 
rmiNTSW W OEDWABT TO H«l MAJWTT. 
8T. MA&TIM^t IUlMX. 



188^^)5 



CONTENTS OF VOL. V. 



The Fi^bt between Bel ami the Dra^ou, and the Fhunuij^ 
Swonl which turne<t every way, By IL F. Talbot, 
F.K.S » ...,» J- ai 

Ou the Hamathite InacHptioiis. By Bev. A. EL Savcb, 

M,A. Plait , ...*... „ 22- 32 

t)fi flu* Mammalia f»f the Assyrian Sculptures. By Rkv. 

William HoiiUiTOK, M-A.» F.L«S, U Plate*. Part I 35- 64 

Panll 3i9-3»3 

Key to the Geuealng^ical Table of the First Patriarchs of 
GeDesig, and the Ghmuolugy of the Septoagijit. By 
Victor Rttdbkeo. Frmn L. L* II. €ombertigiie*8 
French MS. A Traimlatioii of the origbial Sweihsh 
Brochure and NoU^s. By S, M. Dracii, F.R.A.S. 65- 87 

Notes on Cypriote Palaeography, By U. PiKumEs. :i 

PlaU» ...-,. „ 88- 96 

Ishtar and Izdubar: bemg the Sixth Tablet of the Izdubar 
Series. Translated from the Cuneifunn. By 11. F. 
Talbot, F.R.S ,,., ..,.,. 97-121 

On a Mummy opened at Stafford House on the 15th July, 

187;). ByS. BiKCH, LL.D .„ , 122-126 

Ou the Name of an Egjptian Dog. By Prof. G. Ma8pero 127-128 

The Babyloiuan Codex of Ilosea and Joeh also the Book 
of Jonahs dated a.d. l>ir> (now at St. Petersburg), 
compared with the rtx-eived Massoretie Texts. By the 
Rev. Christian D. G insbu ro, LL, D . Ph te {jm-mmle) 129-176 

and 475-549 
A Sketch of Sabcean Grammar^ with Exam|>les of Tiansla- 
tion. By Captain VV. F. Piiideaux, FJiti.S., Fel^iw 

of the University of Bombay. Plate , , 177-224 

and 584-42 ^ 
Chronological Remarks on the History nf Esther and 
Ahaauems^ or 'Atossa and Tauu-Axares, By J. W 

BOdANQCET, F.RA.S, 2 PiiUeS 225-292 



CONTENTS, 



The iDBcription of Darius at the Temple of El-Khargeh. 

By S. Birch, LL.D. 2 PlaUs 293-302 

Ijegend of the Tower of Bahel. By W. St. Chai> 

Bo&CAWEN ...„ , 503-312 

Why is Foity-thi^ee a Basal Biblical Number? By S* M* 

Drach., in-%^1 

The Chaldean Account of the Creation. Translated by 

H. F. Talbot, F.R.S...., , ,. 426-440 

The Babylonian Cylinder?? found by Generat di Cesnola in 

the Treasury of the Temple at Kuriuni. By Rev, 

A. H. Sayck^ M.A. 441-444^ 

On a Himyaritie Seal found in the Hauran. By Isaac R. 

Hall, LL.H*, Ph.D ,... 445-446 

On the Cypriote Inscriptions. By II. F. Tajj*ot, F.RS. ., 447-455 
0)1 an Aramit-nii Seal. By Likut.-Col. W. P\ Pkidkadx, 

F.R.(jr.S.. Fellow of the University uf Boiiil>ay, CuU 456-458 
Notice 8iir une Stele egyptienne dii Mnsee de Turin. 

Par Francois Ciiabas 459-474 

The Tenno-Sarna, or Mikoshi ; Ark -Shrines of Japan. 

By William Slmpson. Piatt , 55^~554 

On the Stele C 14 in the Museum of the Louvib. By 

Professor G. Maspero S5S"S^* 

Society of Biblical Aivhteology. Condenaed Report of 

the Prw<'eding8 during^ the Fifth Session » Novemtier, 

1875» to July, 1876.... 563-580 

Index to Vol. V 581-596 

Errata. 597 

List of Meml>ers...... i-xv 

List of additional Books present^sd.. xvi-xxiv 

Catalogue uf the Library........... „ 

Society of Biblical Archaeology, Rules of 



L ■ 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



Vol. V. 



JUNE, 1876. 



Part 1. 



THE FIGHT BETWEEN BEL AND THE DRAGON, 

THE FLAMING SWORD WHICH TUHXKD 
EVERY WAY. ((!i:x. iii, 24.) 

Traushiti'd from a Chdhhan Tablet 
By 11. F. Talijot, RU.S. 

Bead 1th March, 1876'. 

Tins is on*.* of tho iiio«t strikiiiju; narratives of tlu* ( -lialdiau 
mytliology. It is fonrul mi a tal.»lut litliop,Tai>li(.'J in ])latvs 11 
and 4o of Delitzsch*H Avork A/<fi}/rl.^rJn> J jt-fte-^t /'/<!{■<:., IMatr 11 
dosoribe?* Bel amiing himself for the l)attle: the Dragon is 
merely mentioned on this plate, Init does not appear upon the 
seene. 

Plate 45 descril.ies the battle, witli niueh anlm.ition. 'J'ho 
weapons wliieh Bel wielded were nnin'runsaml formidable, but 
l.-V far tlu^ most euriouswas th«' FbimiiiL;' Swiird wljicli tunnil 
L-vt-rv Avay, ''to thci Soutli, t ) thi' North, in ih«' Hast, .'ind to 
the West, so that none eould "'srapf.' from it." wliicli rr.s(']iil)l«s 
s. » strongly the Swonl of th(^ (,'lif'vul)im in (irmsis Avliieh 
-turned (.'V<*ry way, to keep the y of the Tre«* of liilc" 
that the ."^ame eeh-stial weajx'n mn^t -unly he int«'ii',led. If 
Vol. V. 1 



2 The Fiiilit between Bel and the Ih^tffoiu 

• ■ k 

i« here Riippo8ed*4o'l^t; in the bauds of Bel, the beneficent 
deity who, acce[l^iiig to plate 42, had created MankliifL 

Several lm'^& at the beginning and end of each face of the 
tablet are1>wj1ken off, which causes some obecurity. 

:,*>/• Front of the Tablet: Plate 44. 

^ 1, ||bK>ken,] 

2:-^ • . , . , . and wiih it liie right hmid he amied. 
.•*Od*' Hi8 flaming sword he raised iu bia hand. 
;*/•' 4. He brandished his Hghtningfl before hiin» 

5. A curved Bcimitar he carried on hiB body. 

ti. And he made a sword to destroy tlio dmgon, 

7. which turned four ways ; so that none could avoid its 

rapid blows* 

8. It turned to the South, to the North, to the East, and to 

the West. 

9. Near to bis sal^re he placed the Bow of his father Ann. 

10. He made a whirling thunderbolt, and a bolt with double 

flames,* impossible to extiuguifth : 

11. And a quadniple bolt, and a septuple bolt, and a ..... , 

bolt, mid a bolt of crooked fire. 

12. He took the thimderbolts wbieh be had made, and there 

were seven of them 
1,». to he shot at the dragon, and he put them into his quiver 
behind him. 

14. Then the lord i>f thi- mtonn nHsed bis great sword j 

15. He moimted bin Chariot, wbone name was *' Destroyer of 

the Impious *' : 
111. he took liis place, and lifted the four reins^ in bis hand. 

[The rest of this portion of the inscription is broken off.] 



Reverse of the Tablet; Plate 4,x 

Bel now offers to the Dragon to decide their quarrel fiy 
bingle corabatj winch the Dragon accepts. This agrees with 
the representations of the combat on Babylonian eylinders in 
Mr, Smith's Chaldean Genesis, page 62, &c. 



Forked liglitnhrg. 



'^ Tlieir w«r-ehft riots had two tior«e?. 



TU lij^ beiiteen Bel and the Dragon. 3 

1« \Why^ 9$AM (Aott ikwi\ to irritate me with blaas- 
phemieB? 

2. Let fhy anny withdraw : let thy chiefs stand aside : 

3. Then I and Thoa (alone) we wflU do battle. 
4 When the Dragon heard this, 

5. Stand back I she said, and repeated her command. 

6. Then the tempter rose watchfhlly on high. 

7. Taming and twisting, she shifted her standing point, 

8. She watched his lightnings : she provided for retreat. 

9. The warrior angels sheathed their swords. 

10. Then the Dragon attacked the just prince of the gods. 

11. Strongly they joined in the trial of battle, 

. IS. The Sing drew his sword, and dealt rapid blows, 

13. Then he took hw whirling thmiderbolt, and looked well 

behind and before him : 

14. And when the Dragon opened her month to swallow 

him, 

15. He flung the bolt into her, before she could shut her lips. 

16. The blazing lightning poured into her inside. 

17. He pulled out her h^art; her mouth he rent open ; 

18. He drew his /a/eAu>n, and cut open her belly. 

19. he cut into her inside and extracted her heart, 

20. he took vengeance on her, and destroyed her life. 

21. When he knew she was dead he boasted over her. 

22. After that the Dragon their Leader was slain 

23. her troops took to flight: her amiy was scattered abroad, 

24. and the angels her allies, who had come to help her, 
25- retreated, grew quiet, and went away. 

26. They fled from thence, fearing for theii* own lives, 

27. and saved themselves, flying to places beyond pursuit. 

28. He followed them, their weapons he broke up. 

29. Broken they lay, and in great heaps they were captured. 

30. A crowd of followers full of astoniBhment 

31. Its remains' lifted up, and ou their shoulders hoisted. 

32. And the eleven tribes, pouring iu after the battle 

33. in great multitudes, coming to see, 

' Several lines appear to be broken oiT, including thefirsl purtuf line 1, wbich 
I hare restored from conjecture. 
2 Vix., those of the drajjon. 



The Fight betiveen Bel and (he Driujon. 



MVB 



34. gazed at the monstrouB serpent 

35. and . * 

30. And the god Bel ,,,... 

(The rest of the tablet is lost.) 

The 32nd Hue is very obscure. The word 'eleven' m 
written in words at length, and veiy distinctly, istin isrit 
(one and ten) wliich is the Hebrew term for 'eleven' viz, 
J11U>3? **nt.^J^t eo that there can be no doubt about the word. 
But twelve m usually the sacred number, and therefore the 
thought suggests itself that in tliis Legend something had 
happened to one of the twelve nabnki^ or created races, and 
reduced their number to eleven. Perhaps the story ran that 
the angels were at first divided into twelve tribes or races, 
and that one of these joined the Dragon in the rebeUion, so 
that " after the battle '* (if that is the phrase employed by 
the scribe) only eleven were to be found in heaven. This 
certiiinly does not accord with the statement ui plate 43, but 
this is a different tablet, and the scribe may have followed a 
different tradition, for these minor points vary much in 
mythology. 

I will no%v give the cuneiform text, Imt I must premise 
that the text given by Smith in vol. 4, plate 6 of om* Trans- 
actions varies notably in some places from that given by 
DehtzBch, apparently owing to the addition of a small new 
fragment to the tal>let* I liave endeavoured hi each case to 
select, what seemed the better of the two readings. 



Cuneiform Text of the Front of the Tablet : 1^*late 44. 

rtHB 

1. [Broken.] 

^- mmmm^j^ -^t i ^m^ v a^t _ 

..,.,... imna-Bu nsakhfx 

[a weapon] to his riahf hand he *fave 



The Fight hfitween R*l and the Pra^on^ 5 

tnrs 

katfcu(?) lEpatu idug-Bn flul. 

a sword flaming '' in his hand he raUed ii|>. 

iektui mvnx ina pani-sa 

JBiramdiihed U^tmngs bef&r6 Asm. 

gizzir taklnDitbii mnnr-sn 

u ^vmtar curbed (on) Aw bodtf 

xuntalli 
he bore 

eboB-ma sapara Bulmu 

and he made a sword to slat/ 

pishpish tisallat 

the scaly dragon 



irbitti sari ustizbita 

the four cardinal points it turned to 



ana la tsi ragmi-sa 

in order that none (might) avoid its bloxcs 



G The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 

LIKB 

im im sidi im 

the South pointy the North point, the East pointy 

im martu 

the West paint 



9. ^r;<T^ 4?^^B:TT SF<r ^s2^ -tt<t --^t 

idu's sapara ustakriba 

hy the side of the sword he placed closely 



kisti 
the how 



abi su 
of his father 



Anu 
Anil 



10. Idji^ A4f<MfcI-^T A4f<T-^T 

ibni im bulla, im sina 

h£ made a whirling thunderbolt, a bolt of double 

mikba ai ukaptu 

flames never to be extinguished 



11. 4k^ tt -^! 

im arba, 

a bolt quadruple. 



T 



^^ tt 



im sibitti, 

a bolt septuple, a bolt (. . . .), 



im 



^4f v-<T*r]f 

im nu dia 
a bolt crooked, 



Tk€ Figki beiween Bd and the Dragon. 7 

naen-inma sari sha ibnu 

h€ iraughi cut the boUe which he had made 



flibitti son 

sefMn of Aem. 



piahpiflh 
(/or) the eealy 



lisallat 
dragon 



satltikhu 
he placed them in 



tibn arka bu 

hie qiiver behind him 



»*• !=^ <y- BT -<^ Vi v- -^y 



1881 - ma 
lifted 



biUii 
the lord 



abuba 
of the storm 



kakku- 8u raba 
his sword great 

1^- «=T BiV <" -^T -^11 -TT<T ^m^ <r: ^TTT 

rukub 8inat la makhri galatta 

hie chariot ^^ Destroyer of the Tfnpiotts" so called 



5w ^TII 

irkab 
he mounted 



B 

LIKE 



Th^, Fitjht hftwfien Bel and the Jh'afton. 



izbat nam -ma irbit nazmadi 

he took hU plac€f and the four 



rc}ns 



idus - Ba ilul 

in hu hand he lifted. 



Notes and Observations. 

hpaiu, J^yy ^ ^j^'- TIuB epitliet of the sword of 
Bel appeared to me of uncertain meaning at tlit? tini(* 
when I tranamitted this paper to the Society. But 
afterwardfc! I found tliat I had akeady ascertained it 
to mean "flaming'' in a former paper entitled 'a 
Prayer and a Vife«ion ' (Traneaetions, vol. 1, p. 347)- 
It is there rehitt-d that Ishtar of Arhela apptiared tf> a 
certain Seer in a vision of the night ''begirt right and 
left with flamoR** imnu n fat mil a talhita IZPATI. The 
word is wTitten i^]] ^ ^ ^< iii the original text 
(Annals of Aa8md>anipal, p, 124). 

The fortiimate discovery of this passage in Assurbanipal 
completes the resemblance with the Cherubim's sword 
of the book of Genesis iii, 24t 

Bnt this passage which 1 have quoted does not of itself 
prove the meaning of hpatl to he flames. Turn there- 
fore to another accoiuit in p, 278 of the same Annals, 
where Ishtar of Arbela appears imti latbusai that is 
* clothed \\nth flames ' ^J^ fij >^ ^ (z ^^ V- 

The word izpati varies to sapati *fcTT jt TI ^^J< in 
another account of the same campaign in 3 R 38, 50 
where we read '*Is!itar of Arbela tiilnta sapat^' which 
is plaitdy tlie same phrase as the foiTner one itllata \ 
izpati. This form sapati leads to a probable etymology 
of the w*ord, which may be derived from a Hel>rew 



Th^ Fiffht behceen Hel ami the Dratioiu 



9 



and Arabic root yS} * to biiru * whence the Hebrew 
My^lT 'flames/ found in Diiuiul iii, 22, "thtj flame 
of thci fiirnace elew thoee meiL" 
hhm. This verbis frequently used of the god >-J^ -^^ 
brandiBhing his hghtnings. To this god the king 
often compares himself, when duetroying liis enemiee 
in battle. 

5. Gizzir^ a Sword, literally Cutter, from Heb, *^\i ffi^ivf to 
ent asimder, 
TaLJuniiJm^ 'curved,' feminine participle from tfion 

incurvare. 
UmtalK *he carried,' for nntallu from 7ID3 gestavit 
porta vit. 

fj, SH/i;iw,toBlay(?) Heb. ^7ty to make an end of : to finish, 
or consume. E.r, fjr, Isaiah xxxviii, 12 '* from day to 
night wilt Thou mahe an end of me." "^ID^^TUJ^n 
pishpi^h is a doubtful word. It may mean ' scaly.* Heb. 
^pptt^p Bquamm. (1) Scales of a fish. (2) Scaly 
armour or breastplate. The change of P for Q would 
be like kotc. kcos for Trore, 7rai9 in the Ionic dialect, 

IrhifH ' four; J^ ^TTTT *^I^' ^^^^^ ^''^^ ^^^ ^^^ P^*^ 
of the second are broken offj but there can he no 
doubt of the reading, for irl'itti shari occurs frequently, 
and always means the four cardinal points, north, 
Bouth, east and west ; and ' the four winds ' wliich is 
only another name for the same thing. 

SfiariVf ]] ^y|<y *the Winds/ Heb. n^D. The four 
cardinal points are generally called the fom* ^*lt^ 

as for example ^>ff ^^IT KI^ ^^'^ ^^^^^^ *'^*^ Noiih 
(the others are named in 1, 8), The Hebrew lyD is 
rendered in the Lexicons by tempestas, tiu-bo, ventus 
turbinis (whirlwind). But the Latin tnrbo includes 
'lightning' (turbo igneuR). See Virgil Mn, vi, 592. 

At pater omnipoteus densa inter aubOn teliim 

Contorait 

pniecipiteiBque immaai turhitm adegit. 

^JU. is an Accadian word, wliich coiTeepouds to 
Rharn or •^yo hi these various meaningB. One of the 



10 



I lif Fii}ht ffetu^en Bel and the Dm^foii. 



10, 



11, 



13, 



14, 



15, 



chief Assyrian deities was *->^ -<^4f ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
wind, or of the storm, or of the lightning. He is also 
called Ramamithe Thunderer (HeK DJTl toniiit), and 
he coiTespoudB to the Latin Jnpiter Tonans. 

Usiizbiia *it was tnrned or directed,* li^taphel conjuga- 
tion of JlDU^ posuit, dieposiiit, ordinavit. 

7 57', to avoid nimbi j (or escape). Heb. n^S ivit de loco 
ad locmii, abiit, digcurrit. 

Ragmi^ Heb. QJI to Btrike rapid blows. 

Idi^ Heb. T" * the side/ 

Lhtakrlba * he placed closely/ Istaphel conjugation of 
Heb. iip appropinqua\^tj prope accessit. 

Kiiitl ChaUL nU^p *a bow.* 

Im huUa *a whirling thunderbolt/ fi-om kttlla ^ ti whirl- 
whid' Arab* h'^Wl vertit, eouTertit, contorsit, tur- 
Imvit. HTin ventuB, omnia turbans et aubveilens 
(Schindler), 

Ai Ukaptu * which never can be extinguished' — from the 
verh kabak rO!2 *extmctnfl fuit ignis (Scfnndh>r). In 
this verb the letter E| is rendered by kab because 
both of them mean ' the hand' (Heb. DD manus). At 
other times we find ^T rendered by qat^ which also 
means ' the hand.* 

^^ Aviitten twice (one over the other) ^ was the name 
of a weapon peculiar to Bel It is mentioned in 2 R 
43, 26 and in five following Ihies* 
Ahi dia^ crooked or zigzag, an epithet of lightning. It is 
explained in 2 R 17^ 43 by la isharnj not straight. 

Sntlukhu seems to be the T conjugation of TT712> immisit, 
he put them into (his quiver). 

Tihu, quiver or ease, is the Chal. rnSJn area, cista (chest 
or case) Gr. &i^i}* 

Tut, from MC3 to lift. 

Almha, 'storm' is a very frequent word. Arab, llin 
habffb^ wind (blowing furiously). See Catafago*s diet. 

His war-chariot was named Sinat la makhri^ 'Destroyer 
of the Impitms/ So 8ennacherib named his chariot 
Sapinaf zairi * Sweeper away of ray enemies' IR 41, 



Tht* Fiif/it /H>fwr*>n fief ami (he Dn 



wion. 



11 



umt 



57* Obsei"ve that in both inBtances the chariot bore « 
femiiUDe name. 
Tm mai/trt^ nou-worshippem : impious people ; oleewhere 
called la rnnffarL The word takes various, forms ; 
mi^T * worshipper ' — maklutr or magar ' worsliip/ See 
several examples of the change in 4 R in the plate 
which is a tuilendar of the additional month of Eliil. 
Galatta ifl a femiiiiue participle agreeing with the femi- 
nine word *Cliariot/ It means vocata^ from Syriac 
YOp vocavit; from Sp 'vox.' 
lin A^fL-rrmJt, from 'TCIt jngiun; means Frena jugalia ? 



Reverse of the Tablet : Plate 45. 

linnitta-ki tiikt-inni 

[wlierefore] witli thy ItUtttphemies dmt thou irritate me f 

lifthdat uminat-ki, lu-ftidtluiTis-sun 

iet tjo Utck thy people^ let tttand asuff^ 

^]m}^<m 

tuknlti-ki 
Wy amied servants (o/* Chief i) 

. . . indimma aiiakii u kasi 

Alone I and thou 



nibns sazma 

tee itilt do baitk 



^V 12 


^H^^^^B^ 


^^^^^^H 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^HHH 


^^^^^^^^^^^H 


T/te Ffijhf between Bel and ft 


^/i* Dragon. 


^^^H LIKS 




^^m 


^y<^-^ .jf-t^j^iyy ^^ 


': -rf y <-- V 




tieallat aunita 


ina 8emi-sa 




fJie dragon this in hearing % 


It [i.e., tw» hearing this^ 


^^^^ 5. 


~II -T<r IhJ tE i^fsT <!:^ 


tfTTt V ->f :«: 




makkhur itimi 


usanni 




{go) back! she eommamhd^ 


{and) repeated 




:^^l -II V 






din-Ba 






A^r t'ommand 




^ 


^] •^n £1 -T<_ tv t^ 


-jn ^ "^n!?^ 




giBsi-raa tieallat 


mtoiurisli 




fiprung {(hen) the draffon 


watchfnUg 




^]} -tm ^m 


' 




elita 






on high 


• 


^B_ '^' 


^ EhS^ ET ^h et ^ 


E^T OT E::n 




stu'eiali raalmalish 


itrura 
a be shifted 




^vm Vi w 


I 




isda-sha 


■ 




Aa* standing -point 


, ■ 


^^^■^ 8. 


tE«:fl= T-At^m ^T 


£Hm-H-i?<T* 1 




iDianni raikhita 


ittanamcli fl 




she observed iJte fire- bolts y t 


die tmtehed for ■ 




s£Tn n ^ 


1 




tairat (?) 


■ 




a retreat (?) 


J 



Tlie FiglU between Bel and the Dragon. 



13 



»-<T-IiII -Hf- -Hf- V 

u ill sha takhazi 

anil the gods of battle 

tishailn-sun kakki-sun 

sheathed (?) their swords. 

innindu-ma tisallat rubu mi ill 

Attacked then tlie dragon the jtist prince of the gods 



sazmish iddibbu 

fiercely tliey joined 

takhazi 
of battle 



m ^jn V- 

Mtrabu 
the struggle 



billu sapara-su 

the king, {and) his sabre 



usparir-ma 
drew his sword (?) 

uragini 
dealt rapid blows 



»3-A4f <MHMI Vim <MH--H-<V 

im liuUu zabit arkati 

His ichirling thunderbolt he took, behind him 

panus-8u umdasLir 

and before him he looked 



The Fight between Bel and the Dragon. 



14 

LINB 

H. IdJ ^! ^ ^r- J=s V -^T< ^- "^^ Tl ^] 

ipti-ma pi-slia tisallat ana 

opened Iier mouth Hie dragon to 

lahati-su 
swallow him 

im hulla ustiriba ana 

tlie tohirling holt he sent into lier so that 

la katam sipti-sha 

not she could shut her lips 



16. s=y -^yy ^y< 

izzuti 
the fiery 



Bhari 
lightnings 



Wj ^tt ^rr 

karsha-sha 
her belly 



izanu-ma 
poured into 



insallat 
he pulled out 



^m --T V ^y * y? ^yy 

libba-sa-ma pa-dia 

her hearty and her mouth 



usbulki 
he rent open 



The Fight between Bid and the Dvmjon, 



15 



U5B 

18. t^ jgy 

Kb drmo 



mulmnlla ikhtipi 

hU falcldon (and) cut open 



kaias-aa 
her hetty 

kiifai 8a ^ iibattiqa ' usaUat libba 

her vmie he cut into (and) extraeted hev heart 

«K ^t<|*<k: <T- ^ k:| V IH «=TTT^ -^^ -^H 

ikmi-si-ma napahata's ubnili 

he iook ffengeanee m A^ (and) A«r /t/tf A« destroyed 



«. v<^ V ^T^y? <^HV t^HH 



Balam aha idda 

(tc?A«/t) her death he knetOy 



eli-sha izazii 

over lier he boasted. 



ultu tisallat alik pani inaru 

After that the dragon their Leader liad been slain 

kisri-sha uptarrira bukhar-sha 

her troops took to flight her army 



isippikha 
icas scattered abroad 



IG 1 he FiijJit between Bel and the JJroaon. 



LIJfB 



ti ill ritzu-sha aliku 

and the angels her allies who had came 

idi-sha 
to help her 

ittarru ibsukhu usikkhim 

retreated grew quiet {and) turned away 

<MT<T -^III --^TT 

arkat-zu 
backwards 

iisitzu-ma napehatu's ediru 

t/iey fled thence^ for their own lives fearing 

ustalamu naparsu ana la 

tliei/ saved tliemselves (and) were scattered to [^places'] not 

lihu 
pursued. 

28. ^y< V- I -^ -^T< ^T «=T M ^^ I -^ 

tibu (?) Bunuti-ma kakki-sun 

he followed tfiem, and tJieir weapons 

^W *H[ A^^ 

usabbir 
he Itrohe 



The Fight between Bel and tfte Ih^agon. 17 

saparish nadu-ma kamarish 

in a broken state tliey lay in heapsj in multitudes (?) 

^^ 

UBbu 
thetf were captured (?) 

gadu (?) dubqati malu 

a crowd of followers full of 

i^ ^ >^ 

dnmami 
astonishment 

sirit-zu nasu ukatibu 

its remains they lifted up (and) on their shoulders \1ioi8ted'\ 

32. <y^igj t<Ty <T< <« ^jn ::::? ^ ^< jy ^T 

u istin isrit nabniti eupar 

and the eleven tribes after 

bulkhati izanu 

the battle (?) pouring in (?) 

33. <::::;::::^n-^T BF-^m^l? n-^^<TIiJl^ 

miUa galli aliku .... 

a crowd (?) great coming {to see ?) 

34. ^1 j^nr <i^ v-m< -n<T ^i?_ Hf< sai 

ittadi twr rieti 

gazed iipon the sfrj ent niotisirous 

ToL. V. 2 



18 Th€ Fight between Bel ami the Dragott, 

UlTB 

gadu duk mati sun - • * . 

36. <FM -f liii mmmm 

u ilii makh , 

and the god Bel{?} , . , 



Notes and Obsehvations on the Reverse. 



Tukt4nni^ ikon tloet irritate (or prick) me, from Heb. ^p3 
to prick. Used in Arabic for the sting ol a serpent 
(Geeeniua) : alsa, to goad, 

Lhhdat, * let them go baek * : probably from ^0U^ a 
reJnplieato furni of Ch* Syr NlSt^ recejssit, 

Ummat * people/ Heb. 12V popidus* 

Lii-siddumn^mn ' let them etand aeide/ Ch. Syr. •^Otl^ or 
'WD 'the Side/ We also find IDD^ used for 'back- 
wards/ 

Sa^ma probably means * battle.' In the annale of Assur- 
banipal p» 124 Ishtar gives her Bow to the king, and 
says ** Go to the battle " 1 tanadala ana epts scumi (I 
read ^ ^ ][*-) **aiid wlierever thy camp is placed ^ 
I will fc»llu%v " tilhika anahu^ which is a permansive 
present from the Arabic J?U1 'to follow\' And com- 
pare the adverb aazmisk * fiercely ' or * witli battle ' iu 
coL ii, liiie 2 of the present inBcription. 

Makkhnr, retro. This word occiure frequently. Compare 
linND a tergo (Buxt.) Emu fnakkhuK they turned 
back, 3 R, 15, 21. 

Ithni^ she commanded : fi'om TDiTO ^i command. 

Umnni^ from TlZHf iterare. 




The Fight between Bel ami the IhatjOfu 



19 



GUn^ 'she darted or sprimg/ seems to be from ru 

traDHiit celeriter (Scliiiiiller), 
Sitvmrhh * watchfully * : frL»m 1?DU? ctistodire, observare. 

This adverb occurs in other passages. 
L Smwh seems to mean * iu a rolling manner/ or * twiBting 

herself: from 2nU^ serpsit, niovit. ee. MalmtilUh has 

probably a neaily similar meaning. We have 7TQ 

declinavit, convertit. 
Itrura ^sbe twisted/ 111 torsit. Geaeuiua reudera it 

drelteii, 
hda, Heb, TO^ ftmdamentum. 
8. hmnni she observed (?) Tiy^ to observ^e. 

IWinamdi is probably for itianandu (M for N) which 

would be a variant conjugation for ittadi, a frequent 

verhp meaning ' he or she watched or gazed upon/ 

10. 7nm«i/a, attacked (?) literally 'joined* (t.g* battle)* 

IL Kiirubn may be the peril or trial (of battle), Aj^ab. ^TO. 
periculum fecit, tentavit (Schindler). 

12. Urmpni Heb. 7231 to strike rapid blows. 

13. Im huUii, see note to col. i line 10. I think iin hidlu 

zabk is only a quick pronunciation of im huUa uzalnL 
Umdashir for undaRliir, M for N, as often happens. This 
is the T or D conjugation of "^^ obaervare, custodii'c 
protegere. 

14. Lahati, tiPO maxilla* gena : ' the jaws.* 

15. Ustiriba^ I&taphel or ST c<jn]Ugation of the Assyrian verb 

ereb * to enter/ The S conjugation is useriba * I caused 
to enter/ 
Kutanif Arab* DTD *t<> shut.' The same phraee occurs 
on the Deluge Tablet p. 554 katmu sapta-aun^ they shut 
their lips (remained silent). 

16. Kmslia, Chald. ^^"13, the belly. 

17. Inmlht *he pulled out,* may be Nipbal of Saliat^ which 

verbis foujid in 1. 19 with the eame meanijig. Derived 
from the subst. poh)!^ spoliuni, praeda. 
Usbulki, S conjugation of X7^ or n7D to rend or split. 




20 The Fi*jhi between Bel and the Dragotu 

LINK 

18. I^uk * he drew out/ Heb, nD3' 

IkkiipL Cb. Syr. m^n diripint, abripuit, &c, Heb. y^n 
*' to cut out/' 18 Dearly the same. Compare aleo niOP 
of einiilar raeaniiig. 

20, Ikmi si, * He took vengeance on her/ Heb. Dpi viu- 

dictam sumpeifc* 

21. Salam-sha^ her eiid, or her death, 
Idda^ * he knew of/ Hi^h, yT" ' to know/ 
haza. One copy reads, ^^ ^ ^^ the other t£ "^yyV" U' 

isi2a (Smith). Hub. Tit, * to boast or triumph/ 
Buxtorf says 8uperbi\Hit : superbe vel arroganter egit. 

23. Uptarrira. T conjugation of Arab. ^ID fugit: evasit 
in hello, 
hippikk 'was scattered, or put to flight/ Heb. TTDtl^ 
fiubt (put to flight), GL'SL'n. p. 967. We have also 
'^Dti? fudit. I have pointed out in my GloBBary 
No" 326 that the verbs uparrir and uaippikh generally 
are found together. For example, Btdhm'-sun mappikh^ 
uparrir kharranat-zitn, *I put to fliglvt their army, I 
d e s tr oy c d t h ei r hos til e i ii v a ei on * B a v ian 1 . 3 9, a n d the 
same in the Taylor cylinder 4, 42, but interchanging 
the subBtantives khamm and hukhm\ 

ih. Ibsakhu ' they were calmed.* Chold. pDD ceBBavitj 
quievit. But here Smith diffei-s from Delitzsch, and 
reads iblakhu, * they feared/ 
i/WMAmi * they turned back' Chald. *inD re versus est; 
con versus est. 

27- UsiaJamu 'they saved themselves/ T conjugation of 

Lihu * to follow/ Rabb. Tvh to follow. 

8. T^bu 'he Mowed/ Arab. l?nn to follow. 

9. Saparidhf 'in a broken state/ Heb* I^U^, *to break,' 
Usbu> Heb. jy^, to capture (doubtful word). 
Nadu ' they lay in heaps/ Heb. 13 acenrus. 
Kam^rhh adverb from I'SH cumulus: acervue, ex. gr. it 

is used for 'heaps of slmn lying on the ground/ 
Schindler, p. W3. 





77^ FitjJd between Bd and the Dragon* 



81 






31 



Gadu^ Heb* 13 a crowd ; Lat. tuniiai 

Diibijati adherents or foUowers pQ"r to adhere or be 

jouied to (BurL), 
Dumamiy afitoniabment. Hab. noJl obstupuit. 
^Vir Hhe remains* (Le^ of the dragon), Heb. rTHMID 

VkiJitibu ' they raised oa tiim sbouldais,' from Heb. titSX 
tbe ghouldar. 
32< BnMitti memxB * division- or *war*: it is used in both 
senses. Perhaps supar htdkJmti means ^ after the war/ 
It may be the Syriac word t4nin7D puMAute, war. 
si. Medi ^ ^^ed upon.' TUb Terb occurs in sevezal places. 
Jijfli * coDspicuoui ' : ' wonderful * : from HHfl * to see.* 
So Bavpa, a wander =i Brnfid^tf a Sight. 



Line 14 of col. I should perhaps be translated 

He lifted his great sword called " Lord of the Storm,^* 
So that both the Chariot and the Sword had names, which 
are mentioned in two consecutive lines. 




22 



THE HAMATHITE INSCRIPTIONS. 



By Rev, A. H. Satce^ MJl. 

Mead 2Hd Matf, 1876. 

The followiTig paper -will be one rather of conjecti] 
than of fiifts; but where facts are not attainable, even" 
conjectiuree liave then* use. So long aa we have no ehie to 
the inter]>retation of the inflciiptionB known as Hamatliite, 
every snggestion wliich lias any probabilitj in it is worthy 
of coneideration- 

The Hamatliite inscriptiouB are written in hieroglyphics ; 
but the hierogly|ihiefi are, in most cases, so far removed from 
their original form as to be quite unintelligible. Jlost of the 
inscriptions have been found at Hamaln the ancient Hamath; 
one, however, (a copy of which I have not been able to 
8ee,) has been discovered at Aleppo, the Helbon of ancient 
histor}^, while another accompanies the l>a«-relief found by 
Mr, Davies at Ibreez in Lycaonia, which has been figured in 
the Transactions of this Society (voL iv, part 2» pp» 33<>-346). 
Inscripticais in the same character also occur on five seals 
brought by Mr. Layard from the record-chamber o( Sennache^ 
rib's palace, (where tliey bad probably been deposited after 
Sargon's conquest of Hamath,) and are now in the British 
Museum, The fltonee found at Hamath (Hamah) are four in 
number, and the inscriptions upon them are all in i-aised 
characters. Burkhardt was the first to notice them, and 
imperfect copies of them have been given by the English 
Palestine Exploration Fund, and in Burton and Drake's 
*' Unexplored Syria," We owe our only accurate copies to 
Dr. Hayes Ward, who published them in the Sectmd Sttite- 
ment of the American Palestine Exploration Societj', from 



\ 
u 



.,. 


-7 




\s. 


n> 


i 


19. 


/in 


^ 



M-TTT^- 



The HanuUhiie Imcriptions. 28 

Bqueez€8 and caat6 taken in Beirut by Lieut* Steoves and 
Prof. Paine. Dr, Ward has, fiirther, drawn np a list of the 
characters met with in the inscriptions. 

The four gtones from Haruatb are now in the Iinperial 
Museum at Constantinople, The first containR three lines of 
writing, all broken off at the endn, together with a foui*th 
line, which ha^ nr^t been inscribed. The second contains 
two complete lines of writing, and a third uninscrilied line. 
ITie third inscription is, again, cnrapU'te, cunsititiiig of two 
long lines of wilting and a shorter third hue. The fourth 
stone is a large one, and is ineeribed on one side and at one 
end* The larger face has five Hnes of writing* and the 
smaller face four lines, below which is an additional line not 
engraved. It is remarkable that the inscription on the 
larger face is identical with the inseriptiona on the three 
other stones, with the exception of vai-iant portions which 
occur towards the end of each of the first three inscriptions, 
as well as of a variant portion at the end of numbers 1 and 2, 
which is not found in Nos, 2 and 4. Nuuiber 4, however, 
contains a large amount of adchtional matter. It is curious 
that a portion of the inscription which answers to the second 
line of Nos, 2 and 3 has been purposely erased in No. 4, 
Dr. Ward has shown thnt the inecriptions read from the direc- 
tion towards which the chai-acters look, the first line reading 
from right to left, and the remaining lines in houHrophedon 
feshion. The inscription on the smaller face of No. 4, 
however, begins from left to right, while the fourth line of 
the inscription on the hirger face of the same stone runs 
from right to left, breaking the boustrophcdon order, and 
suggesting the commencement i>f a fresh inBcription. The 
similarity of the inscriptions on the four stones may imply 
that they are votive tablets to some deity, in which the 
formula remains the same, while the proper names change. 

Each of the inRcriptions commences with the representa- 
tion of a human hearl and arm pouiting to the face 'jtl- 
This must signify either the fir^t personal pronoun '' I," or 
else denote the act of epeaking or of Witrsliipping, or else 
finally be the determinative uf an individuaL The last 
supposition is excluded by the fact that the character does not 




24 Th4 Hamathite ffincriptions. 

precede the variant portions of the iDscriptionB, wliile in the 

shorter inscription of No, 4 it precedes two characters ^^^ 

•I* 
which occur ao frequently in the legends ae to be probaWy 
some common grammaticMl termination. Nor is it likely 
that the act of gpeaking would have been expressed by so 
elal>orate a sign instead of the more convenient hieroglyphic 
of '* mouth/' and we theref<jre have to decide between the 
meanings of ^'I" or ^'dedicated.*' The analogy of other 
Semitic inscriptions makes me prefer to regard the character 
as expressive of the first personal proTioun ; iu which case, 
as the first personal prononn in Nortliera Syria would have 
been mm or anit we should have to attach the value of na or 
ni, (or a or i,) to another character, uu or iiii , which 
accompanies the hieroglyphic just discussed. At the end of 
the shorter inscription of No, 4, the hieroglyphic which I 
have thus supposed to mean *' I/' ie followed by two 
characters, '^jj^ •!■ which, from their frequency and position, 
I fancy must denote the plnrul. This would be in as Hamath, 
but conjoLned with the ideograph u( the first personal 
pronoun they woidd have to signify *• we '' or '* us.*' * 

The same two characters, which we will tenn the mark 
of the plimil, occm* in tlie shorter legend of No. 4, at the end 
of a group of hieroglyphics which elsewhere appears alone, 

*. (Sb) 

This group is 



V4 



CHIP 

ay 



In one place instead of Vl ^ve 



find V Now the firfet character of this group C§S) or 

' On scjcond thouglitB, howeFepj it seemj to me very possible that the two 
clmrBct«ra in quMtiou maj stADci for iar, " king" The firjit may represent ft 
row of t«eth, tha-t is ihen or she, (sa^) and the s«?t^oiifl the two eyes and nose for 
regit, (ra,) " the heatl." They generally ownr beforo the name of a State, and 
oncij in the t"onipo»itioii of a proper name. Perhaps the same word is represented 



on two of the aealfl tihero we find 



<mt> 



and 



_ a..u ^^J-^ the hitter character being 

identicai with that nianbered 23 in the lUt, In the larger iDecriptioQ of "So, 4 
we 6nd theao two character* twice replaeed ^J ^\^ |^ and preceded by the 
two characters numbered 10 and 5L 



Tht Hartiathiie Imrripfi^ni* 



85 



16 found fieveral times in places where towns seom 
to be signilied, and I believe tliat it is used as the deter- 
minative of cities or countries. We may compare the 
Egyptian ^^ with a similar signification, I have a sus- 
picion, though based on no definite reason, that the name 
either of Hamath or of the Hittites is denoted hy thift 

determinative when followed by the two eharactera ^ nM^» 

The other gi'oup of characters may represent the name of 
a Syrian people, especially when followed by the ** plural 
eignr 

We occasionally meet with tlie hieroglyphic of a hund 

holding a sceptre, ^bf * This may denote ** action " in 
general, but I think it is more probably the determiuutive of 
"king.'* A not unfrequent aSix is {f^, which I have some- 
tiiues thuu^it might be the determinative of deity, but more 
prohiibly it represents some gi-animatical suffix* We ought 
to find the name of the god Rimmon in these inscriptions. 
We know from the Old Testament that Rimiiiou was wor- 
abipped at Damascus ; the Assyrian monuments also npeak of 
a (3ar-Rimmon or '* Fort of Rimmuu '* as a Hittite town, and 
Shalmaneser refers to *'the god Rimmon of K halm an" or 
Aleppo The deity represented in the Ibreez seiilptiiree with 
a Btalk of com in one hand and bnnuhes of grapes in the 
other may be the same god. Iladad {not Hadar) was another 
divinity of Syria, ae Maeroliiua l>ears witness. 

Dr. Ward's lifitof Hamathite characters M4nch is appended 
to this paper consiBta of 5G diflerent characters. The original 
form and meaning of some of these in still clear, though the 
greater part have lost all trace of likeness to the objects 
wbich they previously represented. No. 1 seems to represent 
the hand; 8 is a knife ; 10, a hatchet or sceptre ; 16, possibly 
the eyes; 17, a hook; 2i\ perhaps the mouth with the 
nostrils above it; 27, some kind of quadruped; 31» the 
humnn foot; 32» 33, 47 and 49, the hand holding certain 
objects; 34, a beetle; 3G, water flowing from a vase; 37, 
probably a bee; 38 and 39, species of snakes; 41 and 42, a 



26 



Th& Hamathite Insctiptuni^* 



plant or ti*ee ; 42 and 43, specieii of vegetables ; and 53, 
perhaps a boat. If only we knew the language spuken by 
the inventors of this curious writing we might obtain a clue 
to the phonetic powers of Bome of the charaetere. 

The large number of theae shows that the writing is not 
alphabetical. On the other hand they are too few to serve 
for a coroplete system of hieruglyphice, and this, cnnpled 
wnth the ftict that the separate worde (as determined by a 
comparison of passages) consist of several characters, proves 
clearly that we have to deal with a syllabary. Some of the 
hieroglyphics, however, were evidently used as determina- 
tives as well as representiitives of mere phonetic sounds, 
while others might probably be employed as ideographs. We 
doul)tles8 have to deal with a mixed system of writing like 
that which meets us in the inscriptions of Egypt or Assyria, 

The writing', however, has nothing to do with that of 
Assyria, and could not therefore have been borrowed from 
thence. Nor, again, does it seem to have any cormexion 
with the hieroglyph ical system of Egypt ; at all events the 
characters are generally unlike those found on tlie Egy|itian 
monuments, and Mr. Dunbar Heath's attempt to provide 
them with Egyptian values has l:N3en a signal failm-e. So 
far as oiu* present materials allow us to inferj the Ramathite 
hieroglyphics appear to have been an invention of an early 
population of Northern Syria. Tlieir occurrence in Lycaonia 
is probably due to Syi'ian conquest. The seals found by 
Miv Layard show that the writing continued in use down to 
the time of Sargon and Sennacherib, and the inscriptions 
from Hamali are probably not much earlier in date. 

Now, it is difficult to understand a hieroglyphic system of 
writing being invented by a people who spoke an inflexional 
language. The first requisite of such a system is that the 
same soimd should represent diflerent parts of speech, the 
pronunciation remaining the same, whether the word be 
\ised as a substantive, an adjective, a verb or an adverb. 
Another requisite is that the grammatical termiuations 
should be easily separable from the roots or stems to \vhich 
they are attached- These two requisites are found in China, 
in Turanian Chaldea, in Egypt, and in Central America ; in 







Thi Hamaihih fnscnpHom, ST 

wherever hieroglyphic writing haa been invented. Ifl 
therefore, the Hamathite liierogl^'pliics were the invention of 
a Semitic people, they would he a sinf:^itlar exception to the 
general rule, unci their origin would l>o all the harder to 
explain from the fcict that Semitic flexion depends so much 
upon internal vowel-change. The prolitibility, then* in that 
the North Sj-rian inventors of these Hamathite characters 
lUd no( epeak a Semitic or inflectional tongtie. 

Who the inventors were it is of course impossiblu to 
determine with certainty, but it is extremely likely that tliey 
belonged to the great Hittite race It is true that M. de 
iig^ and others have tried to explain the Hittite proper 
mes foimd on the Egyptian monuments as Semitic ; but 
the attempt seems to me unsuccesfrful, and the Hittite namea 
that occur in the Assyrian ins=*criptions, whieh» as being 
tlieiuBelves in a Semitic language, wouM represent foreign 
Semitic words in a recognisably Semitic form, have nothing 
Semitic about them. To take only one instance, the Hebrew 
form of the Hittite city Carchemi^h gives some cohiuring to 
the view that tlie name denotes ** tliu fortress of Chemosh/* 
though Cheraosh was a Moabite and not a Hittite god ; but 

Ckhe etymology becomes impossible when we fiml the word 
llways written Gargatais in Assyriau, We have but to 
c<jmpare the proper names of Hittite princes and countries 
given in the Assyrian inscriptions with those belonging to 
_ Bamath and Damascus, to be convinced of the non-Semitic 
character of the former. My own belief is that the Hittites, 
or at all events the main part of them, epoke dialects that 
were not inflectional. 

The Hittites, called Klieta in Egyptian, and Khatti in 
A^isyrian^ first appear on the monuments of Thtdhmes HL 
Naharaim or Mesopotanna (the Assyrian Nahri) holds the 
chief pbce in Western Asia in the time of Thothraos I; the 
Rotennu or Syiians make their appearance in the reign of 
Thothraes II, and finally in the reign of Thothmea III, when 
Babj^lon, Assur, and Nineveh, as it would seem, pay tribute 
to Eg^'pt, the Hittites come upon the scene. But it is not 
till the wars of Seti P and Ri^meses II, in the XlXtJi Dynasty, 

^ Cmi this Seti be tb© *' king Shet " of the Phcemciitn poft^ry found at the 
bue of the Temple of Solomon ? 



28 



The Hamathite Inscriptions^ 



that we find the empire of Naharaim has been replaced by 
that of the Hittites. The latter are now the atizeraiiis of the 
various tribes of Naharaim, whom M, Fr* Leuoruiiiut holde 
to be UgrO'Aitaic, but who more probably belonged to the 
Alarodian stock. WTien we eome to the era of the Assyrian 
Tiglath-Pileser I, B.C. 1130, tlie llittites are still paramount 
from the Enphrates to Lebanon. Their rb'es8 resembles that 
of the Assyrians in the robe that descendi* to the ankles, the 
long beard and curled hair, and leads to the inference that 
the bas-reliefs of Ibreez, which agree in these respects with 
the Egyptian representations, are the records of a Hittite 
conquest. Among the principal Hittite towns may be named 
Carchemish and Ilelbon or Aleppo, though the latter seems to 
have been acquired by conquest born the Semites. At any 
rate this would appear to have been the case with Kadesh, ■ 
the "lioly** city of the Phoenician goddess Ken or Kesh, the 
consort of Kesheph (the sun-god). We find a trilie of 
Hittites as far to the south-west as Hebron in Gen. xxiii« 
The cradle of the nation* however, was the tract of countiy 
between the Euphrates and the Orontes, and it was over this 
that the kings mentioned in 1 Kings, x, 29, and 2 Kings, vii, G, 
bore sway. We possess a copy of a treaty of peace made 
bLftween Rameses II and the pnnce of the Hittites, the 
original of which was inscribed upon a plate of silver in tlie 
language and writing, Dr* Birch thinks, of that people.* The 
prince in question was Kheta-sar or Kheta-sira, the brother 
and successor of Mautcnaur, and the son of ilaur-sar or 
Mara-sara, **the great chief of the Kheta," the son of Sapalel 
or Sapalala. The latter name recalls that of the Hittite 
prince Sapalulme, king of the tribe of the Patinai, on the 
Orontes, mentioned by Shalmaneser on the Kiu^kh Monolith, 
The names Kh^jta-sar and Maur-sar must be compared with 
those of Kirep-sar and Kaui-sar, two Hittites referred to in 
the monuments of Rameses II ; and since Kheta and Khirbu ■ 
are the Egyj)tian fi>rms of Hittite and Helbon, while Kaui 
clearly represents the Kahnians or Knans of the Assjaian 
inscriptions, it is plain that mr must signify *' prince," and 

* Sec th0 tmntfltitioii bj ^^l'. QiKxlwiri in Eeeordx of the Paslj iv, pp. 25-32. 




Hit IJamathiie In^cripikmSn 



s« 



ips have been bon'owed from the Agsyrian iarrn^ 

ing," which is itaelf an AccarUan loan-woni.^ Now, tho 

ler in which the words stand in these compound names, 

die genitive preceding the governing word, is a decisive 

proof that the language in wliich such compounds were 

B8^^ did not belong to the Semitic family of speech. The 

ian nionumentfl also make mention of a certain 

Kirab-eafj " writer of the books of the miserable (chief) of 

the Hittitee/* and the determinative shows that the books 

were thither of papyms or parchment. M. de Rouge* 

remindB us that llebron, the Hittite town of Palestine, once 

bore the uarae of Kirjath-Sepher, or ** city of books/' a fact 

which seems to imply that the Semites of tlie West associated 

Hterattire and the Hittite race together. If the Hittites 

were nun-Semitic, and the inventors of the Ilaraathite 

hieroglyphics, w^e should find another paralk-l in the history 

of these hieroglyphics to the borrowing of the writing of 

Turanian Acc^d on the part of the Assyrians, and of that of 

Egypt on the part of the Phoenicians. The small number of 

diaract'erB used in the Hamathite inscriptions shows that the 

Semites of Hamatli and Northern Syria (like the Semites of 

Phoenicia) must have made a selection from the whole body 

of hieroglj^>hic8 employed by the inventom. They were, 

doubtless, helped in tliis by the number of Semitic words 

and ideas which contact had iiitroduced into the dialects of 

the Hittites, whom we find worsliipping the deity Ken or 

Kesh in the sacred town of Kadeeh, as well as a goddess 

Ashtaroth (unless, with M. de Roug^, we are to read Antaratti). 

The origin of the names assigned to the letters of the 

PhoQnician alphabet is enveloped in obscurity. We now 

know that these letters were derived from the hieratic forms 

of certain hieroglyphics used by the Egyptians with al}>ha- 

betic values; but the names given to the letters by the 

Phoenicians naturally do not correspond with thuse given to 



' Iti Ac^^tidiftiit #4 racanl "judge," " to judge," ia-ra^ ** judge/' or '* motmtrb/* 
?mni ibis the Seniitet seem to have got Ibt-ir "^"^^i wliirli appt^ra in Awyrian 
•• forrv (ftl»o tarrv), ** king" 



30 Tk^ Uanutthite Jmcriptions. 

them by the Egyptiane. The character which denotes a, for 

instance, represented an eagle in Egyi>tiaii, which was called 
Ahom in that hiii^iage ; no Semiti*^ word, however, with 
such a signification began with the sound of A, and the 
Semites accordingly called the letter aleph, since in Semitic 
aleph, *' an ox,'* began with the 80und in question. But we 
may ask why was the word akph chosen as the name of the 
first letter of the alphabet out of the many possible w^ords 
begiimiug with a whi€*h might have been selected? I wonld 
suggest tliat the Semitic people who first adapted the simple 
and convenient Egyptian alphabet to their own use had 
already been accustomed to a mode of writing in which the 
representation of an ox (or of some part- of an ox) stood for 
the souiid of A. If the first Semitic employers of the so- 
called Phoenician alphabet were ah^eady acfiuainted with the 
Hittite or Hamathite hieroglyphics, we can well understand 
their applpng to the letters of the new alphabet the names 
of the objects represented by the chamcters they had 
hitherto employed, lu this case the names given to the 
letters of the Phoenician alphabet would have been derived 
from the Hamathite hieroglyphics. Now it is a curious fact 
that the names of the let tens of the Greek alpliabet all end 
in a, showing that it must have bem brought to Greece not 
by the Phoenicians cjf Tyre and Sidon, but by the Aram«eanfl 
of the Gulf of Antioch, since the emphatic aiepit is a charac- 
teristic of Aramaic, not of Phoenieian, Even the names of 
the letters in the Hebrew alphabet disclose their Aramaic 
origin, n^^, ^^.j QP, *^<^'» being perfectly Aramaic> and we 
may therefore conclude that the alphabet was introduced 
rather by Aramaeans than by Phoenicians, and that it was the 
Aramaeans rather than the Phoenicians who first traded to 
Greece and elsewhere* If the Aramteans had already known 
of another system of writing it is easy to miderstaud the 
welcome they gave to the simpler alphabet from Egypt. 

If my reasoning has any truth in it, we may possibly assign 
as syllabic values to those Hamathite hieroglyphics whose 
primitive forms can be recognised the names of the letters of 
the Phoenician alphabet expressive of the objects intended to 
be represented* Thus No. 1 would be f/od (i/ad) or i {t^a) ; 



The Hamalhiie Inseinptwttit, 



31 



No. 17, waw; No. 27, ptjrhapa ffimel (gi) ; No. 3(5, niem or mf ; 

No. n9, dkatlh or cfA^*- If sQj denotes *' Hittite/' (Khath) it 

-vould exactly answer in form to the meaning of k/ieth^ the 
iHune of the 8th letter of the Phcenician ulphabet, since 
ttrM IB literally ** a fenced plaue/' In this caae we might go 
oa to CQiyecture that the character which follows i^epresents 

tin or tinu. \ being simply ti or to, (like taiv^ '* a croes,'* the 
name of the last letter of the Plioonician alphabet,) and 
two horizontal sti-okes being added at its foot t to denote 
the plural* 

I now pasH on to the last cMrgrcture I have to make. It 
will be noticed that the character jnst referred to, \, has 

the same form as a character which represents ti in the 
Cypriote syllabary. Now the origin of this sylltibary is a 
queetion of great difficulty, The theory of BmndiH, that it 
was derived from the cuneiform characters of Bal>ylriiiia, can- 
not be maintained, for a moment^ and it is equally' impossible 
to connect it with the hieroglyphics of Egypt, Bat the 
lurros of the characters, as well as the syllabic values they 
bear, show that it is a late and corrupt form of some earlier 
lystem of writing. Some time ago I expressed tiie opinion 
m the Academif that this earlier system of writing \vas nono 
ftUier than the liieroglypldcs of Haniath. The number of 
characters in both is about the same^ jind Cyprus, where 
the syllabary maintained itself long after it had disappeared 
elsewhere, lies just in the way of trade fixjm the Orontee. 
Ita antiquity must be considerable, since Mr. Smith discovered 
t terra cotta cone with Cypriote characters upon it in the 
palace of Assurbanipal, and three or fom' of the terra cotta 
tliaks found by Dr. Sehliemaim in the lower stratum of 
retnains at Hissarlik also bear inscriptions in the same 
character. Since nothing of the kind has yet been met 
witli in continental Greece, we may perhaps infer that the 

* Tbe name of Hamatli, liowerer, mny Tory probftbly be intended by thi» 
combination of chu.nictct», since^ n^fT **K»iifie« ** *«^ '' 



M 



32 



The Hamathite Inscriptions, 



first fiy«tem of writing known there was the Phoeniciiin 
alphabet^ introduced about the 9tli centmy B.C., as it would 
seem, from a comparieon of the furoiB of tlie letters on the 
Moabite Stone with those of the earliest Greek inscriptions. 
In the islands and on the shores of Asia Minor, however, the 
old syllabary was used until superseded by the more con- 
venient Phcenidan alphabet, conser%^ative Cyprus alone 
retaining it down to a late date. Local alphabets, like the 
Lycian, preserved some of its characters to represent sounds 
which were wanting in the Phoenician alphabet. A com- 
parison of the forms of the characters in the Cypriote 
syllabary with those of the Hamatliite inecriptions seems to 
me to render it highly probable that both have the same 
source. Of course it does not follow that the values attached 
to the characters agreed in the two cases ; still we may 
expect that it would be so in some instances, audit is possible 
that one of these is the instaiH^e mentioned above. In 
reprodui'ing Dr. Ward's Hst of Hamatliite characters I have 
add^'d those of the Cypriote syllabary, with which they may 
be compared* I need hardly say that some of the comparisons 
are very doubtful; othei'^ of them, Iiowever, seem to me 
sufficiently exact. 





t 





/ 



Hunt of A 



118 t 1 




Assumatsirpal^^ 



THE MAMMALIA OF THE ASSYRIAN 
SCULPTITRES. 

Bt Rkv. William HoroBTON, M.A., F.L.S. 
Xtad 7Hk ifarek, 1876. 



«r 



Part I,— Domestic Mammalu. 

The subject which I have iindertakeu to treat of in on© 

of considerable interest, though by no means devoid of 

(Mcnltiee in that part of it which rtOatee to the yn\d 

'inimals, tor names of aiiioials do not always give us a clear 

iatiraation as to the animals themselves. There are thi-ee 

ye in which animals may be represented : Ist, by inctorml 

BeutplnnU repvesentation ; 2nd, by (kscnption ; and 3vd, by 

pieiure and description combined. In the first case, tlie pietorial 

or sculptural repreeeutatiou may be either (1) so true to 

natui'c as to point out at once the animal intended, though 

the picture alone would tell us nothing as to the name by 

"which such and such an animal was known to the engraver 

or painter; or (2) the figure may be so badly executed, 

cither fi'om want of skill in the sculptor, or fi*om the fact 

that he was drawing iiom indistinct recollection of some 

animal he had eeen^ or from a description given to him by 

mme other person, as to leave considerable doubt what 

creature is intended, imless the anima! is represented with 

iome very striking peculiarity which we know it to possess. 

i. Passing from representation bi/ figures of the animalit 

themnlves^ we come to that aflbrded by deacnpiion^ and here 

Jigain the description may be so graphic as to point out at 

once the animal, or it may be so meagre as to thi'ow little 

lli^lit oil the matter* or the mere name alone may exist and 

We may be completely in the dark. 



^ 



34 



Oil the Mammalia of the Amfrimi Seidptures* 



S, In the tliml instance, that, namely, of piV^or/a/ ?r/>7r- 
§$ntation and deneriplwn comijlned, we have the iindoubtetl clue 
both as to the aiiinial and its name. An animal may be 
deRcribed by many ivordfi, and in cases of nearly allied 
fipedes where reHeiolilanceB are elosej minnte description 18 
generally neceeaary for the pnrpoae of identification, or by 
few worde» oi\ Honietimee, even Ijy one, when the name 
expresses some pecnliar habit or eharacter of the animal. 
How, for instance, could the Httle active animal of cm* woods 
and plantations, that spriugH t'roni tree to tree^ be better 
described than by ita Greek name afciovpo^ 'Sshadow-tair*? 
or what more descriptive name than '* flitter mouse " could 
he found for oiu* of the eommoneet species of om- British 
bats? 8unilarly rhinoeeroR and porcupine tell theii' ovm 
story. Let me now apply these remtirks to the animals of 
the Assyiian momiments. Then* ;vre nnmcrons instaiieeH of 
representation by figm*es on marble slab^, term eutta tablets, 
bronze dishes, ^c. : sheep, goats, wild»goat8, ibexes, oxen, 
both doraeeticated and wild; i;amels, both the one-humped 
Arabian and the double-lnunped Bactrian species t stags, both 
the Platycerine and non-P!atycerine type, gazelles, hares, 
dogs, Uoasj borseSf and wild asses, monkeys, &c. In nearly 
all these hietances the pictorial representations arc so good — 
luty, m several so artistic — ^as to speak for themselves, and 
declare what they are; at the same time occasionally we 
meet with badly executed forms of animal life, bearing no 
general resemblance to any known animal, such, for instance, 
as the bull-like beast of the Black Obelisk, wliieh, hc*wcver, 
by the occuiTence of the characteristic horn, though placed 
far too high up on the head, can proclaim itself to be no 
other animal than the one-homed rhinoceroa. 

Of representation of animals by deecription — if by that 
term we mean anji:Jiing pretending to stand on a zoological 
basis — the monuments, ho far as I believe is knoT;\Tri at 
present, afford us no instance. There may have been 
Assyrian Aristotles who wrote on natural history subjects. 
May futm'e excavations lead to the discovery of such 
interesting relies! It is true there are bilingual tablets 
containing the names of animals, trees, stones, &c., but the 



I 



I 



, but the J 



Oft fht Mamrnolta of fhf Amfj^inn Senlpture&, 



35 



who 



fctcuted them Lad 



other purpOBe iu mind 
L'pre«eiit the AsByriau jiHinjeK side I»y side witli theii- 
Accadian eqiiivaleuts. The zoologicalj botanical, and 
mineralogical tablets were merely part and parcel of Aseiir* 
baiiipars gi-and idea, that is, the puUtedtion of a complete 
comparative dictionaiy and graiuraar of the Assyrian and 
Accadian languages ; a certain order more or less con'espond- 
iijg to a natiu-al order was for convenience siike observed. 
But, as I said just now, a single well-chosen name may itself 
furnish a clue to, or at once declare tlie animal intended. 
*'' '8 given to aninials from the sotuids they utter, are 
:lvii certain indications of the animals for which they stand* 
•^a moo/' "* a me-ou," a '* bow-wow,*' '' cuckoo/ aU speak for 
themselves ; but such a mode of naming animals l»y onoma- 
topoeia woidd often prove fallacious ; for instance, the 
peculiar sotmd which the stag gives fortli at a ceHain 
period of the year soimds more like the voice of some fierce 
ctmivore tlian a deer. 

Names given to animals from the countries from whicli 
they came often indicate the animal, and give us, moreover, 
interesting inforaiation. Now this method of naming 
animals prevailed much amongst the Accadian inliabitants 
of the Babylonian plains; the '-horse/' for instance, waa 
t^yC^ V" EtIT '^*»?i«Vw htiMra, i.e„ *'the animal from the 
east/' Annenia and Media 5 the *'wolf'' was ^^T ^T 
num*ma^ Le., (the animal from) ** the high-lands/* /,^.. Elam ; 
the camel was ^^^ jf tX^ •^i^l 'imim *tH:d^ba^ /.^„ ** the 
animal fi'om the sea/ At fiiist sights perhaps, this description 
may appear eiToneous, camels l>eing creatm^es of the plains 
and deserts rather than of the sea. Nevertheless tlie name 
is perfectly correct^ for the sea is the Persian Gulf, across 
which the Accadian inhabitants of the Mesopotamian Valley 
first brought the camel from his original home in Arabia. Or 
a name may be given to some animal from S4>me characteiistie 
habit, and the identification thereby rendered proliable ; thus 
one of the Assyiian namen for *'a wolF' wan |J ^]^ t^t- 
Qrc{^lnt% i>M '*the eater"; similar is the meaumg of the 



36 



Oft fhe Miimmalia 0/ the A^Byriau Hcvlptives, 



Accadian word ]J^ ^ "^t^ /'^{ iCY^^' ** ^^^ eating 
beasV a teiim proverbially characteristic (ff the greedy, 
devouring, ^' ravening wolf/'^ 

Passing now to tlie third division, the method of repre- 
senting animals hy romliination of fignre and description — 
the moat certain of all methods — we find no instance of it 
amongst the ARsyiian records. The ancient Egyptians 
frequently made nse of this exeelleot method in their hiero- 
glyphic system. What, for instance*, can be more clear 
than the fnllowing combinations. ^ ^^ ha, *\nram"- 

i^^M ""'"' '^^ ^^^ ' ^^ ^^^^^' a bird*s nest''? 
each word l>eing fallowed by its <leterminativf^ affix, that 
affix being a coiTeet representatinn of thr animal whose 
name, phonetically spelt, precedes it. 

I have already said that the animals scnlptnred or other- 
wise figured on the Assyrian monnments fi>r the most part 
speak for themselves, at least up to a certain point — a '* goat " 
is '*a goat" generically considered ; bnt if we '^\4sh to be more 
accnrate, and to become acipiainted with the particular kinds 
or species of goats known to the Ass}T:-ian8 and the Acca^lians, 
we mnst ascertain, if possible, what species of the family 
Cnpre^r^ iir«^ now known, or likely to be found, or to have 
once existed in Af<Kyria nnd the l>ordering conntries ; what 
is the geogi-a pineal range of the varions species: and how 
far do they in nature resemble the tignren <>n the monnments. 
Questions sneli as thfse must be asked in all cases. Bnt we 
have not only to identify the varions fipevles fiffm^ed, we have 
also to determine the nam^^ by which thej^ wei'e called. 
What aids, then, ran we call in to assist us in onr attempts 
to identify the uameft of the animals ? 

If the word be an Assyrian one. we may expect tu find 
a similar word hi Hebrew or Arabic, or some other cognate 
Semitic language; if wv find that the nnknr»\vn Assyrian 
name corresponds with the known name in one ot^ the sister 

^ Ijyf ^^ "like ft lion" or 'Mog" i& titmslated bj the Ass. mitkhfiris 
** ferodotisly," " Telieroeutly ** (?) : ** lie tlmt diTOurs like a lion.''— [A.H,S.J 



On tlie Mammalm of the Assyrian Sculpt toi^i*. 



'M 



|iltig^ageSf there is generally fair reason, amoiinting in e^nDr 
to absolute certainty, for inferring that identitif of word 
implies identity of signifimthn* Two or three inBtanceft vnW 

^l>e BTiffident to demonstrate my meaning; such nrimes aa 
kese are of frequent occuiTence on the inscripti*>n8, dah'u 
mfbu^ gammalu^ alpiu ts6ni (eolleotively )» zihu ; now all these 

Lcorre^pond with the welUaHCt-rtainod Hebrew names, dM^ 

Pcf/^A, ffdnuii^ iUph^ fsniii^ zt'Sft^ being the nanien of *• a l>ear.' 
*•• dog/' *"» camel," ** an ox/* *' sheep,** **a wolf* resper- 
tively. In thewe i*afie«, even if other evidL^nct.i were abHent 
(which ia not the case), there in sufficient proof to cBtablish^ 
beyond a shadow of doubt, the identity of tlie Afisyrian and 
the Hebrew animal-namcn. A ehie to identitieation is 
(Kicitteioually aflbrded ns in the context. l>y8onie expression or 
siniile* as in the following pasaage (W.A.l. I, pi. xxxix, 
line 77): — 



cinia ar-me a- ua suk- ti sa- qu - te 

lik^ amie upon tfte high clij^n, 



tsi - ru - us -su- un e - li 
aeer them I ascended. 

Clearly here some gregarious ^v^Id nlitjep or goat, or caprine 
Antelope (chamois)* is intentlefl by the word arme^ a word 
which* in the al>senee of other evidence, might perhaps 
have remained entirely unknowTi. Whnt more defiiiito 
animal is intended may be considered when we come to trent 
t^f the wild aniinaU known tu the Assynanw* 

Sometimes the juxta-position of the name of some nn- 

n animal with ascertained nama^ uf aniuialB found in 

lai* places may serve to put im on the right truck. Again, 

the derivation of the Assyrian %vord — thonghtliis point really 

fers itself" to the corresponding word in the Hebrew or 

ther cognate tongue — is always a matter for consideJutiKn. 

Next to the establishment of the meanhig of an Assyrian 

mal-name with a Hebrew or othei* Semitic animal-name, 



88 



On the Mammalia of the As»t/rian Sculpturei, 



(•nine8 ill importance the Acc^nliao equivalent of the i\j?8yriau 
word in the bilingual list, Ti^Tieu AsBurbanipars scribe came 
to the zoi>logical portion of hie gveat dictionary, following 
his plan he gnxe m parallel eolumnH the names of various 
uiiimala. On the right hand of the t^iblet is the Assyrian 
name: dkectly facing that name on the left hand m the 
corresponding Acc^idian word; thus, opposite the Aseyrian 
name zibn there BtandH to the left the Accadian word nnm-ifta^ 
the fii*6t being the Semitic- Assyrian, the second the Turanian* 
Accadian name of the '• wolf/' Now the Accadian word 
often gives a cine where the Assyrian fails* for that language 
is very full and precise in its compound words; the whole 
idea euibodied in the Avord is absolutely seen to exist in it ; 
there are no indications of what philologists happily express 
by " phonetic decay.'' To give two or thi-ee illustrations, 
the sign ^]^]^ U') means " a house/' and ^l*- (ffal) m 
** great"; the compound tz^^^J £|*- i^'ff^^^) ^^ ** great house " 
or *' palace"; ^»-T (an)^ amongst other kindred meanings 
denotes ^*the heaven/* and ^^^L {^0 ** black''; the com- 
pound word *->-y K^^ {an^m) stands for **an eclipse" (lit, 

** black heaven"); cHTT (•^'") ~ ''increase''; *-tT^T {^^0 = 
** eating/' the compoimd word denoting '* famine '' ; but to 
come more immetliately to words bearing directly on the 
sitbject of my paper, ^^J (//I or %) means '* a dog/' and 

*^""II ("*^'^''^) ^^ " gr^at/' hence ^y >-^JJ, Uk^nakk stands 
for one of the strongest and fiercest %ji wild animals, "' the 
lion''; the dog is Tjy ]^ (Uk-cu)^ literally the ** serving*' or 
domestic beast from cu '"^to serve/' ^ 

Nn\\\ if in the bilingual animal-lists we could always get 
such definite help as in these instances just given^ difficulties 
of identification would be considerably reduced, and iu many 
cases absolutely removed. But, mifortimately. the Uiblets 
are often much broken; the Accadian equivalent of the 
Assyrian animal-name is often altogether hist, and on the 
othei* hand, sometimes, the Accachan is preserved to uh, 
whilst the Assyrian equivalent has been obliterated. 



' I aiii not sui"c whellier Hern \\a> 



not tlic fuU wonl, conlitu'letl into f/<*.— 



On thi Mammalia of the Assyrian Scnlptureit, 



39 



Before I pruoecd to the c* msideratioii of the various 

mammak mentioned or figured on the iiioimmentH, I should 

^dmre to make a few remarks on the bilingual list ot 

lazdmals printed in Rawlinstjn'n '* Iiiacriptious " (voL ii, pL vi), 

I because by a careful examination of that list I think we 

i»liaD be able to discover to some extent the order which the 

writer of the tablet had in view, and thus, by looking at the 

name^ of the animals as far as possible from his standpoint, 

we shall be able to secm'e some little though not invaluable 

help towards the determination of these anbnal«. 

In columns A and B we find to the right the Assyrian 
^^^ BjH "^JJl *'*'"'•" (Heb. ID) "a Hheep*' or ^Mamb/' 
I opposite which is the ordinary Aceadiau word for sheep t 
rJEDf ''* ' ^^^^ follows in the Assyrian column the sign |f 
meaning ** ditto/' opposite which, in the Accatlian column, 
ia the sign W <7*i/% ** food" * hence I conclude that " sheep as 
food*** atiai '* mutton,** is intended; in the third line we have 
yi "ditto/' and the syllable ^^f num, *' high-land'' pro- 
bably *' raoimtain sheep '' being intended. The fom'th and 
fifth lines by the sig!i If, meaning ** ditto," also refer to 
nheep, in the Assyrian colimin, but I do not see what are the 
meanings of the Accadian equivalents of ^J][4^^ ]^ 
Itjuk'ktiy and £:<*<« (f;/l). In the fii*st live hues the 
6cribe gives various Accadian words, all refeiiing to the 
Aseyrian kir^rti^ *• sheep/' The sixth and seventh lines by 
tiie two thick lines which enclose them Lippcar to o^mtain 
words which refer tn the same animal ; in the sixth Ime 
there is the word ^^ ^1^ ^ {niif-iOu-ntt)\ in the seventh, 
t^ ET *^ du-ma-mn, both probably denoting some stealthy 
prowling' bea^t of prey, nf^ i* Icupard <>rii lynx ; the Accadian 
Biptivah^nt upj>ottite nU^dhi^nu is tjuk^kif^'^ same word as in the 
fourth line; the Accadian equivalent to dt^itta-um I can 
make nf»thing ofc In tlie eighth line the Assyrian word 
»-^T ^T ^yy fin-adh^rv occurs; the cor reisponding Accadian 
roluion isaomewhat liroken, but the word V ^T||^ i^^-iH^) 

' i Ittucv - a " ^ U tic p- walk/' oi' eUu ** a lluck of walkers."— [A.H.S.J 
« •♦ T!ie *h*5evj-walk " prowler, i>erlm|i«. 



40 



On fhe Mamtnalia of tlie Amsynan Sculptures, 



"good,*' plainly appears. Now all the remaining lines ou 
t'olmnns A and B contain words which evidently refer to 
*' dogB '* ; and there can be no dnal>t that tlie Assyrian word 
na*dh<i-ru in the eightli hno nitauB the '* protecting " or 
'* defending "' dog, which in the Accadian cohimn ift called 
" good,'^ or '* usefnl/' Let us cast back* Beginning with 
** sheep," we see after a few lines, wliich alno refer to 
*' sheep/* that the scribe's ndnd reverts to some stealthy beast 
of prey in the word timlkhm (Heb. toto, ''to He in wait**); 
immediately afterwards he thuiks of the protecting dog, 
and here is a natiu^al sequence of ideas : the sheep suggests 
the sheep's enemy, some prowling Rpecies of Felidse, and 
this, again, snggeats the shepherd's fi-iend, the sheepV 
protector, the dog. And now the scribe keeps to tliin 
Ifitter animal and enumerates varions kinds of dogs: water 
dogs, greyhounds, hounds that hunt in packs, old and 
decrepit dogs, savage dogs, dogs of different colours^ bitches 
with whelps, &c, 

A similar order may be seen in cohnnns and D ; here in 
the top Hue to the right the scribe starts with the Assyrian 
word zi-hu (^]]*^ fcE V"*^) "wolf," opposite which is the 
Aceadian synonym ^ ^^ff f E| (fi^i-um-ina}^ the animal from 
the •* High-lauds/* Next hi the Assyrian cohnnn is the sign 
TT "'ditto,'' *'walf'* again; opposite to this ib the Aceadian 
TJ^ ^ ^^Jv^ Uk-M-cu "the devoming beast/* In the 
third line we have T| ^J£J J^t (a-t-i-lav) as the Assyiian, 
and Uk'tn-ai agaiji as the correspoudmg Aceadian word, both 
meaning *• tbe devourer.*' In the fonrth line occurs the 
Assyrian In-iMa (^ |^JJ ^*^) ^^'i^^ the Aceadian lu^l/al 
(IMI '^)* which, I thmk, probably means **a sheep." 
Next in the fifth Hue comes a-tu^-du^ '* he-goat '' ; then follows 
names of the goat, sheep (ram), deer in a general sense. 
perhaps fallow deer, red deer, antelope, gazellep A land ot 
zoological method may certainly be seen here, for all the 
animals from the fourth luie to the seventeenth are ruminants, 
but in the eighteenth Hue the *' hare '* is mentioned in the 
Assyiian column by the word *^>^'^ *^\ ^*" {an-na-i/a), in 



I 



On the Mammalia of the Antyrian Sculptung. 



41 



I 



I 



Aceadiau by the expression *^^]^ ti^'^J ^^] 
{cn-zin^na), wliich jueaus *' face of tlit: desert/^ The zoo- 
logical order from niniinants to the rudeuts has uertaiiily 
been brokea ; but the transition from the light swnft little 
antelope of the desert (gazelle) to the Bwift **hare" waa 
quite natural, and no doubt the Bcrilje'n mind thus reverted 
to the latter animal ; tliis euppogition haH especial force if we 
Gonsider that the epeciee of hare inttiuded is the Lepus 
Sinaiti^us^ an animal of the plains and deseiln rather tlian the 
woodlands. After the hare come, in line nineteen, bears. 
And then follow other beasts of prey, indicated by the sign 
•^ir^jtyjff (sak/i) the EV.P. uf «ome carnivnronH animal in the 
Aceadian column. I cannot at all agree with Dr. F* Delitzsch 
that the khmsii russd of the thirty-first and thirty-second 
line» (Assyrian column) have anj'lhing whatever to do with 
gazelles either young or old, as be conjecturee, especially 
as the Aceadian D.P. »-^n^][EjTTf (»akh) occurs opposite the 
AsdjTian words, and, indeed, is seen continuously up to the , 
forty-first luie, where the tablet is broken. 

Thus what happened in colnnms A and B has been 
repeated, though in inverse order, in columns C and D ; in 
A iu\*i B the scribe began with "' nheep/' and then went on 
to the dog, the sheep's protector; iii columns C and B he 
began with '* the wolf/* the sheep's enemy, and then went 
on to give the names of sheep, goats, gazelles, and such 
like nnninants* Then, after startuig with tlie **bear," he 
continues to speak of caniivorous animals, though it is 
extremely difiScult. if not impassible, to determine what 
particular animals are denoted by several of the namen that 
follow. 

From the above considerations we can see that the 
scril>e observed, in the arrangement of his subject, fiome 
degree of zoological order, a fact which wu shuuld du well tu 
bear in mind. 

In treating uf this lirnt part uf my Hubject, the Mammalia 
of the Assyrian Monmuents, it will be convenient tu divide it 
into two sections, vix., (let) the domestic, (2nd) the wild 
animals. 



4S On the Mammalin of the Aianifrian Scufpturett, 

L— The Do>resTic JIammals, 

Those known to or employed by the AnsynsLnB were 
oxen, eheep, goate, aimelB (two species), aases, horses, mulegy 

and dogs. 

Cattle. — ^The cattle represented in the bas-relief on the 
monuments, or otherwise depicted^ show a fine strong breed, 
generally of one type ; tliey have a hump muir or less 
developed on the shoulder, calling to mind to some 
extent the humped Zebu (iioM /ntiicuA) of India* There 
appear to have been iKith a long-horned and a short-homed 
variety, the fonuer being that generally represented ; the 
horus of the fonner are round and thick at the base, em-ving 
forwards, aiid the wliole animal reniindR one forcibly of the 
wild Vudl or wild ox of Western A^ia, not unfi'equently repre^ 
sentetlhihuntingsceneson nlabs of the tinieof Assur-natBu-paL 
This wild species, theAss^n-ian rimu^ is identical A%nth tlwrem of 
the Iiel>rew BibU% miBtranslated *'xuueorn *' by the trauHlatprs 
of the authorised version, and ** buifalu/' by most of oiu* 
modem Assyiian scholars. It is an undoubted //ixv and no 
(ntjalo ; but this queBtion must be fully considered when I 
come to treat of the irihf animttt^. Tlie horas of the short- 
horned breed are somewhat similar in foim to thoso of tixe 
long-horned breed, but much shorter* Both breeds are. 
(loubtlesH/ varieties of the common ox (Ihii Taitru.'*), the 
parent t>f the numerous races of cattle, whether of home or 
ibreign produce. Cattle formed one of the principal auinuil- 
spoils captured by the Assyrians in tlunr wars with other 
nations, and, judging from the enornious quantities taken, 
beef must have entered into the AssjTian listw of diet more 
frequently than in Ur^ual in Eastern natiouH, tlupagh perhaps 
the Huldiers after Huceessfu! campaign k would generally be 
the class of i*ei*8ons who eonsmned mont of the captured 
food. RepresentationH of killing oxen and sheep, and of the 
various joints, such an the leg, tht* loiu, and the slmulder, 
similar to those of modern England, oeem- on the monumtmts. 
Cattle were employed a« beasts of draught* Captive women 
in a cai't draw^ by oxen is a subject not mi frequently 
depicted on the monuments. The Hebrews nsed then* cattle 



On the Mammalia of the Aifnyrum Sculptutes. 43 



fe 



for plouf^uug BJid threshing; so did the lAd Egyptians, 
Were they ever so employed by the Assj^Tians? Tlie 
Aasyrian word for an ux is al-pu (^lij V"*^)' generally 
repreeeutcd ideographically by the sign tj^ ; the Accaditiii 
eqmvalenti* are gut and khar, which Mr. Sayee thinks munt be 
oomiected with Gnti or Gitttum (tlie coimtr)' between the 
Enplirates and Syria), and Akharu, •* the West " — the Semitic 
name of Phoenicia. Gjusideriog the ciiBtom amongst the 
Accadimis of naming animals from tlie conntries from which 
they were received, tliis snggeetion seems to be highly 
probable. 

The ithe^p of thn nMjnumunt^ Itave long curved horns with 
a fat tail, often turned up at the tip. The domefetie varieties 
of 0ms anes (Lin.) are very numerous ; they difler iu general 
form» in the number of their horns, iu texture of wool, and 
even in theii- habits^ fur the sheep of Tartary are said to eat 
boniis like a dog. The variety generally figured on the 
monuments is the same which is found iu Paleatiue and the 
plains of Belkah; it in the Ocls aries apijendiculahu %vith white 
body, head and neck black or dark brown^ wool thick ; tail 
of moderate length, " with a thin excrescence at the end like 
n pigs tail," about an inch in length. It is a variety of the 
brwid-tailed sheep (Ovis laticaudaUu^), the fat tail of which 
amongbl tlie ancient Hebrews was part *' of the sacrifice of 
the peace-offering made by fire \mU> Jchovtdi''; "the fat 
thereof, and the whole fat tail (rPTK), it Hliall be taken off 
hard by the back bone*' (Lev. iii 9)* Other varieties pro- 
bably lyere known to the Assyrians, as the one just mentioned, 
the Persian sheep and the Bucharian sheep of the Caucasus 
and Persia. The Assyiian name uf sheep is tB]] ^]f Sff- 
(^^ii),.U6ed collectivelyt being the equivalent of the Hebrew 
JK2; the Accadian name is |^T| Itf, though J^JJ {^>^ h-lim 
appears also to designate *'a sheep," whence the Assyrians 
)»on'owed the word hj^li-mu; this expressing a sheep indivkhi- 
»r//y, whereas Im and ti(mi stand usually for sheep in a 
colkctive 8ense. The rum hi Assyrian is y| y} Jfc^ (ai-tav)^ 
aoswering to tiie Hebrew v?M» which has witii much reason 



44 



Oh the ifamnmlia of the Ansi/rimi Sculptureif, 



beee refeiTed to the root 7IN '' to ti^^et/' in relation to its 
twisted horuB; in Accadiao the ram is expressed by 




jSyy *-^r*^y lu^mt, !>., **Bbeep'' + **Hiale"; iu the list of 
iuiimak lUready mentioned, ^Tf ^^|»-^y ii^mulf t\^., *'horn*' 
h "star/' which I take to be the zodiacal Aries^ stands ae 
the equivalent of the Assyrian ai-luv. As amongst the 
Hebrews ** rams skins dyud red " (see Exod, xx\% 5) w^ere 
ill high estimation, so with the Assyrians, whether they 
prepared tliem or not. Amongst the spoil wliich Tiglath- 
Pileser II received from Zabibie, ipieen of Aiiibia, we read of 
( W,A:I. Ill, 9, 56) :— 



tseni zicari (aili) pal - cu 
Rams skin if 



ti siipati - su- nil 

their wool 



I 



<THT<T m^ « -^ 

ar - ga -man- nu. 
of pm^pk. 

The Accadian feT| »-^ lu-lnii^ whicli in the list of animals is 
the equivalent of the Assyrian ^ J^]J ^>- (6t-t6-6«), I 
think must denote **a sheep''; though Mr, Sayce and 
IL Lenoi-mant consider that ** the lynx*' is intended. The 
bi-ib-bn of the Assyriau column eei-taioly looks as if it should 
be refeiTed to the Hebrew U^ ur nH. '' the pttpil of the 
eye**; and in tht^ Astrmiomical Tublet^i the pknets were 
called by the Aecadians tht^ seven Ittbat^ wliiie Jupiter is 
especially called lubat and bibbu (see Sayee, Astroa. and 
Astrub, Bib. Arch, Trans. IIL 167). The syllable In in tlie 
Accadian name must be taken into account, and as Dr. F. 
Delitzsch has remarked, points rather to '' a sheep." Again, 
the expression ** star of the flocks.'* 



I 



mut 



shepherd 



hi 



5iUU 

the 



Hih zi 

hmcenltf 



aii * na 
fivck 



seems to favom* this interpretatiou. The expression ** stars 
like sheep*' also occurs in the Creation Tablets. The eye 



On th^ MammaHu of the Asmnan Seulptitren, 



45 



of the sheep, like the eye of most aixiuials in health, is bright^ 
though perhaps this animal would hardly ho especially 
rked tmt as potsisefisiiig great brilliancy m thift respect ; 
""and we still have to uxpUun the Aeeadian seeontl Byllable 
l)Qt I may mention that hflnit in the bilingual list in 
identified %\ith hdimu, and that word with iar '* king." or 
' leader,'* from the ideii uf the mm or he-goat taking the 
ad of the flock. So amongM thr Helirews. (d. Jer. v. 8» 
Zerli. X, Ji, laa, xiv, 9.) 

<7V«i/x,— The domesticated goat of the monuments has 

high horns cm-viDg backwards, oy nearly erect ; iu the former 

bey divaricate, in the latter they are nearly paralleh Of the 

wi tliere are perhaps nn Tuany varieties as the sheep. All 

'"tiie numerous varit^ties of the domestic goat are probably 

descended fi'om the paseng, or Capra mjagrxin^ a species 

common all through Asia Minor, Persia, extending even 

^itito Scinde^ and must have been well known to the 

rAseyrianfl. The ordinaiy ilssyrian word for a goat was, 

imtil lately, supposed to be *^^]^ E^TT ^ ca-ra-iiu 

(geufrally represented liy the ideogram t^j£}, ^''.» *' a 

I horned animal/* of which gh-ffin was supposed to be the 

PAccadiau equivalent ; but <m tlds point Mr. Sayce writes to 

me, *" I have been convinced that this must be given up, and 

irarm and carunnn regarded only as *vine' and *wine/'' 

tablet has been found giving a list of eai^ani ; they are 

i^alled ty y^4< ges-mt^a, *• trees" and the **wine of Helbon' 

figures among them, Delitzsch points out that the Ace adian 

a^Wtfi = ''tree «»f life/' />., ** \nne/' Fi*v the wiiR* of Helhiiji 

see Ezek. xxvii, IH. This idea of raratut being "'a vine** or 

**wine" $uit« tJie epigraph accompanyitig the ha^^relief 

represent 1! I g Asgnrbanipal jionring a libation over some dead 

hims he had killed in tlu* rhawe ** an offering over them I 

pTMented"* : 

^T< -9 -^T ^]} m\\ I tT?? 

carana ak - ka e - li su- un 
wine I offered over fhe7n ; 

the very thing the king is represented doing. The lie-goat 
Wttii called TS »-££| J^j (t-iu-dtf, which answers to the 



46 



On fhe Mnmmolia of the Asmfi*}a7i Si*\dpiuren^ 



Hebrew Tinj?, In the bilinguiil list of animak (Aceadian 
column) we Unci a certain exprestiion J "^ T£T t which, it 

18 explaiiverL is to he pronounLuJ >^ *"^| ^'**'""''' ^^ 
another place (W*A.L II, 4, 602) a-in-ih i^ explained in 
Aceadian by the word "^n *-T<l^ ^Tt ii-^ka^ wliieh means 
** horn raising," and well e xpresseB the high-horned animal 
represented on the monnments. I think there is little doubt 
also that the AKsyriiUi word SttllJ tit ^TT »(ip-p<^-rn^ 
which anflwers to the Helirew or Chaldean l^S^ l»dph\ **a 
he-goat " (see Daniel \nii, 58), is another name for this 
animal, not only because it agrees with theChaldee, bnt also 
becau8e it occnrw just under the atmiu — the 8cribo still kee^D- 
iog to words denoting sheep and goats— and because it is 
explained by the same Aceadian word which was used for 
afmfft, with t lie addition merely of the Hyllablt' Ji- bar, which 
perhaps here denotes ** strength'*;* the mpparu may thus 
denote either a large and strong specimen of tlie domestic 
he-goat, or the male Paseng or wild Capra (VffaffrtiSj whicli 
perliaps mixed and crossed at times ^\^th the domestic 
variety. 

The flesh of the goat, especially of young animals, 
was no doubt eaten, and its milk used as food. Goat 
skins were employed for various purposes ; after removing 
the head and legs, the skin was prepared — perhaps 
steeped in tannin — and filled with air. It served as a 
swimming buoy or bladder ; ov a number together would 
sei've to float rafts, &c. On the monuments may be seen 
representatioiis of Assyiiau fishermen sitting iu the water 
cross-legged, each on one of these inflated skins, with 
fisliing line and baited hook, and fish around them ; on the 
bas-reliefs representuig the campaigns of Assur-natsir-pal 
(circ. B.C. 884), figures of fugitives ST;\^mming to a fortress are 
seen, each one using an inflated goat-skin as a buoy, 

Camek* — Both the Arabian and twei-hinnped Bactriau 
camels are represented on the monuments. The fonufr 
species { Came f us Arabims) is fairly enongli depicted. It was 



Cm a be " white " ?^[A*H.S.] 



Ou the Mammnim of the Antp^ian Senlj/tfttrs, 47 



used chiefly by the Arabiiuis, though other nations eniployGcl 
it. Fivquent mtsntion uf camels as part of spoil occurs iji 
tilt* Aw^yriaii reconli*. In A^siirlmniparB oxp»idition against 
VhiU-Ij king of rlie Anl>i (Ai"aliia), an inimense number of 
caoielii with other spoil wae captured. 



olpi teeui 



t<TEET^ ^H \ x^W 



unni 



lKl\ 



gam- mall 



j}hmi-m t<nMM < ^ - -et h^ 



a- me- In - tii 

m^ii. ihfif had 



\H - In - In -u- ni ina la mt^-ui 

Utki*u (IX ^y)o// inthoui nuvihei\ 



wA^iu^ *^ camels like sheep I tlistrilmted Jind caused to over- 
Mow to the men of Antiyria/* Some idea of the great 
EnumberR captnred in this Arabian war may be formed from 
Ithe fart that after the war camelH were sold in Nhieveli for 
Mftlf a »hrkel of silver a head (see Smiths Aesurbanipal, 

P-274). 

The Baetrian camel is also fairly enough represented^ 

though it oecnrsonly on the Bhick Obelisk of Shalmaneser 11 
C(cnrc, B,C* 850), The whole inscription on thiB inonmnent, 
rmow in the British Jliweum, has recently been translated by 

Mr. Sayoe. It is a valuable addition to Ihe many aheady 

valnable tniuslationp contained in that excellent publication 
.Records of the Past (vol, v, p. (il). Accompanying the 
llcnlptnres are epigi-aphs recording the nature of the artielew 
Ireceived by the AssjTian monarch as tiilnitc fi'om conquered 
luations. Baetrian camels were part of the tribute of '* Su*a, 
lof the coimtry of the Gnzanian8/* The presence of more 
Khan one hump on a camel no doubt excited the curiosity of 
Itbe AsAjTians, and the scribe generally takes care to record 
rthe fact of the animal possessing two liumpR ; thus of the 

tribute of Su'a we read* ** camels, of ^hich two are their 
Lbacks, I received/* The same animak also formed pai-t of 
Bilie tribute of the Eastern Muzi*i in Armenia, Shalmaneser 

received, xs-ith other things^ as the tribute of A'su king of 

Oozatii **two camels which have two humps/' and from 



4^ Oit f/tr 3fammalut of the Assyrian S€ulpture», 



AlSahu king of Gilzan or Guzan, seven doiible-lnimped 
camels* In these two placen, inetef\d of the ordinaiy word 
for camel, ^]f£^ TI ^tT *"^T anih-ha in Accadian, or 
t^yt^ 1i SiT yani'iitaf in A8S\Tian, we have the word 
nar-ra-tu or par-rd-ttK thits \ — 

TP ^T £^n ^! V n t-^ t^T?? !-^ -EliJ ^T" 

7 par- ra - te sa 2 gu - un - gu - li - pi 

Seven heaHs iritJi theh* two hnmpn 

HI - na am - kliar 
/ received. 

The female camel, when distingiiiahed from the male, wa 
caUed tumkiitn (^ »--/^| 4^y || *-'E£f )» as in the followiug 
pfifisage : — 

^]^ n ^A --T H* !- n -^T -a-i n v^T 

D.P, a- ab « ba - ti (D.P. of female) a - na - ka « a - te 
Cameh camels 

a - di D.P, ba - ae ca - ri 81 - na 

together mtk their yoimg ones* 

There can he no donbt that tins Assyrian word, hke the 
ordinary one for camel {{jam^ma-lu) is, with the one-humped 
animal itself, of Arabian origin, nakat lieing the modem 
Arabic name of the female. A similar word, *inka (Hp-t^) 
occurs in the Talmud. 

The Aft8. — The domestic aRP, though frequently mentioned 
in the Assyrian records^ is nowhere represented on the vrnmi- 
ments^ which fact is a matter of regret to the zoologist who 
would desire to see what kind of an animal the domestic ass 
was m its own native land in the time, say of Assur-natsir-pat 
more than 2,500 years ago, This iisefril animal must have 
been known to the Assyrians from the earliest times ; and no 



n 



On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Seulplurt$^ 



49 



Hi the geuial warmth of ita native land the AeByriau 
■flimii-st huve been a far 8iiperi(»r animal tr. those we are in 
tile hal)it of seeing in this country. Indeed, we know that in 
otir day tlie as8 in many J>art« «jf the East t«, aa a matter 
of fiict, a iar superior animaL Of the white aes of Baghdad, 
Mr* Layatd — a name never to be mentioned without feelings 
of pride and gratitude by every student of Assyiian history 
— iluseo BritanniotJ teste I — of this white ass of Baghdad 
Mr. Layard thus \iTiteB: — "The white ass of B^tghdad is 
much esteemed in the East* Some are of considerable 
gize, and when fancifully dyed with henna, theij* tailn and 
ears bright red, and their bodies spotted, Hke an lieraldic 
talbott with the same colour^ they l^ear the chief priestu 
ftnd the men of the hiw, as they appear to Inive done 
'fium the earhest times" (Judg. v, 10),* The domestic ass 
of Assyria is probably descended from the wild aes of 
the Mesopotamian plains, the parent of the various races 
wheresoever ft»und. The wild ass of the monuments — of 
which I hope to speak more fully when I treat, on another 
oc^^asion, of the wild animals generally — more eloRely re- 
sembles the horst type than the iiomestic animal of modern 
days, or tl:ie wild ass of Western Asia* of Syria, or Africa, 
The absence of any figure of the domestic ass on the monu- 
ments prevents us from ascertaining how far this equine 
appearance is due to fact or to want of skill in the sculptor. 
The a88 was known to and used as a beast of burden by the 
ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia, doubtless he/ore the 
horse; for the usual determinative prefix to denote a beast 
of burden such as the horse, mule, camel, is itself, without 
any adjunct, the rcfpresentative of the ass, thus we have 
-seen that the camel, for iustance, is thus represented— 

D.P., a- ab - ha D.P., knr - ra 

the first character informs lis that some " beast of burden " is 
before us* In the first instance, it is the animal from '* the 
seftf** I.e., as we have seen, '* the camel '' ; in the latter it is 



* Nin. niKl Bab,, 472. 



Vfii. T 



5ft On (he Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 



the animal from ''the east," namely^ **the horse"; but the 

same sign or determinative prefix, ftnelj\ without any 
explanation^ ie the word for ** asn/' which, in the Assyrian 
word, would be read 'imiru, the equivalent of the Hebrew 
^yyort {rliamor). I now prnceed to eay a iew words on 

The Horse, — These aiiimuls are represented more fre- 
quently than any other on the Assyrian monuments ; they 
are depicted with much Bpirit and truth to nature. Ah the 
Assyrian monarcliB w^ere frequently at war with other 
nations, or, when not engaged in war, were amusm^ them- 
selvea with field sports, such as Uon-huntiug, the chase of 
the vn\A bull, wild ass, and other animals, the horse was an 
aulinal constantly in request, while the frequency of the hoii^e 
on tlie monuments, and the care bestowed on it« appearance, 
as manifested by the mane, tail, and other decorations, show 
what a pride and interest they took in their horses. The 
figures on the monuments present us with an animal of noble 
form ; the head is small, so are the ears^ the eye often fiery 
— ^so far as can be expressed in cold marlile — and full of hfe ; 
forehand good» as would be expected in entii-e animals ; 
muscles largely deveh:)ped, pasterns of moderate length. 
The whole animal was more fitted for war-purposes than for 
those requiring speed ; in the chase of the wnld ass — one of 
the swiftest quadrupeds in existence — the Assyrian horse 
must, one would suppose, have been left tar behind. Horses 
were used in w^ar as chariot-horses, either yoked ftnn* abreast 
or two, or as cavalry, which must have been a powerful and 
efiFective branch of the Assyrian army in countries tolerably 
free from hills and woods. Horses are not represented 
drawing caHs or eaiTyiiig baggage of any kind, and it may, 
I thhik, be affirmed that they were not used for these 
purposes, for which mules and asses were emplo3^ed. The 
horses of the Ass^Tian army were a terror to the Jews. 
Nahum has in a few wordw graphirally dcReribed the tumult 
of an Assyrian hattle-field. '* The noise of a whip and the 
noise of the rattling of the wheels, and of the prancing 
horses and of the jumping chariots. The horseman Utteth 
up both the bright sword and the glittering spear, and there 
is a TQultitude of slain and a great number of carcases ; and 






On the Mamntafia of (he Assimatt Scuipfitrf^, 51 

is no end of their corpses ; upim their coipees they 
able " (iii. 2-3). 

Horses trained to the yoke C^f^H <^ £^fl f^ ^^ 
iuH niri are often expressly mentioned. There is a peculiar 
.word in the inscription of Esarhaddon {W.A.L I, pL 4H, 
f53, eol. iv) which seems to stand for some kind of horse, 



pa - ka - ili 
cftarye of 

D.P- pare. 

and mules* 






mur - ni - iz 
war-!tov.He8 



a 



See also line 2(}, same column, and col. vi, 4fi. Mr. Norris reads 
be word kharnizku Tlie reading alMJVe is that of Mr. Sayce, 
pho clous not know to what the word is to he tntced. 

We have already seen that the Accadian name of the 
korse, ^imlnt Icar-m^ ** animal from the east,'' gives ns the 
interesting information that thfse ancient inhal>itants of the 
Mesopotamian plains obtained their horses from some country 
or eoiintries eastward to tlieui. Armenia and Media apjiear 
to be the orig;inal liome of the horse, bo far as we are able to 
trace back its history. The Je^^nsh prophet Ezekiel, who 
)te of events which happened in his own time, mentions 
lie importation of horaes from Armenia to TjTre :~** They of 
the house of Tugarmah traded in thy faii-s with ht^rses and 
horeeraen and mules ** (Ezek. xxvii, 14). Ckissieal writers 
bear similar testimony to tlm excellent quaUties as well ae 
to tlie great nnmbera of the horses of Armenia and Media. 
At this day the pastures on the plains and momitains in 
Armenia sustain fine breeds of horses. 

Tlio Assyrian name of the horse was hi-m^ the Hebrew 
D^D («*«*}» a name which, by some wi-iters, haH been referred 
ti) Susa, the PersiiUi capital ; similarly the Hebrew pdnhh is 
thought to be connected with UHS^ or Fars, the ancient 
name of Persia. Egypt was celebrated for its hnrsee; the 



5S 



On the Mammalia of the Aayrian Sculptures, 



Hebrews in the time of Solomon and of the Jewish kings 
imported liorses fi*om Egypt into their land; but the horse 
was nut known to the Egyptians m the earliest times ; to 
tliem, as to the Accadians^ most probably it was an animal 
from the east, Armenia and Media furnighiiig the supply. 
The mcKfeni horse of the Euphrates V^alley is a finely bred 
Arab.^ 

77*e Afule. — Of this— in many eoiintries veiy nsefnl 
animal— I need say but little. The mule of the Assyrian 
nioniimeuts represents an animal of exeellent breed, and far 
superior to the animals we see in this country. This was to 
be expt^cted, because not only was the climate more con- 
genial to one of its parents, the ass, but because mules were 
in more request, and more attention would he paid to their 
breeding. This animal was used for riding, drawing cart-s, 
carrying nets on its back f(»r deer him tin g, l%c. ; and no 
doubt for the conveyance of baggage in war. They are 
often mentioned amongst the spoil of conquered nations, and 
must have l>eeu bred in large numbers. The mule is 
represented in tlje inscriptions by the Aecadian expression — 

^]B I -j -T- 

DotjH, — We have next to consirJer the dogs as knoT\Ti to, 
or used by, the ancient Assyrians. Though the monuments 
do not introduce ns to more than twn varieties of the dog, 
(1), the large and powerful mawtifF-like animal used in the 
chase of the liun, wild bnll, wild ass, &c., and (2), the 
greyhound, used in coursing the hare, other breeds were 
doubtless kno^ai to the inhabitants of Assyria. In the 
bilingual list to which I have so often referred, the word 
*^'"| t^tf ^TT na'adh-ru^ *' the protecting" dog, occurs imme- 
diate! v after msMinu and dumamu. These two latter names I 



* *' The first horsf*^ aiifl clmnots are represenfe*! &t Eileitliyiii*, of the time of 
Ames or Aniosie, ubout IhOO B.C. Hor^fs are, tlippeforiN supposed not to hare* 
be^n knomi in Egypt before the XVIHth Djnast y (see Dr. Picl^ermg'ft * ^L&cea of 
Man,' p. 373) ; liolesM, indeed, the Shepherd Kings introduced them. They 
doublleiis tame fmm Awa into Egypt ^ and Miough the Epfvptimis called a hor»e 
Hthnr {fifar), \\w\ used fop th« nmrf the Semitic name stU and cTren tuHm 
(with the femah> j-ign * t^ for mares), the same ad the pliirftl of t}ie Hebrew word 
0?!^ rfiij," (Sir G.Wilkinson, in Eawlimon'** •' Herodoliie/" vol. ii, p. 152, note). 




On the Mammalia of the Asst/rian Sculptureit, 53 

take to mean eonie steulthy beast of proy, and an enemy to 
the flocks. In the Arcadian column we liave as the equiva- 
lents uf the Assyrian nddhru the words V' ^fyf^ {»^J^) 
*'goocV' and QH ""E^tl ^""^ H {Uk-ka-ijab-a), whic'h pr»3. 
bably means ''the mouth-opLiiing dog''; then follows the 
Assyrian ^JJJ *-< \t^t. {cab-U-luv), from 753 "to tie" or 
"chain up,'' represented by the same Acoadian itk-ka^paft-a, 
I think that nddhru and mbM-luv both stand for some strong 
flog which was used botb as a ** watch-dng '* to guard the 
house, and as a shepherd's dog to guard the fliicks. The 
ulea embodied in the Assyrian and Aecatliaji words cab-bi-luv 
and ltk^ka-(ja!}^^ '' the chained-up month-opening dog,*' 
answers well to a house-dog ; eiioilarly the notion conveyed 
by the Assyrian and Accadian words nddhrn and ffe-ga^ '* the 
good protecting dog," is quite desrriptive at the same kind 
of dog when used as a sheefMrhig* The ordinary Assyrian 
word for "a dog" is py|J ^-^ (mWw), Hebrew 173; then 
in the list follow the words ^^^ £^TT 7^ {mi-ra-^tu)^ ^fc 
tur Accad., '* a young male dog"; >-^y t^]}] t:]] < <r)] ^]< 
ea-lab e-lam-ti, "dog of Elam " ; || ^ £^y| {J^ ^£ ca-lab 
pct-m-st^ " the swift dog/' or '* greyhound/' from 0?15, ** to 
spread out the feet"; jj J*- ^J\ cainb m(\ *' watt^r-dog " ; 
Yf ItlJ ^^TT *^"'^'' ur-tsi^ ^' of the earth/' perhaps some small 
burrow-entering dog ; JJ ^ >^ caiab stimas^ *« dog of the 
^BUOt"' in Acciadian mal-lik'^n-ud (see W.A J, 11, 49, 63a)» ** dog- 
etar**; then in lines 22 to 24 in the Accadian coliunn dogs 
of different colours are mentioned, as ^^]]} ^^n "grey/' 
[*^I^^^ "5^ n»A **red/* ^T ara, "yellow/' for which no 
Assyrian equivalents occur in the list ;* then follows B-] *^ 
Mu^mitj represented by i^ bal in the Accadian cohuim ; 
after this we have ^J^} *^^ "^ \^^ ^ cal-bn se-(jit, which 



* The 5th volume of R<Nx>rd»' of tlie Past, p. W9, coniums a I mnslatioD of 
Fftimtt coHa Ublei in tbo Brii. Mua., bj Mr. .Sayce, of a table of oineiis fiiriii8li<?ti 
\hj dogt 9S believed in bj the Babylonuins^ Dogs of vnrioiis colours are there 
raentioned, a« blue*, jellow^ black, white and spotted dogs. 



54 



Off the Mammalia of th^i . I .^j^i/riun Scu/ptures, 



M, Lenorraaut trauHlates '* decrepit " (•-< hat in the Accadian), 
and Dn DplitB7.ch "mad" (*' toller himd''); perhape an 
owuerless dog, or " one wandering about without a master " 
(fi'ora n^tt?, **to stray/' **to err,'' *' wander"), as DelitzschI 
also conjectures, is intended. lu the 27tli line we read 
^T*" ^ ////wi« in the Assyrian, and ^f^-JJ^^f ^'/<'f^ in the 
Accadiau columiij eaeh denntuig a " bad "or "savage'^ dog. 
Hunting dog8, or doge that hunt in packs, follow next. 
^iz^^] tsa-i^lu (Ueh, y^t *' prey taken in hunting"), 
represented by the Accadiau ]][*-T J^^ ]L^Of ^^^f^hf^f'- *' the 
dog that himts in a pack'*; next follows *^^U ^11? 
Ci^fT *^£T *^y^ cvW(f^ il-la-ti^ *'dog of power/' ^ from 
b^K - b^K and n^N '*to be tliick;* ^^strong," or "powerful/' 

perhaps the large kiiid of mastiff used m hon-hunting, &c. 
The Arcadian column is here broken, The scribe now 
in direct order gives the names of ^TTy *">^| >^T£ cal-ha- 
tm\ the femniine of calbu^ denoting any female dog; 
E^ <« 5^l£ m-es-tm « the wife-dog '' (rit!?^ = jm^2H)* 
Tf {^ J^I^ a-lid'tm '' the hringmg-forth dog '' (l?^) ; 
>^ >--^^ J J >^T£ mu-na-ifik-hn\ the female dog •'kissing'* 
or licking (its young ones) (p3J3) ; *^] ^TTIf ^I^ "^' 
dkir-tuVf the dog '* protecting " its young ones; na-dhif-iuv is 
the fem. part* from *^^y ^| ""^UI na-dha-ru p^2) *Ho pro- 
tectJ' It will be seen that the scribe has here kept to a 
natm-al and regular order, beginning with the ordinary name 
of the female ; ho represents her as being in a situation to 
become a mother, then as a mother, as a mother licking or 
fondling h( r puppies, and finally as guarding or protecting 
them. This being the case, I am inclined to tliink that all 
the words in columns A and B fi'om the 8th line to the end 
denote dotji propei\ and not otht;r dog-like animals ; thus the 
ca-kdi mee means ** a water-dog '' {canisi aquatiem) and not 
** a seal" or ** a beaver." By the calub Samas *' sun-dog/' 



' Ct Syll, AAsyr, Gram. No. 200; *' roml^" ar "expedition '* + '* taking" — 
"hunting/'— [A.H.8.] 



Oh the Miimmfilla of the Assyrian Sctdptureji, 5j 

iif aay real dog be in tenderly I tliiiik a dog fond of ** sun- 
ag** it«elf ie meruit, a hnbit common to rnoet dogs, wliicli 
are fond of baBking for a time in tbtj bottuet sun, and not 
Ike jackal {canit aureus) ; but perhapR the exprusfcsino is only 
Biro-mj'thologicid, as ilr. Sayce reminds me* The dog was 
by the AsByrians as a house-dog, as a protector of the 
oks against wild beasts, and in the chase ; but it is rather 
this latter capacity that we have direct evidence of its 
etnployiaeut, being thus represented in bas-relief on the 
monuments, and mentioned in the histoncal records. 

In the wiitingB of those classical authors of ancient 
Greece and Rome who have treated of dogs and field sports, 
lie canes renatici were divided into three divisions : — L The 
T^nifffiaces or bellicosi^ ** pugnacious dugs of war '' ; 2. The 
nar€ mgaces, '* keen-nosed scent-dogs*'; and 3. The pedihus 
cdrrts, or " swift-footed dogs *' that ran mi sujhl of the game. 
This triple division is alluded to by Gratius in verse : — 

** Canuni quibuB attdacia praeccpe, 
Venaiidique sat/a jc virCa^f viresque scf/uendi ** — 

(Hiilieut, 98.) 

and by Seneca in sober prose : '* In cane iagadias prima est 
fii investigare debet feras; curaus si consequi, amlada si 
inordere et invadere.'* (Ep. Ixxvi.) 

** In the dog sagacity is the most imporant quality if it has 
to pursue, boldness if it is reqmred to bite and attack." 

Whether the Assyiians ever employed large savage dogs 
in war, as some other ancient nations used to do, I am unable 
to say. "The people of Coloplion and Castabala/' says Pliny, 
'* kept ti'oopa of dogs for w^ar purposes, and these used to 
fight in the front rank and never retreat; they ware the most 
dlthful auxiliaries^ and yet demanded no payment.'* (Nat» 
'jjst. viii, tJL) The horsemen of Magnesia in the Ephesian 
war were accompanied to the battle-field each with a war- 
hound, the dogs in a body attacking the enemy, being backed 
now by the foot soltEers, now by the cavalry, auil thus 
rendering great assistance. iEHaUj who tells us of these 
letiaii war-hounds, also tells us a story of a certain dog 
^tTVcrpantlyTiv Kma) who rendered so great assistance to his 



56 



On the Mammalia of the AsMi/rian Scu/ptuvejs, 



master at the battle of Ma rat lion aR to be h<nioured mth an 
effigy on tlje same tablet with his lord. (De Nat, Aii„ vii, ♦i8.) 
The powerful dogs of the Assyrians were certainly capable 
of being need as war-dogs, but as to any Biieh actual 
eniploynient, tlie Assyrian records hifeherta, I believe, are 
silent. The dog figured in bas-relief on the sculptures was 
chiefly used in the chase of the wild bull (*^|y<y ^£ *^ 
ri-nu/, ideogrnphically t^^)> the lion, %vild ass, perhaps the 
wild boar, if this animal was limited by the Assyians, the 
bear, and other savage carnivores, whose capture required 
strength and courage* It was evidently a mastiff. The 
figures, as a rule, are adniirably depicted on the monnmeuts 
witb considerahle skill and artistic power. The Ass^Tian 
mastift^ was probably a breed allied to the Indian dog known 
to Alexander, mt-ntioned by Herodotus, Arit»tut]e, Xeiiophoii, 
Strabo, and other Greek wTiters, by Pliny and Solinua 
amongst the Latins, According to Aristotle (Hist. Antra. 
viii, 21 and 8) the belief prevalent in his time as to the 
Indian dog was that it was the prinluee of a female dog and 
a male tiger 1 >Elian (Nat. An., viii, 1) repeats tht.* story. If 
there is any trutli in the story /Elian tells of the Indian dog 
that seized a lion in the presence of Alexander, and sulFered 
first his tail to be cut ofl^^ thtjn the four legs, one after the 
other, then the head (which still retained hold of the lion !), 
these doge must have had tlie pertinacity of the British 
bull-dog. It is this Indian dog which is connected with the 
story Ctesias, Pollux, Strabo, and others tell us of the race 
of the Cymimolgi, a barbarous tribe in thti south of Etliiopia, 
who reared these great powerful dogs, which they used in 
the destruction of herds of wild cattle. From the summer 
to mid- winter these people are said to have fed tliemselvea 
and their huge dogs on this wdld beef; but the rest of the 
year they Hved on dog milk — hence their name— which they 
collected in a paii, and which they drmk, adds ^Elian, '' as 
we the milk of sheep antl goats." There is a figui-e in terra 
cotta of a large mastiff* in the British Museum, which 
resembles the flogs of Assurbanipars hunt, W'hose models 
in clay I will speak of by and by. This slab was fountl. 



I 




-1 



On the Mammalia of the Aagifrian Sculptures, 57 

1 beliei^e, at Nimroud, Hiirl 18 labellL-d tlie Thibetan dog. It is 
this breed, of which, dcnibtless, tliere were eeverul varietiee, 
which Oppian eeeme to refer to in the following words ; — 
•*But others are impetuoiiR, poRseRsed with staunch courage, 
such S.H will attack noblu wild bulls, and \^nll nisli upon and 
destroy savage wild boars, such as fear not strong (well-fed) 
lit^ns, their kings; tliej are of a large size like l*vfty hills, 
fiumewliat truncated in tlie nmz/k% and the space between 
Ibe eyebrows shakes with loose skin beneath ; their tiery 
eyee shine with bright-eyed vision, the wkiu is hairy, body 
Stroug, back broad; they are not swift, but have innuenee 
courage, marvellous strength, pluck and spirit unthuuited." 
(Oj'neget I, 413-23/) The general description suits the 
Thil)etiin mastiff tolerably well, while the mention of the 
Ading skin of the eyebrow is quite chamcteriHtic, * The 

FHgh mountain herd of Asia is said to be black, or very dark, 
partially tanned about the face and legs, but there appears 

|to have been a race of dogs allied to this niaHti(r-l>rettl, which 

fawn or ochi*e coloured, with a dark muzs^le like the 

aary British mastiff of the pn.'«ent day. Suchj perhaps, 

Fwaa the dog <3f the Assyrian monuments. It is the same 
or a closely allied breed as the Indian, Albanian, Iberian, 
mid Hyrcanian dr»g of clasHical authors, lur it is difficult to 
trace any real difference between thenu All thfsu countries 

* The mswtiff of Tliibet must be [»loctKl in tbe general diTifiion with the dogi 

of liidiA and ancieot A»»jriii, tltougli the pune bn;od coiiid not have boim uvcd 

bj ihe Ajijriftiu. Of tb^ niodi*rii gigantic moatiir of Thibet we have tlie 

fbUowing accouui : — *' These noble animalfl are the watch^dogs of the tabledand 

of ihe Ilimalaja tuountaiD& aboul Thibet. Their iiia^ter^, tbi^ Bhoteas, to whora 

tboy are most utrongljr attached, are a singular race, uf a ruddy copper colour, 

I Indicatmg the braciDg air which thcj breathe ; rathi-r lihortp but of an eieelh ut 

l4ivi osilion. Their clothing i» adttpt<?d to the cold climtito they inhabit, and 

[«oniiisU of fur and woollen eloth. The men till the ground and keep sheep, and 

•i ccTt&iii tea8on» come dowt] to trade, bringing tmrui, tincid and mn^k for flale. 

T^M^y •ometimtra penetrate as far aa Calcutta. On theee occaeiona the w^meD 

I remain at home with the dogi, and the encampment is watched by the latter, 

lirbieh liarc an almoi^t irreconcileable averflioo to Europcanu, and in general fly 

ferocioiuly at a white face. A warmer climate relaxes all their energien, and 

I lliej dwindle eren id the valley of NepaL" (English EncycL Nat. Hist, i, p. 750.) 

Ifipeuimeni were placed in tlie Zoological Gurden*, Regent's Piirk, by Dr. Walheh, 

■ •omeyeafi a^o, but they aoon died, Assyria, therefore, would dt^ubtlcis hate 

been too relaxing for the pure breed. 



58 



On the Mammalia of the Assi/rian Sculpturfis, 



are near tlie Gispiaii 8ea. Ac<-H>rilmg to Pliiiy (Nat. Hist, 
viii, 40) Alexander received mh a present fruin the king of 
Albania a dog, **inn8itatje magnitudinisr <jf unnaual Bize^ 
though the Roman historian does not tell us where the dog 
came from ; most probably it would be from Albania, whose 
doge were celebrated. Strabo, speaking of the excellent 
qualities of the Albanian dogs, cbUb Alexanders dog an 
Lidiaii one, pL*rlmps Imlia being the coxnitry ii*om which this 
powerful race of mastiff originally came. It was this breed 
of dog which Marco Polo noticed atid described as nearly 
the size of asses. In his time (lf3th century A.D.) they 
w^ore used in capture of certain wild cattle. The Assyrian 
sculptures represent this powerful mastifl*, either as a lime- 
huund, !e<l with a cord rt>und the neck by an attendant, or as 
huntiug in a pack. On one of the marble slabs in the British 
Museum there is a representation of a number of these dogs 
pulling down a vn\d aes. Unless the wild ass hail lieen 
pre^aously wounded these dogs could stddoni liave been able 
to catch one of the swiftest of quackupeds, the w^ild ass. 
These dogs would run claefly by sight, nut possessing a very 
acute sense of smell, though^ doubtless, they used their 
noses in tracking out wounded game in the forests. From 
an inscription on one of the five clay models of dogs 
belonging to Assurbanipars hunting kennel, found at 
Ko}mujik, and now^ in the British Museum, tliere is reason 
to conclude that the pack did not always run mute. The 
inscription runs thus : — 



e -par tal - lie e - bu- us napakha 

dust of {hi^} going^ making 



a Jtoise 



(HOD to bark), t>r, as we should say in modem sporting 
phrase, ''giving tongue.'' The tirst part of the inscription 
gives us quite a pictiu'o of one of these large nniscidar 
mastifis, scattering the sand and dust in his impetuous 
course. 



On the Mamtnulia of the Attitifrtau Sfmlpturett, 



59 



The inscriptions on the other fimr dogs are as follows : — 

ran - se - tsu - u linimte 

cattsifH} to come fot'th cinl 

(3,) ^yi _y .yy<y ^.y ^y 

(la - au ri - its - sn 

judif^ of his rututimf, 

{VTi)^ or the syllable py f#j», in the second word may be read 
f, and the whole word be referred tu the Hul>rew word 
^&ry *' to rage tnmultuously." ^* tci be wrathful " ; the 
mscription would tlien mean ** judge of his wrath," but 
the other reading seems preferable, the idea implied being 
perhaps thai of a cunning runner, as we say in the coui^ing 
field, " rw/inim/ sly,'* 



(4.) -v^ 



ga - ri su 



mu - na - ei - cu 
biting his 

(5.) ^^H ^Jn !f Tf t^ 



enfmi€S> 



ca - sid 
capttirhiij 



ai - bi 
enemies^ 



These names doubtless were int tended to express the 
character of the dogs rather than their actual names, for 
though casid^aibi would give a good ringing Round in the 
hunting-field, and -vvould probably be recognised l>y the dog 
who owned such a name, epav'taUk^huHs napukha would 
have been both unintelligible to the dog and too much of a 
mouth ftd for the huntHmau. This eustum of naming dogs, 
whether by way of describing their qualitieH or by actually 
oonferring the names, was practised amongst the Egyptians 
also, and I need only refer to a veiy interesting paper on the 
dogs figured on the tablet of Anteftm 11, read l>eti>re this 
Society by our excellent and learned President, Dr. Birch, 
and printed in Port T of the 4th Vol of the Transactions. 



60 




On the Mammnlia of the A^fspian Sculptures 



The third dog liiarked C <m that taVilet is certainly a iiuistiflf, 
and bears a Btroug resembhiiice to the dogs of the Aesyriuu 
ficulptiiree, wliich probably came originally from India, as has I 
been eaid. The colour of thv Egyptian dog was* Dr. Birch 
tells U8, probably *' black," ai* indicated by the word ** kumu^'' 
The coloinrs of ancient doge, as of modem ones, were various, 
and doubtless so were the tastes of the different sportsmen. 
Oppian exprewRly condemns black dogs and white ones: 

'^potat S' apyevvai re Katcal p^dXa^ Kutiveal re— 

(Cynfg. I, 426.) 

as being ** altogether bad,'* because they cannot well bear 
the heat of the sun nor the severity of a snowy winter. He 
thinks those coloiirs of the dogs to be best which most 
closely resemble the wild beasts tht-y chase, as the tawny 
wolf, the tiger, the fox and the swift pard, the prevailing 
colour of wliicli is buff or t^wny. That this Avas Oppiaii's 
favourite colour is clear fixnu the following lines : — 

t} oirotroi BT^fii^Tptr TraveuceXov ithos e^ovai 
atro^poor pLaXa yap re &ool fcparepoi re weKovrai, 

'*Sucli as bear a strong resemblance to corn, of the colom* of 
ripe wheat," a coloin' tliat suits modern English mastiffs. 

Of the nare sagaces, the dogs that run onl^ hy 9C€nt^ the 
Assyrian mommients hitherto fm-uish ns with no direct 
instances, though such dogs were probably known to the 
people. The calitb elamti, dog of Elam^ is (as we have seen) 
mentioned in a bilingual list, but I have not been able to make 
out this dog. Pollux (Onomasticon, v. 37) mentions Elymsean 
dogs amongst yevpaiot kvp€^, and says they were used by a 
nation situated between Bactria and Hjrcania, but tells us 
nothing more. If, however, what he tells us about Elymaean 
hares, which he calls ^oir-^iai, is correct, that they leave a 
most strong scent in their track, so as almost to madden the 
dogs, it is not improbable that the Elymeean dog ran by scent 
rather than by night. 

I pass on, therefore, to the pedibm celer^s^ those dogs of 
the chase who run onlt/ on slf^kl of their game, such as grey- 
hounds. That cuurmng i r liuuting Lares with greyhounds 




\ 



On the Mammalin of thf Assyrian Sculptur^fn* Gl 

practieed by the As^rriane, is ehown by a represeutation 
on a bronze dish found at Niinroiii now in the British 
Hiiseam* The greyhonnd^ of antt^iuty cmild scarcely have 
been «o purely bred as those whieli in this eountry run for 
the Waterloo Cup. especially in difitricts inuch overgrown 
with woodst w^here pnre bred dugs — running only by sight — 
could not keep the game in view. Hence the writers on 
cynegeticfi amungst the Greeks and Ronians reci»tniucnd 
crossing with other breeds. Nevertheless, the greyhounda 
figured on the riin of the bronze ditsh in the British Museum 
indicate a good breed. A iiilly couutiy is also unfavourable 
to coursing, where tlie greyhound woidd often lose sight of 
the bare. Its general structure, the comparative absence of 
the sense of sraelL, the large prominent €*yes^ all show the 
greyhoimd was intended for swift ninnhig on the open 
plains, and there, doubtless, it was used by the AsiRyriuns 
of the Mesopotamian district* Indeed, some naturalists have 
derived the greyhound from an Asiatic home, ** somewhere 
to the westward of the great Asiatic mountaiu chains, where 
the easternmost Bactrinn and Persian plains commence, and 
where the steppes of the Scythie uations spread towards the 
nortb." ** When we look to the present proofi* of tliis eon- 

I elusion " — I am qtioting the late Lieut.-Col, Hamilton Smith, 
ft veiy good authority both on dogs and horses — ** and 
iisfiume that where the largest and most energetic breeds of 

Ltbe race exist, there may we look fiir tlieir original habita- 
tion, we then find, to the east of the Indus, the Xk^ry large 
greyhounds of the Deccan, to the west of it the powerful 
Persian breed ; and to the north of the Oispiaii the great 
rough grej^hound of Tartaiy and Russia ; and thence we 
maj* infer that they were carried by the migrating colonies 

keetward acn»fis the HelleBi>ont» and by earlier Celtic and 
ter Teutonic triljcs ahtng the levels of Northeru Genua ny, 
as far as Britain. The primaeval movement of the lirst in- 
habitants of tlie Lower Nile may be conjectured similarly to 
have brought this race ah>ng with them ; and all may have 
done so w^hen it was ah*cady in part domesticated." (Nat. 
Libr«, vob x ; Dogs, p. 1*>3). 

It would appear that the Assyrian monarchs occasionally 





62 Oh the Afitmmulia of the Ass if nan Sculptures. 

kept chamecl up in confinement some of their niost inveterate 
enemies togetlier with dogs and other t!;irnivorun« linirnala. 
Vaiteh king of Arabia was served in this way by Aestip- 
bampal. '* To satisfy the law of Assiir and the great gods 
my lords, a heavy jiidp^ment took him, and in cliains I phiced 
liini, and with a-h* Q]| ^]]) '^^^^^ ^'^^^'^ (ItJ IeJ) ^ l>^»und 
him, and cansed him to be kept in the great gate in the 
midst of Nineveh.*' (Smiths Assurhanipal, p, 2^M.) 
Similarly Esarhaddou treated some of liis prisoners whom 
he liad brought to Nineveh. *' In front of the great 
entrance gate of Nineveh (W.AJ, I, pi* xK% col. 2, lines 
4 and 5» and Reeords of the Past, vol. iii, p, 113) :— 

it - ti a - 6i calbi dabi 

together trlth a -it thtjit and bears 

[/ kfi them to atai/ for ei'enl 

What animals these a^ii denote I do not know, but I do not 
think the word can be identical with tlie Accadian am-ii 
( = "ox + homed"), as conjectureil by I>n Dflitzscli, the 
undoul>ted reiirusentative of the Assyrian rtmu, becanse 
these same a-ii are mentirmed tugtjther with ant^ii (*'wild 
bulls ^') on the liroken obelisk as creatures kiUed in a hunting 
expedition. Now, were these animals vntli which persons 
were chained living creaturee or only stone images or repre- 
sentations? for in the campaigns of Assurbaidpal we read, 
** the rest of the pcupk' alive among the stone lions and bulls 
wdiich Sennacherib had throwm (*- >-»-| *tryyi-<^ *-*-T ^yTJ 
s€(fi alajn) again I in tliat pit those men in the midst threw/' 

(p. inn.) 

Ctttft. — I do not find any evidence to lead us to believe 
that the domestic cat was known to the Assyrians ; there is, 
indeed, no t) prltrrt reason againist the supposition that the 
cat was domesticated by the ancient inliabitauts of lleso- 
potamia ; on the contrary, at first sight, the reasons would 
rather seem to lie in lavotn^ of the idea. The cat was in 
early times domesticated by the Egyptians, and when we 
consider how» at different times, mtercuurse existed between 



^ ^ *! » » 



On the Afammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 



G3 



t 
fmm 



ariR and EpcyptiaiiH, and how the foriiier jjeople 
tsure Ln introducing into their own eapitale aninial« 
other coiintriefi, the intrcxkiction of the domestic cat 
V ' ' tym to be qnitf- probable. Dr. F. Deh'tZBcIi, ^nthotit 
1j ri, conchides that the domeetitr cot ir<iJi Icntjwn to the 

Ait^yiiana and that the names uf fmtinu and ^imnamu, which 
I take to be Borae mild fehne, represent the tamf animab 
To the names of cats," he writes^ ** follow immediately 
of doge ; dog and cat, holding a sort of war-footing 
m onr household lift*, occupy the eaine position to each 
other on the monuments of the Assyrian king Aasurbanipal 
(AmTische Studien, Thiernamen, p, 33). There is no 
representation of the cut on the sculptures* neither is there 
any allusion to it in the Records, but we must not lay too 
uch stress on negative evidence. That the Assyrians 
ionally received animals from Egypt we have direct 
fdence in the inscription on the broken obelisk of Sardana- 
palus now in the Britisli JIuHcnm, "a great crocodile scaled 
[homed] beast of the river, animals of the great sea, the 
ing of Egypt c^insed to be lirought.'' On wliat grounds, 
ihen, it may be asked, do I tliink that the domestic cat M^as 
nukiiowTi to the Assyrians? If we regard the domestic 
Jiimal i>f ancient Eg^'jjt to be tht^ origin of the animal now 
iversally doujesticated, we find that its introductiun into 
some other conntries did not take place in early times. To 
the ancient Greeks and Romans, fiir instance, the domesti- 
cated cat was altogether unknown as an animal kept by 
them. It is a soothing reflection that the brain-workers of 
classical antiquity, as they sat up late, burning midnight oil, 
^ere never diBtiirl>ed liy the hideous (jaturwaulings of tlie 
domestic cat. No noisy tabbies nttered their piercing 
fibriekB on the tiles of the honse-tops when VirgU and 
Horace composed, or when r>emosthenes and (^cero got up 
their cases for the public asscnddy or the Foruin. 

Dr. Rolleston, who a few years ago wrote a very full and 
interesting paper on the fefin thuie^ticfi^, says:— "I see no 
reason for supposing that the domestic cat was kept as a 
tame animal in any other coinitiy than Egypt l>efare the 
Christian era/* The ft^lw and dtXo po^ of classical authors 



64 



On ihe Maritmalia of the Assj/rian Sculpiure». 



was tlie white-breaflted marten (Mmtela foina), whicli the 
ancients used as tlieir niouse-killcr as we the domegtic cat. 
At what thne the cat was introduced into Europe fi^om 
Egypt it would not be an easy matter to determine with any 
degree of certaiuty. Professor Roll est on hns sho\ATi that 
the dorneBtic cat was in use in Constantinople al>out the 
middle of the fourth eeutnry. On referring to Ducange, 
S. V. mtta, I find a cert4iin writer of the Life of Gregory 
of Nazianxieji {cira A.D. 3<>0), sajmig:^ — ''Nihil in mundo 
pofisidebat pva^ter nnam cattam, quam blandiens creho, quasi 
cohabitutriceni in snis grenois ref^vebat," *' He liad nothing 
in the wxirld Ijiit one eat, wliicli he used to caress and nurse 
in his lap as a fellow inhabitant of the house." The domestic 
cat was known in Italy al^out tlie same tirai3, for Palladius 
reeom mends bijtli cntoft and miMtlait jnansuet^is (ferrets) as 
nsefu] atiimals against moles. I believe that eats of modem 
days mil not toueli a mole. When we consider, then, the 
late introduction of the domestic eat from Eg^^t into Europe, 
one is led to conjecture that the ancient Egyptians, who 
paid so much attention to these animaki and whose religious 
scruples were Yorj strong, were averse to the exportation of 
one of their most favourite animals on these grounds. Tliey 
cherished the eat alive ; they buried and embalmed it at 
Bupastis and other places when dead. I tliink it, therefore, 
improbable tliat the domestic cat was ever employed by 
the ancient inhabitatits of Assyria. 

NoTK. — I mufttnot eoacliide this paper without ftcknowledging mj obligationt 
indirectlj to Dr. D^Ulzfwb for llie useful work lie lioa published on the Aesjrijin 
artimali of the iiionuTiK'-ntfl. Of eoursei his boiik haa been cotietaiulr before me, 
and I Ijrto found it verj u-^t^ful, tiiough [ do not always agret? with his conclu- 
fiotm. To mj friund Mr. SajfiL* I aui dinectlj indebted ; not only has he been 
most kind and prompt in answering qn.gtions, but he has aleo rt'ad OTer the 
whole of my Mii. and inserted pencil notes and suggcations when required. 
Mr. Sajce'a readiness to assist students of Assyrian is well known to most here ; 
tliiit rt'ndinea* is sur|ift8sed by nothing except it be by his accurat-e cind extra- 
ordinary knowledge and iibQit/. 



65 



KEY TO THE GENEALOGIOAL TABLE OF THE FIRST 
PATRIARCHS IN GENESIS, 

Artd the Chronohffjf of the Septtiagint 

By Victor Rtdbero. 

fnm L. L, H, Combertigue's French MS, Translation of the oriffinal 
Swedish Brochure and Notes, Btf S. M, DracK 

Smd Ui Febrmtry, 1876. 

Abstract, — Introduction. 

The epoch of king Solomon coramences regular regal 
annalB of the Hebrews; before which, unsatisfactory round 
numbers obtain, as this people were between the two gi-eat 
empires of Egypt and Aaflyria. Berosus says Babylon had 
ix>gal anuals 1,000 years before Solomon [1]. Inspii-ed by 
David's victorieB and Ids son's splendour, the Jews desired 
a genealogical tx*ee [2], wherein they interwove the legends 
of their Babylonian-Shemite kindred races [3], [4], [5], 
Jewish monotheism induced the inquuy of the origin of 
^various races and tongues, and would have led to the height of 
Greek civilization were it not for wars. The daily increasing 
Taltiable relic of the national table m Gen, x [G], showed there 
waa a wish to ascend to the cradle of manldnd, and their 
first appearance on earth. In Egypt, the Sothiao cycles [7] 
first presented celestial dynasties (up to llenes) ; in Babylon 
there were astronomically regal annals before the Deluge : 
to which latter the Jews easily linked themselves, connecting 
primitive Eden [8] with Ararat. Were not the town-building 
Kainan, the man of God Enoch, the warrior Lamech, sur- 
%nvors of the first pre-historic age, specimens of hmnan 
gesiins ? and the stars still revolving over our heads formed 
the epochal pegs {jalom) to moasiixc intervals* Judicial 



(Ill /T-^i/ to I he i hmealogirfd JaMc of the Ftj'St Patriurch^^ 



astrology was originally the regularity in the heavens 
applied to a di^nne regularity of reclining principal events 
in human general history, the details of individual ca^ualtiee 
being obliterated. Suoh, as \e revealed by the Book of 
Daniel [0], was the influence of the Memphis School for con- 
necting terrene history with star-cycles; and as the sages 
did not note a chance-medley set of numbers [10], there was 
possibly an astronomical reason (Philo and Josephus's riddles 
are needless) [11], for those we find in Gen. v^ etc. [12], 
The Seventy must [13] have known these numbers were 
much posterior to the lives of Patriarchs recorded ; and 
their alteration thereof proves they had better inteUigence, 
and must therefore have had some key to this table. This 
valuable clue was attempted by Bmisen in his *' Complete 
Bible Work and Egypt's Place in Universal History/' but 
who rejected the simple at-hand one* We keep to the 
Hebrew text as the original. 




IL — The Old Patrlirchs' Numbers of Gex. v. [U, 15]. 





EzBBKw Twxn. 


&l1f*BITA«< 


SirttTAOlSIT. 


AntCilllQviiui 




















PfttriMx'hj. 


Ag«&t 
flntborn 


Brat 

ait 
life. 


Total 


Age At 

fincburti 
blrtJi. 


Beit 

of 

life. 


Life. 


Age at 1 

firaiborn 

tlrtli. 


Beet 

of 

Ufc. 


TotaJ 
Life. 


Adam 


130 


600 


mo 


130 ' 


800 


930 


230 


730 


930 


Se^th.. 


105 


807 


912 


105 


807 


913 


205 


707 


913 


Enofl 


90 


815 


905 


90 


815 


905 


190 


715 


905 


CuiQan 


70 


840 


910 


70 


840 


910 


170 


7-iO 


910 




as 


830 


895 


65 


830 


895 


165 


730 


895 


Jii^ 


162 


800 


962 


63 


785 


847 


162 


800 


963 


KdhcIi 


G5 


300 


3(»5 


65 


300 


36S 


165 


200 


365 


MetliuMljih. , 


1 187 


782 


969 


67 


653 


720 


fl67tf 
tl87 


802a 
782 


I 960 


Lamech 


182 


695 


777 


53 


600 


653 


168 


565 


753 


Noali 


500 


450 


950 


500 


450 


950 


500 


450 


950 


To Deluge *. 


100 












f3242rt 
12262 


I Tar. 




Adam to 1 
Deluge J 


1656 


' •' 


1307 


•• 


cod«x. 



I 




TTBOa 



Ke}f to the Gmmlogical TabU of the First I^triarchg, iH 

ni*^— Bunsek's ATTorPTs AT Key of these Numbers. 

Btiii8cn*8 VoUstand. BibeL, v, 311, and Egypteris S telle 
111 Weltgesch., v, 27G-282 ; cf. iv, 310 seq. (TIii« is English 
edition, iv, pp, 398-401.— S. M. D.% says from N. Fr^ret [18], 
that the Hebrew text was the oldest, as nhown by Babylonian 
and Chinese legends. Dividing the list into (a.) Reign of 
Setli (ancient Semitic god) [li)], 912 years = divine category; 
(i,) Adam, 930, and Enosh, 905» together 1835 years. 

The second epoch, Kainan to Lamech, 910 4- .,777«: 
4«78, em of Deluge, Nuah aet 600 [20]. Fi-eret found 60 
solar years == T42 months = 00 x 12 + 22 intercalary 
montlis [16], In lunar years, GOO x ^ = 61H|- =i a third (»f 
1855 [17]. 

In 4878 we have 7 complete world-years + 550, or 8 
world-years — 50 [21, 22, 23]. This 50 is contained in the 
330 post'-dil avian years of Noah, whence 4928* Sh-thuaaleh's 
death, 1*69, is Deluge-date, possibly a wilful change. 8amn- 
Titan, 720, gives 299 or 300 years [24] ; also suppoHe 
1019 = 969 + 50, six ante-Noali eras, begin with Cainan, 
the first emigrant town-builder [25, 26, 27]. Omit Seth, 
meaning the first idea of man resting hi God [2S], we find 
1835 for the other two, only 20 less than 1855, thrice 618,1^ [32]. 
Perhaps Enos was 925 : change denary digit, results not quite 
reliable [29], So far Buneen, 



IV, — Conditions of Problem before us. 

We do not agi-ee with Bimsen's methods, dislocating Seth 
and altering other numbers. The present Hebrew text was 
known to Ezra and Nehemiah. The conditions we lay down 



!• Use tables without change or exception, else arbitrary 
retralts [30, 31]. 

2. The two numbers since intercalated must be rejected 
firom the calculation, 

3. Age column at son's birth is primitive text-measure of 
pre-historic time from Creation to Deluge, and must be taken 
in the sense of the text ; unit of time fixed for that age of 
the world. (Here Bimsen and others have been arbitrary.) 



68 Key to the Genealogical Table of the Fast Patriarchf, 

4. Group the mimberR m the order of the names; not dis- 
locate Seth, a8 Bunsen did, to form a combined world-year. 

5. Last and not leaBtjthe sol vet is only in the right path when 
he doee not float between approximations of tabular numbers 
and astronomical cycles or chronological fa etB, No defect or 
excess allowed* Better tliis stringent condition for secui'ity. 

v.— PRBOTrv^ Form of Old Patrlirgh Table, 

A detailed Elohistic and Jehovistic Essay out of place ; 
vide author's Jehovnstic development^ etc, in Ms ** Jehovah- 
worship amongst Hebrews in ante-Babylon Capti^nty period," 
Also Dr* Bergstedt's in Litteratur Tid^krifteu ** olika soelt • , ,*' 
(Different ways of reading the Bible). Doubtless these 
retouchings hamionized with the prophetic doctrines, trying 
to obliterate polythtasm and idolatry^: e.r, rjfr. Seth : The 
Patriarchs' ttmis had idols [33 to 38] : Israel in the desert, 
Gideon, David's house : the descendants of Moses officiated 
at an altar to Jehovah, imaged as a bull (taurns). Solomon, 
and most of his Judah-king successors, were idolaters. Seth 
is one of the first names in divine history (Babylon, Palestine, 
Egyptt brother of Osiris), first god of hfe, afterwards of 
death; name*father to Sethos^ founder XlXth Dynasty, At 
Jewish Exodus his worship was at its higliest splendour. (Cf. 
Amos V, 2i} and Acts vii, 43) [39, 40]. Probably they adored . 
it as a star; carried this into the desert (Remphan, Paipiw\ 
perhaps Saturn, or Typhon. (See Plutarch de Iside, cap. 
xhx, 62, derived from Manetho*) When hostile to Eg}T>t, 
Seth became Typhon ; when friendly, restored to heav^enly 
rights. (PL de Iside, 31). Seth, says the myth, leaves Egj^)t 
on a grey donkey wnth Egypt's foes, rests every seventh day, 
aftenvards begetting his two sons Palestinus and Judeus. 
Note when the ancient hook of Job describes God's power 
in creation, he adduces the crocodile and river-horse, animals 
consecrated byEgj-ptians to Seth. (PI. ch. 50.) [41]. As with 
all dethroned deities, they do not suddenly disappear, but 
lade as past human heroes. The Greek Euhemeus reduced 
all the gods to tliis pristine state. Odin and Frey descend 
from governing Walhalla to that of Upland. Seth was found 
by one Ilebrew inquirer as father of Enosh when he created 



JTey to the Gmecdogkal Table of the First Patriarchs. 69 

tLe first man, and also in a neigbbouringr genealogy to which 
he did not pertain, eo that thiB introduction raised the seven 
antediluvian members to nine. Euos (Aram,) or Ish (Ueb.) 
the common word for man, Enos occupying in one 
Fgenealogy the same place as Adara [42], This double filia- 
tion in ch, iv and v is here given. 



CIl it.— Jehovistic Traditiok, 

Admn Jvtxd 

Seth— Abel Methuael 

Enos MetliUi^heel 

CauQ Lemech 
Kn*3cli 



Ch. v.— Elohistic TRAOrriou, 

Adam Jered 

Seth Enoch 

Euos MeUnisaleh 

Kenan Lamech 
Malialeul 



A glance at these two lists shows they were originally 

identical [43]* Bunsen and others think these Usts begin 

yirith different divine names, and of the first man, but after- 

irda they coincide. 

Seth. = GOD ^ ELOHm. 

Creatures- 



1 


£do8 


2 


CaiD 


3 


Enoch 


4 


Tnui 


5 


Mehujael 


6 


Methusael 


7 


Lamecli 



AdMQ 

Mahakled 

Jamd 

Eiiocli 

Metliiiaelali 

Lamech 



Of these two lists the Elohistic one only has a chronology ; 
re abide by that in this primitive table of the Old Patriarchs* 



Ant^dilaTi&ii Fatriorctu. 



Adian «.,. 
CaiiuLEi 
M&haleel 
Jared , 

Enoch .,.. .». 
Methuaateh „.. 
Lamech 

Koah to Beluge.. 



Age At next 
Member't birtb. 



130 
70 
65 

162 
65 

187 

182 



861 
6(KJ 



1461 



B«it of Lir«. 



80O 
840 
830 

am 
3on 

782 
595 



4947 



4947 



tolft] Ltfe. 



9m 

910 
695 
962 
365 
909 
777 



5808 
600 



6408 



The key of the enigma depends on the solution of these 
three totals* 



70 KeAf to the Genmlogical Tables of the First Patriarcki* 



VL — Number 1461 of Sothiac Cycle. 



This number, in the first cohimn of laet table, coincideB 
with the Egj^tian number of years of the Sotliiac cycle; 
their piieets had remarked that this brilliant star (or Sinus) 
retm'iied ahnost eveiy year [44], combating the early dawn 
thousands of years ago as it does now about the summer 
solstice, and coincident with the rise of the beneficent Nile 
inimdation [45]. When the roaring waters descended the 
cataracts [46], the huBbandmen forsook their drowned fields 
for the elevated temple sites and the religious fetes. 
Natui^ally this star-messenger was consecrated to Isis. The 
priests observed in reference to then- vague year of 365 days 
(which succeeded the primitive one of 360 days, without inter- 
calary months or days), and was introduced circa 3300 B.C* 
[47 and 48], a year in vigour even under the Ptolemies. But 
the priests observing the yearly retardation by a quarter of 
a day of the summer solstice, or one day in four years, or 
365 days in 14(>0 years, proposed the Sothiac cycle of 1461 
vague years, equal to 1460 Sothaic (modern Julian years). 
This discoveiy of the tropical solar year of 365^ days was 
doubtless posterior to the vague one of 365 days [49], Instead 
of a quadrennial intercalation, the priests (detesting changes 
not urgently wanted) kept to the okl vague year, as it was 
enough to laiow the length of the tropical year, and adjust 
the religion* astronomy, chronology, and meteorology to it. 
The sepulchral pyramid-in scriptioiiH of the earliest dynasties 
e\ndence the knowledge of the tropical year and its hiero- 
glyphic sign [50]. The new tropical year had a special fete 
(v. Vellt'ius Valeiis, Porphjiy, Scholiast on Aratus), when 
SSothis, ** queen of the liew year," appeared at dawn, jmd the 
Nile rose. Tropic and ci^dl years were used simultaneously. 
Every Pharaoh at his accession had to swear solemnly to tlie 
priests that he would keep back intercalations, and stick to 
the 365-dny year of his ancestors. Hence after every Sothiac 
period two new-year days coincided. Lepsius showed the 
advant<ige of tliis system (Zeitsch. f. ji^jg^^t. Spr. n. Alter. 
1869, p. 78). Egypt's vague year was superior to the Greek 
and cither nations' concordances, simple proportion indicathig 



Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarctie, 71 



nai 
Kita 



the relative poaitions in the two years ; referred to SotliiB, it 
80 certified the base of astronomical computations, that the 
greatest Greek writers used this vague year when especially 
exact. The intercalary days were introduced bnly under 
Euergetes L in the civil year, now revealed by the Decree of 
Canopufi, viz., *'for the purpose that the seasons might 
perform their duties in the aotual arrangement of the uui- 
vt'ii?e : that the advance of Sothiw should not make winter 
ietes to be celebrated in summer [51], and summer fetes in 
winter, as did formerly happen in the SGfVday year, increased 
by those (epagomeooiis 5) which custom had added." As 
regards the mystical value of this Sothiac period, Porphyry 
cites the tradition of tlie Creation beginning with it. Many 
annals and dynasties began with iU Pre-historic ones, with 
ruling gods and demigods over fortunate generations now 
in oblivion. Even after Menea* authentic rei^u, this 14G1 
cycle was used ; recalling the original idea of a divine rule 
in history when received at a distance. As each individual 
had a natal star, whose position intlicated, if it did not 
oonti-ol, his fate, so did Sothis, presiding at the birth of the 
worlds foreteU by its cycle t!ie epochs of great tivents in 
national life, for blessing or curse, making the Egyjitians ft^ar 
advent [52 and 53], Year 1322 B.C. (AmeMopliis or 

emphres being king) ended this cycle. We think with 

Lieblein, that the mental anxiety and epidemics in Egypt 

y» Manetlio) had decided for the Hebrew Exodus. Lepsius, 

unsen^ and Lieblein agree the Exodus was ''in the year of 
God," or close to it* Year 1461 was thus called, as formed 
of the i-day excesses. As the star-rieiug indicated the 
inundation, it led to the idea that in case of merited punish- 
ment Sothis in his last year woidd bring an overflow causing 
curses and death, instead of prosperity to a chosen people. 
Thus the abo\e Patriarchal Chronology nieasiues the interv^al 
between Creaticm and the great Deluge-recordj jireserved 
by Hebrew and Babylonian legends [54], 

VII. — Number 4947 of Gre.vt Lunar Cycle. 

As to this second Patriarchal total, Bunsen says that Freret 
in his Dissertation ou Chinese Chronology showed tlie most 



72 Key to ilie Genealogical Table of the First Patriarehg^ 



ancient known formula of the Tiu'anian nations, employed 
by them to explain the diflferent measures of solar and Imiar 
revolutions, was ** 600 tropical yeai's equal 618 lunar years 
and 4 months (eynodic-al), or 7420 ^ynodical months" [55, 56]* 
Babylon therefore introdnced this cycle, called NER ; but 
even this was not near enough for the more accurate Chal- 
dean observera ; tnie value is nearer 018-,^, or 7421 synodic 
months ; correct said formula from 4 months and 742(*, to 4| 
montlis and 7420^ as a cycle. Now a cycle is to transfer a 
certain niunber of units to another exact number of units 
of another kind, therefore they took as many XERS as 
Patriarchs, say euflU^ and found 8 x 7420^ = SIV^'^-^ months 
= 12 X (4947 lunar years) [57]. Hence this 4947 is the 
gient lunar cycle in civil life, perhaps originating the Hebrew 
Jubiiee [58]. Add to each fiftieth lunar year one day inter- 
calary, the error is hardly a day in 600 years. 

Vn,— NmiBER 6408, or Age of the World. 

This third number is the stun of 1461 (Sothiac) + 4947 
(lunar cycle), though it may have a special reason. The 
archaic legends of the foiu* ages uf the world forming 
together the Platonic year [59, 60, (31], or gi-eat world-year, 
wherein the Sun passes, owing to precession, through the 
entire Zodiac. As Niebuhr thought to find this workbyear 
in the historical cycles of Babylon, it may be used here. 
Even present astronomy must be struck that 6408 x 4 = 
25,632 years, gives 50" annual precession [62]< Hence we 
know why 1461, 4947, 6408 are preserved in the Patriarchal 
table. Sufficient for general use, 1460-1 reminded one of 
865^day years, when equinoxes and solstices fell on fete days 
dependent thereon, and hence position of year in Sothiac 
cycle [03]. The 4800-4947 facilitated new-moon calculations, 
and per Sothiac cycle, the same in the vague year. When 
observation gave a departure puint to the world -year, it 
gave the exact poBitiou of the Sun m the Zodiac for past and 
future time. 

The Sothiac genealogical column is really the only vahi- 
able Hebrew one ; the other two may he a play of numbers^ 
Ori*^ntal fasliion, as their offspring the Oabalju which sup- 



I 



I 

I 



Key t<f the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs, 73 



secrete in the numerical values of the letters of the 
Patriarchs* names [64]. 

tX.— Thk Nujibeh of Henoch (*Eno€h), 365. 

Is there a special reason for 65 + 30O ? As hm name is 
the ** consecrated one,** it may allude to the introducer of a 
Dew astronoraical period. It led the scribes (Babylon Capti- 
Tity — Birth of Clnist) to an astronomical origin thereof. The 
countless Enoch legends produced, 150 B-O., the apocalyptic 
Book of Enoch, which makes him an angel-taught astronomer, 
knowing all alxnit celestial mechanics. Bimsun*s idea(BibeI- 
werk^ V, 308) is a personified astronomy, and the ratios of 
eolar to lunar years were attributed to him. This we can 
Dnfirm by an old Egyjitian chronological problem, coincident 
ith the Patriarch table. But first we must fix the date of 
Enoch's existence. Since the introduction of Seth and Enos 
in the table, which probably occurred about Kiug Josiah*s 
time, the primitive table may bo considered higlily archaic, 
when the real date of the Hebrew Exodus [65] was still re- 
membered, coinciding with and not-easily-forgotten Sothiac 
period. The great change in the Hebrew chronolog}% temp. 
Solomon, in the text and tlie LXX, arose from wishing the 
Hebrews to participate in the Hyksos* (Shepherd-kings of 
Palestine) i-ule ever Egypt, placmg the servitude and Exudiis 
>f the one with the expulsion of the other. With 1322 B.O. 
to start with, w^e get tliis clii'onology to time of Enoch. 
Premisiag that the importance of numbers here is not 
historical, bnt in the deduced idea w^hat was then considered 
of this linkage, 

Houuc Exodiu to Jacob's Entrj in 

Egypt 

To Abraham's enliy to CannAn 
Patrinrchft to Shem 

Shem, lOO, Noah, 600 

LamecU 182, MethuBelah 187, Enocli 65 

Tteoch MS. makes 2144, but tius 

Shem had originally 100 or 102 in Hebrew, Babylonian, 
Egyptian registers, else only 2 years are excluded ; but 10(», 



430 yeura 


Dracli 430 


21 „ 


(sic) 215 


36 „ 1 


(sic) 365 


700 „ 


700 


434 „ 


434 


1621 „ 


true 214'i 



74 Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs, 

else Noali wae thought too old at 6(>0 to procreate, when 
others were lathers from Bit. 52 to 65 [(57]. 

2144 + 1322^3466 (34G5 Julian) B,C. [66] Euoch lived 
B.C. 3465 to B-0. 310l\ mean B.C. 3282-3. Buosea tells us oi 
this date's importance in Egyptian chronology (Egypt^s 
Place, iv, p, 412, ex German, Cottereh) in these words: — 
** The learned generally believed [now certain fi'om Decree 
of Canopue] that before Augustus (really Euergetes I) Egyp- 
tian calendars had nomterualary year or months; their vague 
year gradually peneti-ated deeper into tropic year. Eratos- 
thenes [08], 2(M1 years before AugUHtus, Baying fete of Isis 
occuiTed to him in the autumn equinox, mure anciently at 
vernal equinox — are explicable by the J-day tropical excesfl, 
But as the 12 months of the 3(>5«days year were attached to 
definite season b» we can infer the exact epoch of solar year 
each month should indicate. Egyptians had 3 seasons of 4 
mouths of 30 days, Tctramenios ; at end of 12th month the 
5 supplementary days. TheBe, commencing with month 
Thot, are called seasons of sprouting, of harvest, of waters. 
(Hieroglyph [09]. M. Brugsch has contested this ; but even 
-with De Eouge against Champollion, the question is nut yet 
settled.) Rise of Nile has always begun at Syene at summer 
solstice. Herodotus, to present time, shows it is highest 100 
days after, say 21-22 June, or somewhat before October 1 ; 
after some timekeeping up its level it decreases. Beginning of 
October in Upper Egypt, and middle of October in the Delta, 
grain is sown, and 120 to 125 days after inundation grain 
spronts— end of October. Hence spronting season, November 
to Fehniary ; harvest, March to June ; waters, July to 
October. Table of seasons, Totli, Toljy, Pachon. As 1 st Thot 
fell on 25th October when fost uamei astronomers (Biot 
and Champollion) found when it happened in this manner: — 
* Anciently 1505 scdar years equaUed 1500 of 305 days. Co- 
incidence at 215 B»C., 1780 B.C., 3285 B.a Monnments prove it 
anterior to Ptolemies, iininterrapted to early dynasties before 
1780 B.c, i.e., mathematically 3285 B.C.* '* So fai^ Bunseu. 

Hence civil and natural calendar coincitled unly once, 
3285-82 B.C., when Sot his s heliacal rising occxirred in sumnu'r 
solstice (1 Pachon). Lepsius prefers 3282 [70], mi epoch IVir 



Key to the Gmealogical Table of the Ftrst Patriarehi. 75 

1 Pachon of SotliiB, Hence from this date 365-day8 year wae 
introdnced for civil use. Compare Enocli's 3282-3 above, 
and his 365 years, showing many cuDimon points between 
Hebrews and Egyptians. 

X, — ComciDEKCE OF Hebbew akd Egyptian Stahttno- 
POINTS OF Chronology. 

Syncellufi-Manetho has in a (lost) history [71], whereof we 
Imve only the royal lists and some extracts, valued at 3555 
years (3553 Julia n) the duration of tliis empire from Menee 
to end of XXXth Dynasty, the basis of Lcpsiiis and Lie- 
blein*8 chronology. Djmaety XXX ended 340 B.C., making 
Menea' reign begin 3892-3 B.C.; beyond this is raytliology, 
reign of heroes and gofls. With 1322 B.c», we ftuind 
Enoch's era begins 3466 B.C. ; add other gt-nealogy to Adam 
inclusive (162 + 65-f 70-fl30==s427) we get 3892-3 B.C. (3891 
Julian), where Patriarch table opens history of mankind; 
another proof of the table. Author seriously looked at 
duration of Egypt's rule; of a people calling itself the moi^ 
ancient in the world, 

XI.— Some othkb Particuiars of the Table. 

Sothiac 1461 = 600 + 861. 600 = Babylonian Ner ; 861 = 
4x215, which as 2x215-430 (Egyptian Captivity) often 
occurs. Every 861st year llrst day of Imiai' year retards by 
a full month of 30 days in civil c^endar. Even now diflering 
below 63i minutes! '-J*j5J» = Noah GOO -f Adam 130. Betwet^n 
Enoch and Noah are 369 years, so divided that MethuHclah 
(187) + Enoch (65) = 252 = Lamech (182) + (70) Canaan, 
evidencing another secret idea of tracing-line to origin of 
our species ; but we expect more from this key of antique 
chronology, as witness of Faith in Directive Wisdom of the 
world. Hence the Patriarch table is a worthy pendant to 
Genesis table of nations. 



XIL— The Septuaglnt and Egyptlvn Chronology. 

Alesauder^B sword lirought to Egypt Greek kings, 
Greek civihssation* affluence of Jews ; who rivalled the Greeks 



76 Key to the Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs, 



in Buccesfiful commerce, became adepts in Greek litem* 
tiire, and would have rivalled the most illustrioxie Greek 
Hterati liad not other causes prevented it. The Jews found 
in tJie Egyptian monumLaits and recordfi only then' own 
defeats and humiliations ; but no ti'ace of their success, no 
elevation of Joseph, acts of Moses, Hebrew Exodus and its 
miracles. Eg\^>tiau folk-books spoke of these Jews as a 
leprous horde, conducted by a renegade priest, and supported 
by Palestinic strangers, expelled from Egypt under Amenophisi 
explaining Jewish repugnance to these annals. But these 
annals spoke with less hatred of the Hebrews ; related Semitic 
hordes whose Hyksos chiefs had anciently invaded and sub- 
dued Egypt for many centuries [72, 73]. Like the Jacobite 
son of Heber, as mtness Hebron, in Palestine, built by them 
when sending their avantgarde to Egypt; and [74] Avaris, the 
great citadel they founded or repaired after invading the 
Delta, and theu' last Egyptian stronghold, As Egypt lore 
made the Jews either the disdamed lepers, or of the honoured 
Hyksos tribcj they chose the latter. Vide Josephus against 
Apion ; also the alliance in the second century B.C. ; supposed 
source whence Egyj>tian liistory was first investigated by an 
Alexandrian Jew. Therefore the LXX attached their own 
[75] old Hebrew liistory to the Hyksos period, whicli alone 
explains then- variant numbers. Mauetho lived in the time of 
the LXX. He ^vrote a Greek history of Egypt, supposed by 
roya! order (Ptolemy Philadelphus, temp. LXX). We know no 
more of this conneetion. Did the LXX see Manetho's finished 
work ? Probably not, as they are silent on the 3555 years' 
duration of the kingdom. At this time foreigners coidd 
acquh*e Egj7>tian literature ; but as then' king-lists were 
controverted amongst themselves, made one most probable 
which was at the disposal of the LXX^ and their chrono 
logical residts comcided independently with Manetho's list, 
as preserved by Julius Afiicanus. 

A, — Archaic History of Ph^vraoh*s Kin^gdom. 

Of Manetho's five books the first extends from llenes to 
end of Xlth Dynasty. Before the human Menes, gods ruled 
the country. The LXX, penetrated with tlie idea of Egj^>t'8 



^V^ 1 



AVy to t/ie Genealogical Table of the First Patriarchs. 77 

unaltered chronology, valued Creation to Deluge in accord- 
ance wth this archaic portion [76, 77], an Egj'^it was part 
of Eden, and the Nile was the Gihon [78], The antediluvian 
men of renown, the tyrants who built the Pyi*amide, were aa 
detested by the Egyptian niintl, from the fulness of ext<»rtion^ 
to heap these mountains of worked atones on then* ashes [79] 
(Gen, vi, 4). The LXX therefore made this verse, ytydpre^ 
6i air aic^po9 ot oBpovoi, ot oyofMaaroi^ 

The close connection of Babylon's traditional deluge and 
final period of Eg>T)t'B first ages proves that the beginning 
of medieval Egypt (Manetho, book ii) finds the Phamohs^ 
instructed by an awfiil experience, not desirable to be re- 
newed [80], to begin the astounding regulation of their river 
Nile, whose sources were supposed to be the ** fountains of 
the abyss'' which opened at the great deluge. This archaic 
history had no relatious \vith other peoples ; the same for 
media&val history. The Mediterranean nations, and Asiatic 
onea to the Indus, excepting Babylon and Assyria, had no 
regnal annals. But the exploration lands seem to have heen 
disclosed tu Egypt in XVII Ith Dynasty through Toutmosis's 
valour, and the LXX could ni>t have sought comparative 
chronology above this era. Since the Egyptians were not 
unanimouB aljout their dynasties being contemporaneous, the 
LXX naturally adopted for the regnal duration of thuse 
periods the idea (re-asserted by M. Mariette) that the 
dynasties were uninterrupted and non-contemporaneous. 
Comparative list : — 



EarPTiAK N 


[jiiBKtta. 


Septuaoint. 




Djnjistj 


L 


263 years 


Adam 


230 


ft 




IL 


3(>2 „ 


Seth 


205 


n 




in. 


214 „ 


EnoB 


190 


ft 




rv. 


284 ,, 


Kaoan 


170 


tp 




V. 


218 „ 


Maiialeel 


165 


n 




VL 


198 „ 1 


Jared 


162 


n 




VIL 


7<> daji 


Enoch 


16/i 


_ »• 




VIIL 


146 years 


Methuselah 


187 


1 > 




DC 


409 „ 


Laraech 


188 


: 




X 

XI. 


185 „ 
43 „ 


Noah lo Deluge .„. 


600 



2262 years. 



2202 



7b Key to the Genealogical Talk of the First Patriarchs, 



Produced by adding 100 years each, Adam to Enoch inchi- 
sive, and 6 to Lamech ; thus it was not a haphazard calcu- 
lation, but a planned concordance for each individual 
Patriarch. Hence the LXXs antii^uity of world before 
Dekige corre*?ponded to the accTcdited regal list of Egypt 
for the archaic part of Egypt^s hifitor5^ 



//.—Egypt's JIebleval History 

Exodus. 



Deluge to Hebrew 



A period of gi*eat upsetting. Begins splendidly, except 
fell of XI I til Dynasty. Then the Semites conquer, till Amosis 
(foimder XVIIIth Dynasty) and his successom expelled them, 
and raised Egypt to great power. Supposing Shem inserted 
(100 or 102 years), with age attributed to next member, we 
obtfiin : — 




EOTPTIAN NtrSIBERa 


[ 


SEPrnAoiHT, 




Dynasty XIL 16(> yearn 


Sliem 


102 


„ XIII. 463 


i» 


Arphaxad 


135 


„ XIV. 184 


tt 


Kanau 


130 


„ XV. 284 


11 


SeJah 


13(1 


XYI. 5U 


J J 


Heber 


134 


„ XVII. 151 


T) 


Peleg 


130 


„ XVI IT uDto 






Beu 


132 


Toutmosia Ame- 


^ 34 




Serug 


130 


iiophk 13, Ka- 


n 


NaJior 


179 


bres 13* 






Terah 


70 






Departure of Abraliam 


75 






from Haraii 






Jacob eiilera Egypt 


215 








Mosaic Exodufi 


215 



1777 



1777 



The LXX place Hebrew Exodus at beginning of Tont- 
moeie. Cf. Manetho on Shepherd-kinge ( Josephns), apparently 
mostly true [81] : last battle of these kings and evacuation of 
E^gj'pt under common reign of Toutmosis and hie Queen 
(A vans conquered by Amosis) ; hence LXX s Exodus 
occmTcd with fall of Hyksoe. Literval from Deluge to 
Abraham's Call is 465 years (Heb.), 1347 (LXX), Aqjhaxad 



K^n to thi' Grnrnhffiral Tahle oj the First PatnavfliM, 71* 

Seitig are iucreased at 100 years ; a second Kenan, 
unknown to Hebrew, iritroduce«l 180 years; NachorB age 
iiicreaeed 150 years. Abraham's Call to Exodus (Hebrew, 
il5 + 430 = r>45 ; LXX. 215 f 215 = 430 years), Tliia waa 

ae that all the glorieis of the Hebrews (Joeepli's rise, &c,) 
ahonld occtir whilst their kindred, HyksoB, governed Egypt^ 
to render these more plausible. By this " cooking " (Fr. 
sciader) the Bible was made more concordant [82] ; few gene- 
rations were born in Egypt; and Joeeph'B death was placed 
(v, Lieblein, XVIIth Dynasty) [83] a little before tlie Hyksoa 
were restricted to the Delta, when the indigenous stronger 
hostile XVIilth Dynasty came to power* The vocation of 
the liberator Moses occurred when XVIilth D^^iiasty was at 
its summit — exact agreement. As Mantstho's limiting khig 
Amenenemee is a sole dynasty, we have excluded him from 
this calculation. 



I 



C — Interval to Fall of Egittlvn Independence. 



Toutmosis began to reign (Lieblein, Monmnts.) 14,tG B.C, 
Exclude XXIInd and XXVth Dynasties, and keep to Jlane- 
tho's numbers ; these two dynasties are daily proved to bt* 
contemporaneous with others. Surprising agreement of 
Egy|it from Menes, aitd LXX fi'om Adam, valid to the end — 
great proof of Lieblein'a chron<>logy to beginning of XVIilth 
Dynasty. Dming this epoch the LXX had contempora- 
neous history. Egypt^s annals did not forget the Pharaoh's 
name who sacked Jerusalem under Rehoboam or Necho's 
expedition. 

This period is better fixed, the LXX could be well aware, if 
Dynasties XXII and XXV were to be discarded. 



Egyptian NuMBERa. 


LXX Numbers. 


Tontmosis 70 
Amenoplxit* 31 
Horua 37 


Exodus to Solomon's l^jj 

Temple J 
Solomon 36 


Acheraa 32 


Rehoboam ..* .,., 17 


Bathes 6 

Carried forward ^— 17G 


Abijtth 3 

Cw-rried forward 



Am 







^^B 80 Key to the Genealofjical Table of the First FafriareJts, I 


^^^^^ EaTPTtAiir NCJHQEBS, 


LXX NuMBEBfi. ^H 


^^^^^B Brought forward 1 76 


Brought forward .». 496 ^^ 


^^^H Cliebres 


Asa 41- J 


^^^^H AcbereB 


JehosapkLt 25 ^H 


^^^^^g Amesaea 


Joram .... „,. 8 ^^| 


^^^^^H Eatnesee 


AliEiaicih .„ 1 


^^^^^B AmenophiB 19 


Athaliah 6 


^^^H Dynasty XY III— 225 


Joaali 40 


^^^H XIX 2m 


Aniaziah ,... .... 29 


^^^1 XX 135 


Azariah .... .... 53 


^^^B XXI 114 


Jotkim IG 


^^^H XXIII 89 


Aha2 16 


^^^H 


Hezekiah 20 


^^^^L XXVI 151 


Manaaseli 55 


^^^^1 XXTII 


Amon 2 


^^^m „ xxTiii 


Jusiah ...» .... 31 


^^^1 XXIX 20 


Jehoaiiaz J 


^^^^ XXX 38 


Jell oak im „,. .„. 11 




Jehoacbin ♦... .... J 




Zedekiah 11 




869 




Buin of Jerusalem tol^.^ 
Fall of Kgypt | 




^^^H 1117 years. 


1117 yeai-ii. 


^^^^y Here LXX's only deviation is firet number, 440 for 480 1 


^ (Hob.), for concordance ; placed in troublous Hebrew times 1 


^^B of legends ; no chronological linkage when Judges ruled 1 


^^^^^ Hebrew people. J 


( J 



Kry to the Genealogical Table of the Firtt Patnarvht* 81 



French TransiiAtor's Notes as Numbered in Text. 



[2]. 
[3]. 

[4]. 
[5]. 
[6]. 

[7]- 
[8]. 

[»]. 
[10]. 
[11]. 
[12]. 
[13]. 

[14]. 



[15]. 
[1(J]. 
[17]. 

[IS]. 
[19]. 
[20]. 



[81]. 
[22]. 
[23]. 

[24]. 



Biography of Berosus, ex Liibker s Real, Lexikn,, fl,^ 
Ptol !!• 

Exod. xiii, 14. 

Geo. xi, 2. 

Gen. xi, 3L pff written Caran in French* 

Gt-n, xii, 10, 

People Table ie Gen. x, and ch. v is Old Pairiari4i Table. 

Etycn. Sothiac Cycle, Diet, Littni, 

Geii. ii, 8. 

Dan i» 17; not 7, French. 

Liibker, Biog. Philo. 

Liibker on Josephne, 

Lubker, Ptul. Ptiilad. 

Imperions necesbity for LXXj aa HelleuiBing Jews for- 
got Hebrew* 

Table, Osterwakra Bible, 186»); of Patriarelm, Heb. ; 
LXX and Vulgate, and Osterwald ; but ''Nt»e** makes 
S. M. D, think this is a French list. 

Van in Greek Cod. Division A in favour of 2262. 

Solar year explained elementarily (Littre, Diet.). 

Synodic ditto. 

Nicolas Fr^ret, Wiegand's Convers. Lexik. 

Semitic (Littr<*, Diet.). 

Bnnsen obscure* Samaritan makes death-year of La- 
meeh = year of Deluge ; LXX, obit 35 years before. 
Prefer Zunz's Masoretic Bible. Hebrew, Samaritan^ 
and Zunz agree Methnseltdi dies in Deluge-year. 

World-year of GOO years (Littr^, Diet.). 

Lunar year (ditto). 

"Seven days of Creation," a style of expression. Better 
drop auxiliary phrases if leading to false ideas* 

2y9. Bunsen. 432^ -f 550, printer b or an thorns error. 
Re-place (Methusela) Heltrew 90^ by Samaritan 720, 
therefore 4878 - (909 - 720 = 249) = 4629. 4G29- 
4328 = 301, yot 299. 



82 Key to the Genealoificaf Table of the First Fafriarehs* 



[25], Another error, 4878 — 7 epochs; really 7^ to 8, not 
six, vide 24* 

[26], Gen. iv, 17* 

[27], Gen. iv, 16. 

[28]. '* Type of man reposing in God," not exact translation 
of German. 

[29]. Bnnsen'a complete resiJt stated, '* Mao'e type eternalltf 
reposing in God/* — Not in Heb. text. — S, M. D. 

[30]. Ezra, A.M. 35B0 = B.C. 458 (3988 c.^.— S. M. D,). 

[31], Nehemiah, 3564 A.M. + 424 B.C. = 3988.— S. M. D. 

[32]. Bmi8. VoUst, Bibel. v, 3d. AnBtiih. p. 308-9, as in ch. v" 
of this Mem. 

[33] Ref. Gen. xxxi, 19, Teraphim; Laban, brother of Isaac 
(qy. Rebecca !— S. JL D.) 

[34]. Exod. xxxii, 3, 4, 5 ; Znnz's translation. 

[35]. Judges viii, 24, 27; not 29, French. 

[36]. 1 Sam. xix» 13, 14. Teraphim were domestic divinities 
of the Hebrewa, 

[37], Rydberg, Swedish, '* Jehovah Worship by the Hebrews 
before Babylonian Captivity,*' says ** Jeroboam at 
beginning of reign erected two calf-temples j had 
thiy been a novelty there would have bet^n a conserva- 
tive opposition ; thus we miderstand why the reforming 
prophets of Judab declaimed against it.** 

[381. 1 Kings xi, 5, 6, 7. 

[39]. Amos V, 26, 

[40]. Acts vii, 43. 

[41]. Euhemeros (Ltibker, Real Lexik.) Biography. 

[42]. Bimsen (VoU. Bibel w., v. 306), stiiking analogj- of Enosh 
and Adam ; Enush ancient form of Isch UT^M (con- 
tracted singular ), plural D^XI?2W, common for man, as 
Adam. Adam originally from the brown colour of 
primitive man, red earth (Qlt^ rTOlH) : Enosh, from 
forcb =as (Egypt) == is (Greek) ^ vis (Latin) = vir, 
' man/ Ap^s Greek. 

[43]. Jehovistic list for clearness: Seth is added to eb, iv 
Gen., perlmpa poBteriorly. 

[44]. Explains heliacal rising. 

[45]. Syene, cataracts or rapids, etream contracted to 30 



Keif to the Genealogical Tabl-e of Uie Fir^t Patriarchs. 83 



[46]. 



[48]. 
•[411]. 
[.50]. 

[51]. 
[52]. 

[53]. 

[54]. 

•[55]. 

[56]. 

[57]. 

[58]. 
[5<)]. 

[a.]. 

[61]. 
[62]. 



[63]. 
[64]. 

[65]. 
[66]. 



m^troe. Last of the four rapids (El Kebir) by isles 
Philoe, Begh4 

Biot'e recherchee sm- Tann^e vague des Egypt, p. 57 ; 
quoted by Bnnsen in /Egypteiia Stelle, p. 50, Astro- 
no niical proof of 3285 B.c. ; but Prencli puts thia date 
in red ink. 

Etymology of Epagomenai* 

Tropical year 3ti5^ ; vague 305 daya. 

BuQsun as author, quoted, /Egypt, pp. 59, Valery, Por- 
phyry^ AratuB sch, 

Lubker's Ptolemy Euergetes L 

Bunaen (^^igypt. Stelle) <>n true name of Menophtali 
Liebl. Egi/pty Chron. Chiistiania, 1873» p. 13i). 

Manetho (Liibker). 

Anthor'e aim is 14f)l, not the individual ages* 

Turanian (Littrc, Diet, Tonranien, Nord altaique). 

Chaldean 60 boss, 6W ner; 3600 aar (Ideler p, 78; 
Buns. Voll. Bibel v. 320), 

French improvee reasoning. 018 J- years = 600 year^, 
hence 8 is factor. 018 1 x 8 ^ 4t*47, 

Explains Jubilee, hy\^ not h^^" (Littr^, Diet.). 

Golden age, &c. 

Platonic age, 25, 600 (Liitre, Diet.). 

Equinox, &c„ explained (Littre, Diet.). 

Important note of M. Boitard on precession's effect in 
25,868 years on Paris. Now 48" 20^ lat., in 6407 years 
37n3'N., in 12,934 years 25' 46' N., then go northward; 

3 diagrams, $mall, ^^^Z^^J^} £lIZi) cCJ^ 
— Nutation used for precession. — S-M. D. Geological 
results of polar ice, in bine and red fringes, like solar 
corona. Three large diagrams. Regularity uf geolo- 
gical deposits ; 12 catastrophes. 

Explains Neomenia, 

Cabala, 72p, — Em'ope, hands down ; Orient, receives. — 
S^ M. D. 

Exodus explained : only iV^migration for emigration. 

Little's Julian Calendar. 



84 Key to the Genealogical Table of the FirH Patriarcfis. 



[67] 



[68]. 

[69]. 
[70]. 
[71]. 

[72]. 

[73]. 
[74]. 



[75]. 
[76]. 

[77]. 
[78]. 
[79]. 
[80]. 

[SI]- 
[82]. 

[8;^]. 



[84]. 
[So]. 
[86]. 



Disciit^sion on Shems age, 187 {not 152; author ).^ — 
Jewish Tradition^ Gen. \ii, 7 : Wiy did Noah « '\^fe 
enter ark a/fer her sons ? Proof that sexes were 
separated, human and hi-nte, to avoid inereaae of the 
crew and diminution of provisions during Dehige ; 
for that reason Shem^e wife prohably did not conceive 
Arphaxad till after they were settled on post-diluviau 
earth,— S. M. D, 

Eratosthenes, Biogr* Did he not measure (/eodeticalh 
the earth ? 

Bunsen 8 Hieroglyph Season Signs, frontispiece copied. 

Cf. 47 ; Lt-psiug, 3282 B.C. 

Syncelhia, Bi^^gr. Wiegand Conv. Lex., Greek qiiot. 
and translation, p. 98 ; Liebleiu, p. 3 ; 3535 years. 

Gen. X, 21, 24— Why Wn DU and not sh'Di?— 
S.M.D, 

Numb, xiii, 23. 

Discussion on Hebron of Palestine. Hieroglj^jhs of 
Han(b)ar, Lieb. p. 98. — ^Cf. Boston^ England and U.S.A. 
S, M. D, 

Apion (Liibke). 

Gen* ii, 13; Bunstn, v. Ai\ says it was A raxes. tol3 
koSf not tr^3 f^ii^'^h* 

Gen. vi, 4, Greek and Hebrew, with translation. 

Gen. vi, 13. 

Gen. V, 15. 

Gen, viii, 2. 

Josephus; Manetho ; (Bunsen, /Eg^'pt. iv, 13). 

Exod, vi, 1*>. Le\d 3, Generat. Kehath, Ainram, Moses, 

LiebL Chron. List of Dynasties reproduced. In ftill 
5332 years. Contemp. IX, X, XI, XIII, XVb XXII, 
XXV Amenenmes, 1777 = 5332 — 3555, Syneellus. 

2 Kings xiv, 25, 26. 

2 Kings xxiii, 29-33. 

1 Kings vn, 1. 



AVy to the Gemaloffical TabU of the FirH Patriarchn, 85 



Additional Notes by S, M, Dracb to Mr, Rtdbekg's 

Paper. 

I refer the reader to Jlr. Proctor*s (F*R.A,S.) book on 

Saturn, at the beginiiiiig of which work are eome simple 

georaetric diagramB, proving that from the ob«ei"ved nxirnber 

iOf days between oppositione, retrogradatioiiB, &c*, nf planet, 

Jthe archaic a7icmits could have derived the (^openiican 

revolution-periods thereof. 

As a pendant to Mr. Rydberg's paper, I computed from 
Herschel (1835) and Maedler 6 (1841 J Astronomy, the number 
of planetaiy synodic periods in a SoTHls-period of 14(30 
Julian years, and a NER-period of 000 Julian yeai's, giving 
the^e interesting reBults; — 



Am. 


FUn^t. 


SYNODIC FEftJOD. 
1 xe&r is 365 dAje^ 


SOTHIB PEaiOD* 


NEE or 


H. 
M. 


TenuB 
Hars 


jev. d*jn. boiiw. 
1 2U 9i 

1 218 22t^ 

2 60 


4602 lesa 1 day 
913| exact 
eaSi pluB 5 dayi 


1891^phyi4daji 
3751 lesa 141 dys 
281 less 30 daji 


M. 


( 3 Asteroids . 


1 103 20 
1 112 16 


11371 lesft 33 da^B 
lU6iplUi30d*vji 


4«7i kB« 29^ dflji 
4581 plus 21 dajB 




Japiter 


1 33 22 
I 13 2 


13361 leM 7 dAjs 
14LDliei!i2UdjijB 


&&0| less 4 diLja 
579i leBi 12 daya 



Here the mean of 5-Mercury and Venue ie 216^ days 
beyond the year (215 Hebrew base number). The tropical 
year retards (at 11 minutes 13 seconds per annum) 11 days 
8 hours 56 minutes in a Sothis and 4 dayft 16 hour^ 10 
minutes in a Ner periocl. VenuK (Ishtar) has Seth's number 
913; three asteroids is ^-J^, The Bunsen-Rydberg 550 ia 
in Jupiter-KER. On applying to the Egyptian 25x|g| 
month 2t) days 12 hours 44 miinites 16^2 seconds, the secular 
acceleration of IT' (Laplace) and 5^'' (Prof, Adams), 1 found 
ibis lunation occurred 1000 B.C. (L.), or 2200 B.C. (A.), or 28 



8<i Keif to the Genealogical Table of the First Palriarc/tf* 



and 40 centurieB before 1800 CM. If this diflerence (IS^') be 
applied to Rydberg's 381^ B.c, (57 centuries before the 
present), the difference risee to (f^)'xl3J, or 50' (L.) and 
(^i^xi:5^ or 2 7 ■•5, to be added to the present 29 dayaj 
12 hours 44 niinutee 27 second, or an error between j-j-^^ 
and ^i5ri^^. Six times the great inequahty of Jupiter- 
Sat arn of 930 years (5580)> brings 8892 B.C., to 1688 C.JK. 
and Sim B.C. to 1800 C.iE. 

Note that 3892 exceedB the Rabbinical 37G1 A.M. by 
131 (Adam's number). Submultiples of 215 are ^ = 129 ; 
A^tUi; J=1B1|; « s 184? ; 930^ 186x5; 910=182 + 5; 
3t)0 + 000 ; all Patriarelial nntnbers. 

The average of our lunar year (3H days 8 hours 48 
minutes 32 seconds) and tropic year (3G5 days 5 hours 48 
minutes 47 seconds) being 359 daya 19 hours 18 minutes 
40 seconds, is very close to 3G0 days, the original archaic I 
year. That Enoch means consecration (human) is proved by 
this word *^'^l^} being used by the present Jt?W8 when 
entering a new or renovated house or synagogue. Kadsh 
tU?lp) being resei-ved for things offered to God, except in 
the marriiige formula hallowing the bride (MflpO) to her 
bridegroom. 

For the meaning of Adam, Ludolf's Ethiop. Grammar, 
tliiiiks it is the Ethiopic Adama (grace, l)eauty) ; curiously 
similar to the Greek Cosmos, and Latin Munduji. €'ount de 
Gel>elin s Monde Primitif makes Adam the hushmui-nmn of 
the vtilllvafM (ydrih, reproducing its vegetation thereby; and^ 
coupling Ish and Isha {perhaps Enosh and Enosha nU?2H ?). 

larchi and A ben Ezra suppose that the giants, N'philin 
(auJ'aUemi) " giants,** struck ordinary men by their stature ; 
and that the sons of Elohim were really the sons of the 
Judges ; an old edition of the Appiu.s-Virginia case. 

From the Deluge to the death of Jacob are 599 years ; 
Terah's extra 40 years (70 less 30) brings Abraham's birth 
to 292 years, or ^ of 365 after the Deluge, 

The fiuperpointed eleven letters, Deut. xxix, 29, are 
numerically 2310 (1451 B.C.I) and those of Gen. xxxiii. 4, 
inptt?"^^ 427 (Egyptian captivity). Is Rempham, Acta vii, 43, 
Ra-mpha rjID'jn? 



Ke^ to the Genealofjical 'Ihhh of tM Fir$t Patriarchi. 87 

Six hundred tropical years, if equal to 7420 month*?, gives 
lunation 29 days 12 hours 49 rmuutes 33 Beconcle, oiJy poa- 
mble if antediluvian earth rotated faater on her axis ; with 
oir 44 minutes 3 seconds there remain 28 days 8 hours 
9 minuteSi 

Why did the Bible-texters not give the laiportant totals ? 
attd were the primitive after-life ages, already mereased by 
an even number of centuries, to obtain the 4947 ? 

Eev. Mr, Garbett (PhU. Soc. Glasgow, 1873, On '^Metral 
Beform **) observed that 60 is by far the best factor for 
f^ucing of denominations-* 



» BItrtV, 1506 - 7 s' B » 48. 




NOTES ON CYPRIOTE PALAEOGRAPHY. 

Bj D, P1ERIBE8 (Laraaca, Cyprus). 

Meiid Uh Jamarjf^ and 4ik Jufy, 1S76, 



I. 

The Cypriote Iksckiption ok the Gold Armlets found At| 

Kdbion. 

This iiiBcriptinii is engraved inside the rim of tlie armlets ; 
andj like, all the Cypriote inscriptions from Paphos hitherto 
puliliBhed,^ it is read from left to right. It consists of thirteen 
letters divided by a point into two gi'onps, of which the 
first is the name of a king of Paphos, who seemingly offered 
the anmleta to a shrinei designation unknown, in Kiirion. 
The writing to some extent reBcmhles that of the Paptoe 
inscriptions above allnded to j but the final s (|^), which 
should look to the left w^henever the writing reads from left 
to right, is turned to the right on one of the two armlets ; 
and it appears, moreover, that on the very s?irae piece the 
engi'aver made some mistake in two other characters close to 
the end; but these he afterwards corrected* 

We now^ proceed to deeiphor our short text, premising 
with the oljservation that the onlyptirt of it which presented 
some difficnlty was the first group. 

Plate C -1. 

e-te -va-do-ro | to-pa-po-ba- si - le-vo- 8. 
Eteandri, R^^gis Paphi. 



De Vogtte, MeLingee d* Archil, OrieDtalo, pL iU, 2 ; pL iv, 5,6,7, 




f 

; 



■J 








'///.^/ 




^//^'/^^': 



■z^y^. 



/y 



% 



*h 



iOote an Cypnote P<diPO<frapJii/, 



89 



The omission of the p^ anil the genitive in w, are .peen- 
liaritiee of the Cypriote <Ualect which have ah'eady been 
pointed out by German and other philologiste. Prof. Moriz 
Schmidt of Jena, in his leanied treatise on the Cypriote 
InscriptionB/ page 60, gives the word nd(f>m^ from previous 
texts, exactly as we see it on the armlets. 

I have not been able to find the name 'EreayBpof in any 
of my books of reference, and I cannot say whether it is 
given in Papers Dictionaiy of Greek Proper Names, for no 
one here has a copy of it: othernames of which ireo^ in the 
first component pai-t are not wantmg ; for we have Etearch, 
Eteocles, Eteonicus, &c. 

In the actual stage of Cyprian pal«r>graphy, it would be 
hazardous to fix a date to the inscription from the form of 
the letters, &c., but there is reason to believe that the texts 
which read from left to riglit are among the earliest; from 
this, and the character of some of the objects fcmnd along 
with the armlets, I am iucUned to think that our inscription 
belongs to the 5th centiirj' before the Christian era. 



P.S, — Jan,. 1876, In sending me the proof of the fore- 
going short article for correction, the President of the 
Society of Biblical Arehaiology writes :— 

"You should bear in mind that there was a king of 
Cyprus in the days of Assurbanipal, B.C. (120, who bore the 
name of Itnander or Ithyandros; and that he was king of 
Pappu or Paplios. Jlight he be the naonarch whoRe bmcelets 
have been found ? He is mentioned by Mr. Smith in his 
article in the NoHh British Magazine, 1870, page 329, as 
one of the kings of C^>"|>ru8 who rendered homage to Assur- 
banipal during the marcli upon Egj^pt.** 

I record, with thanks, the suggestion of my esteemed 
correspondent; and I think there can be no question iis to 
its aptness and validity : the identity is complete. — D. R 

* Die luscbiift Ton Iilallon, und dns Kypriftche Sjlliibar, Jentk, 1874. 



I 





Notea on Cypriotf Palufographtf. 
II. 



I 



Few and short are the new inscriptions which follow ; 
but as the eiibject confmues to attract attention, I may be 
(t^xcnsed for offering another meagi-e instalment. 

For the facility of reference, I shall follow a progressive 
number, taking into account the two inscriptions which 
formed the matter of ray previous notices. 

No. 3. 

From Paphos; a slab, breadth, 11 J inches; height, 7} 
inches ; thickness, 2 inclies ; surface much worn. This and 
the other inscriptions contained in the present paper read 
from right to left, inclndiug the impression of the seal. The 
originals of Nos. 3 to 5 are in my possession. 

Plate A — 1. 

mi* e -ae-ra-pa-ku- si-na-o 

The second line is illegible; only one character can be 
identified, that under the fourth (from the right) of the firat 
line— it is d^ pa. 

No. 4. 

From Poli-tis-Chrysochou (ancient Arsinoe, according to 
Engel and others), Stela of the common calcareous stone 
of the island ; breadth, 8 J inches ; thickness, 6 inches ; 
actual measurement from top to bottom, 9 inches, has been 
sawed for easier removal, and only the inscribed part brought 
to Laniaoa* 

Plate 0—2, 

CD«CDTX»"Q + X + V 

mo-ro-mo-ti - a -se-ra-pa-ku-lo-pi 
^tXoKvirpa^ a rtfioptipLoyu 

mi- e -ua-ku 
yvpd rip,i. 



Naiu on Cypriote Paleography, 



91 



Philokypros aiul OnaBikypros botli occur in the Bronze 
Tablet of Idiilion ; in tlie above inecriptions we see their 
feminine forms; but the queBtion arises whether we have 
before us tlie genitive ^Ouamxthrpa^it ^iXomfTrpat, or the 
nominative 'OvacnKinrpa^, ^iXottvtrpdf, I think that ^CKo 
{^Oyaat)tcuTrpa, is more in conformity with the rules for the 
formation of the gender than ^i\Qi'0yaat)KV7rp(k; but then 
if my reading of inscription No. 4 be correct, tbe name and 
the position of the woman therein mentioned are in two 
different cases, still, as inecriptioiiB arc not always free fi*om 
errors, I should be inclined to pass over this syntactical diffi- 
culty, and to confiider the names as being in the genitive, 
especially as another similar inscription (No. G) has the man's 
name in the same case ; and in further Buppnrt of this opinion, 
I might add the remark, that the nominative preceded or 
followed by elfil is sonu'liines u:sed in connection with a 
sUUuej whilst these stones are evidently sepulchral ; but I 
prefer leaving the question open for final settlement by 
more competent authority^ or by tlie discovery of other 
inscriptionei* 

Ti^opmfio%. The last character of the firet line is almost 
entirely erased ; hut after a very careful examination of the 
stroke that is left, I have come to the conclusion that the 
syllabic sign to which the said stroke belonged could not 
have been any other than mo* Pwfxos was the name of a 
Lycianhero,' and w^e have Siromos^king of Salamis (Cypri).' 



No. 5. 

From the same place as the last ; shapeless fragment of 
loose sandstone, breadth, 13 inches; height, 7 J inches — 
Bimken border at the top ; three sides nearly perfect, but the 
left broken ; letters large but ill-formed. 

The pitiful condition of thiR fragment will not allow of 
my doing much beyond registering its existence, and sending 



* Pnpe-Benseler, Wdrt. dpr 0riech» Eigtuiiaineii, p. 132Q. 
- Sogel ; Kypro# I, p. 265. 



M 



A\)teit on Cypriote Palwography, 



a paper caet ; the reading appeal's to be from right to left, 
and here is an imperfect denotation of the characters : — 



let. ti or ha^ but more likely iL 
2nd. mo 
3rd, ne 

4th. a 



} 



somewhat doubtfuh 



5t]L tL 

<3th, unknown. 

7th, npsilon. 



No. 6. 



From a paper cast in my portfolio. I have no recollection 
of the stone, and ignore what has become of it. Judging 
from the construction of the '* titnUis/' I would say that it 
canie hnxn the westeni part of the island. The thirteen 
characters occupy a line of 10^ inches. 

T >K *$♦ CD T ^ ^ F . t5» P F if :J^ 

mi- e -ne-rao-ti *o-te-to | ne-ro-do-o-te 

*' I mark the grave of Theodoros son of Theotimos." 

The above names and that on the following seal appear 
for tlie first time in Cypriote texts^ if I am not mistaken. 

No. 7. 

Gold seal : the stone bound in the same metal, and 
turning on pivots ; representation : a mare suckling her 
foal, and over this the legend : — 

Plate C— 4. 

o - ra- kn * ra-pa - ku 
Kinrpajopao, 

Found, I believe, in the environs of Golgos, about three 
years ago, and sold to M, H, Hoffmann, of Paris* 





Note* on Cypriote Pahvographif. 



III. 



98 



I 

I 



N after the departure of the lortniglitly nirti! which 
ied my last paper, General di rjtRiiola had the kiuthje«B 
to place in my hands several wmall fragroeiits. of Btoiie, and 
two of pottery, inscribed with Cypriote characters, and 
lately discovered by his workmen near Kythrea, one of the 
most important villages in the ishind. 

One inscription, composed of three pieces, neatly ce- 
mented together )>y the General, is complete : it consists of 
38 characters, in three lines ; while the other fi-agments have 
from 2 to 20. They all read from right to left, anrl in general 
they do not appear to belong to many different periods : oa 
some the action of fire is visible ; and from their tenor we 
infer that u temple, dedicated to the Paphian Aphrodite, must 
have stood on the place where they were fonnd. A Greek 
inscription, in elegant letters of the Macedonian era, was also 
disinterred from the same rnins. 

Some modern writers on Cyprus thijik that Kythrea 
occupies the site, or nearly so, uf the ancient town Xvrpot, ; 
other's that of KvBrjptj or Ku0ep€ia, mentioned by the Scho- 
liast of Hf siod, ly Constant. Purphyr., itc. — Imt the existence 
of this KvdrjpTj or Kvdipeia is nut generally admitted ; and 
the Cythera of Virgil and of Vah Fhiccus is supposed to 
mean the island of Cythera (Cerigo). Regarding these 
controversies I must refer tiie inquirer to En gel* and to 
Sakellarioa;* adding, however, that the inscriptions which 
follow may assist in bringing these points to a decision. It 
is true that no place is spoken of in our texts, but tlieir 
evident connection with a temple, and the closer shuilarity 
of the modern name, to Cytliera, than to Chy tri, ought to 
have their due weight in the discussion ; besides, it seems 
strange that Virgil should in the same verse speak of three 
celebrated shriues of Venus in Cyprus, and intend the fourth 
for that in the island near Cape Malea. 

Est Amathua, et celi^^a mihi Paphus, atque Cythera, 
Idaliaeque domua." — ^^nid. 



' KjpTi^, roh i, U7, 154. 

^ Ta KimptOKdj fol. i, 191, A^thena, 1855. 



»4 



N^oies im Cypriote PcLksogt^phy. 
No. 8. 



Stone tablet, six and a \\i\M inches by three inchefl in 
front; originally held by, or attached to, a statue j even at 
the top, and projecting inward at the bottom ; recedes to the 
left at an angle slightly ohtnse. Some of the other fragments 
of stone appear to have been parts of similar tablets. 

Platr A— 2. 
e - i -to-ae- a -pi-pa- se-ta-mi- e -mo- ti- to-ro-po 

X V ^^^TTI"TP5^e 

i 'ta-ke- te-te -ka-mi-se-ka-Be- vo-re 

XKTP:?XXXe^ + 

i - ta - ti - ro- po - a - i - a - ... - pi-pa 
pt'foy Ka^ lit tc ar 18 7} K€ rm 

The sixth character (from the right) in the second line 
I take to be mi, of a form slightly difterent from those we 
know; and fn seemingly stands for the enclictic fic com- 
pare the Sigean inscription — Kal ^ iiroitjcxeu Atcrm'TTo^ koX 
aZek<l>Ql ; and that of Nicocreon — a-raaav S \4pyeloifL€ : also 
the second line of the folloTving inscription, No. 9. 

In the third line (of No, 8), l>etween the second and third 
letters, there is a damaged space, wliere probably a wrong 
character had been engraved, and afterwards erased. 

KaT€$7}/ce: this word oecnrs in the inscription on Mr. 
Langs Simpuhmi (Br. Museum), Dr, M, S<."hinidt rtad it 
KariOei'^ Deecke-Siegismund, and Alirens, MariBTj; but on a 
copy of Doeeke and SiegismmuFs Treatise on the Cypriote 
Inscriptions, tlie valued gift uf the lamented Siegismund, I 
find the duo correction in hLa own hand ; and the Kythrea 
Inscriptions, be it noted, were brought to light nearly two 
months after his untimely fate. 

The name IIpmroTtpLOf appears now for the first time in 
Cypriote ; nor is it to be found in Pape-Benseler* 




Ntitei Qrt Cypriote Palteogrnphy^ 

No. 9. 
Three inches by two inGhea. 

Plats A — 3. 
pa -se-(ta- o-te) - se -ta 

fa '^X 



te-k 



Be ■• 

Tm 6 
av 

""Ovatjiififit^ ^0 i . . .) 
^Ova<rl0€fAiR : the name is new. 



«/*0- 



96 



No. 10. 

Three and a half inches by two and a half inches ; broken 
diagonally. 

Plati A— a. 

1. 6e-ta-o - te -se-ta 

QH XX 

2. ra-ta- i - a 

3. mi - te 

4. o- 

Ta9 0e& Ta9 ; the rest is unintelligible. But this fragment 
serves to determine the word d^&y which is obliterated in 
No. 9. A curious feature is the J-, turned to the left. 



J 



96 



Notes mi Ct/priote Palatography. 



No. IK 

Unfler thiR number are arranged the r emai n in g (and 
shorter) Iragments of inscriptionB on stone, 

Plate A— 5. 

iJ^ f" ^ + X i" 

(/. ta -86 -pa -pi * a - ee 
Ta? natpias. 

Ik ? pa-pi-a-se, JTa<^ia<r. 

e?. pa-o- (the Bocond character probably by mistake for 
"pi") arse, ditto. 

d, Be-pa-pi-a-se-e-mi (veiy faint, eBpecially the two last 
(jliaracters), Tas na<f)ia<i ijfiL 

e. Part of pa-pi-a, na<f3ia{s). 
/\ a-pi- (of no consequence). 
Must of these six fragments were originally of one line. 

No. 12. 
Two fragmentfi of pottery : letters engraved* 

a. se-pa-pi-a, (Tfi)? na<fiia{s). 

h* ta-se-pa-pi, Tas JTa<^t(a<j), 

Both originally of one line* on 1'2 b there is a space of 
three inches before the first character, from which it appeal's 
that the ves8t48 were only inscribed with the two Avorda 
Tm na<f>ta<:, simply eliowing that tlicy lit^longed to the 
temple, 

Larnaca, C>t*eus, 

im Mat/, 1876. 



NoTi, — Plnte B ib the facflimile of tlie Di|^phic InBcription published in 
the Trarrftftctioim of the Society of Bibliral Arch*ologv, Vol. IV, p, 43. ITie 
CypiJt^tt? tjrpe has becu added. There being wo time forrevisioii Bf. Cyprua by 
M. Piendea ; heb Bot re^pousible fur any error that m&j have been muie.-^^, B, 




ISHTAB AND IZDUBAB. 

BR1>0 

THE SIXTH TABLET OF THK IZDUBAR SERIES. 
Tramlat^l fiH)m the f'uneifoinn 

By FI. p. Talbot, RR.S. 
Bmf iik ApHl, lft76. 

The original text of tins remarkable tablet 18 litliographed 
in plate 48 of Vol. IV of IiiscriptioiiH of Wefttero Asia, pul> 
liiihed by the Britieli Museum. 

The fifth Izdubar tablet appearR to be mostly lost, but 
the end of itn ntory oeoiipiee tlie first few liiieg of the sixth 
tablet, and therefore it is neeesaary briefly to advert to it. 

One of tlie adventures of Odysseus related by Homer is 
\m return to Ithaea disgiused as a beggar. Izdubar, whose 
wanderings recall tliose of Odysseus, may have adopted 
8ome similar disguise, wliicli he liere throws olT and resumes 
his royal rank. I have translated the tii'st five lines aceording 
to their apparent meanuig, but there is too little of the story 
left, to form any opinion w^hat it %vas. The rest of the 
tablet is entirely discoiniected from it. The words printed 
in italics are restorations^ where the original text is effaced. 



COLUMX I, 

I * . . he had thrown off his tattered garments : 

2. His pack of goods he had laid down li'om his back : 

3. [/le had ^flimg o/f] his rags of poverty : and clothed him* 

self in a dress of honom* : 
4* [with a roijal robe] he covered himself: 
5* and he bound a diadem on lus brow. 



98 



hhtar and Izduhar. 



0, Then Ishtar tho qiieen lifted up her eyes tu tlie throne 

of Izdubar : 
7. Kiee me, Izdubai* ! she said : for I mil man*y thee 1 
8* Let lift live together, I and Thou, in one place 
9, thou 8halt be my husband, artd I vn[\ be thy wife. 
10. Thou ehalt ride in a Chariot of lapis lazuli and gold 
IL whose w^heels are golden and ite pole resplendent. 
12. Shimng bracelets thou shalt wear eveiy day. 
13* By our house the Cedar trees in green vigour shall grow: 
14. and when thou shall enter it 
15* \9nppHarit\ crowds ghall kiss thy feet! 
16. Kings, lords, and princes shall bow down before thee! 
The tribute of hills and plains they shall bring to thee 

as offerings : 
Thy flocks and thy herds shall all bear twins : 
Tliy race of mules shall he magnificent: 
Thy [trimnphs] in the chariot race shall be proclaimed 
without ceaRiii g, 
21. and among the chiefs thou shalt never have an equal 1 



17. 

18. 
19. 

20. 



22. [Then Izdtibar] opened his month and spoke, 

23* [and simf] to Ishtar the Queen 

24. [Lady ! full well] I know thee by experience I 

25. Sad and funereal [is tfn/ dwelling place :] 

26. Sickness and Famine [surround tlti/ path :] 

27. [Fahe and] treacherous is thy crown of divinity! 

28. [Poor ami tror^A/e.'*^] is thy crown of royalty ! 

29 poison : 

30* [man^ things] I will omit, 

31. [niant/ deedd of cruelti/] and slaughter: 

32. [ Yes f I have said iQ I know thee by experience I 

And so on^ thi^ough twelve more lines, which are greatly 
broken, to the end of Column I. I have restored in italics 
some of the fractured parts, but of course I cannot guarantee 
that it is done correctly. 

The meaning of all this, (as appears quite plainly from the 
Second Column) is that Ishtar was, like Hecate in the Greek 
mythology, the queen of witchcrat the crael, the merciless. 



I 




hhtar and Izdubar, 



\^\\ 



In Column II Izflul>ar goes on with his reproaches. *' All 
that ever yon have loved, you have next hated and destroyed : 
poisoned and bewitched ! And were I to many you^ yon 
would treat me jiaet as you have treated them I '' 



Column IL 

1. Wailings thou didst make 

2. for Tarzi thy husband 

3. (and yet) year after year with thy cups thou didst poison 

him! 

4. Thon hadst a favouiite and beautiful Eagle 

5. thou chdst strike fiim (mth thy wand), and didst break 

Ids wings : 

6. Then he stood fast in the forest, [onlyj fluttering his 

wngs. 

7. Thou hadst a favourite Lion, full of vigour t 

8. thou didfit pull out his teeth, seven at a time 1 

9. Thon hadst a favourite Horse, renowned in war : 

10. He drank a di'aught, and witli fever \\\o\i didst poisnn liimT 

11. Twice seven hotn*s without ceasing 

12. vnth buraing fever and thirst thou didst poison him I 

13. His mother the goddess Siliti with thy cups thou didst 

poison. 

14. Thou didst love the King of the Land 

15* whom continually thou didst render il! witli thy drugs 

16. though eveiy day he offered libations and sacrifices, 

17. Thou didet strike him (with thy wand), and didst change 

him into a Leopard ! 

18. The people of his own City drove him out from it, 

19. and his own dogs bit him to pieces 1 

20. Thou didst love a workman^ — a rude man of no in- 

struction, 
21* who constantly received his daily wages from thee 

22. and every day made bright thy vessels. 

23. In thy pot a savotuy mess thou didst boil for him 

^ Tkia incident is eTidently mtroduced, in contrast with the \mt one, the 
royal lover, with the meaning that, ^'Thjr lore has been fatal to all alike : whether 
high or low: rich or- floor/' 



100 



hhtar and Izdnhar 



24. (saying) *'Come, my servant, and eat with ub on the 

Feast-Day 

25. and ^ve thy judgment on the goodness of our pot- 

herbs '* ! 

26. The workman replied to thee 

27. Why doBt thoii desire to destroy me ? 

28. Mother ! thou art not cooking ! — I vrAX not eat ! 

29. For, I should eat food bad and accursed 

30. and the thousand unclean things thou hast poisoned it 

vnXh ! 

31. Thon didst hear that answer [ami wert enraged] 

32. Thou ditkt strike him (^qth tliy wand), and didst change 

him into a pillar; 

33. and didst place Inm in the midat of the desert! 

34. I have not yet said a crowd of things, many more I 

have not added! 

35. Lady! thou wouldst love ME^ — ^as thon hast done the 

others ! 



36. Isfatar this [speeek listened to] 

37* and Ishtar was enraged and [/ew up] to Heaven 

38. Ishtar ciime into the presence of Ann [hfir Jhiher] 

39. and into the presence of Annatu her mother she came. 

40. my Father, Izdnbar has cast [insulu upon me] — 

Here ends (*olumn II, and Column III being almost 
entirely destroyed, and Column IV nearly so, this pail of the 
story of Ishtar remains isolated from the rest. Column V, 
which is well preserved, had therefore better be treated at 
another time, and ns an independent subject. 



There is a part of this curious tablet which deserves 
particular attention, 1 mean tlie lines 14 to 19 of Column II 
which relate the sad fate of a King whoiii Ishtar changed 
into a Leopard^ *^and liu oum doffn bit him to pieces.'' 

We see here beyond a donbt the ancient original of the 
Greek fable oi Acteeon and his dogs. That hero had offended 
Diana, who revenged hemelf by changing him into a stag 
when his dogs, no longer knowing their master^ fell upon 
him and tore him to pieces. The great celebrity of this fable 



)ie ■ 



hhtar and hdubar. 



101 



siybejuilged uf fi*oEi th*/ cirenmBtance tliat Uv-i*l iii Iub 
'Metamorphoses (III, 20(>) has preserved the nameii iodixtidAiuUy 
of all the dogs, though there were no fewer than ihlrt^j-^ve 
of them* 

The claflBiciil authura of Greece and Kt>me attribute tke 
fiite of the king to tlie veiigeauce of Diana, l>ut our tablet' - 
ascribeR it to the cruelty of Ishtar. ThiB leads to the 
inquiry whether Uhtar was the EaBteni name of Diana? or 
had similar attributes? 

Now, the character of lahtar was very laultifonu. She 
VeuuH, the gudde88 of love. 8he elosely ret^eiublefi 

1* of the EphesianR, the Aprijit^ TroXy/ioaro? who 
typified Uuiversal Nature, and was the great and universal 
mother* 

But on the other hand, lehtar was the goddess of war, 
Eyum of the Greeks, Bellona ' of the Latins, for Assurbanipal 
addressee her in his prayer for succour : *' goddess of war ! 
lady of battles!''-* and when Esarhaddon was attacked by 
his enemies at a critical moment of his life, when his suc- 
cession to the crown of liis father was in danger, he says: 
** Ishtar, queen of war and battle stood by my side. She 
broke their bows. Tlnjir line of battle in her rage she 
[destroyed/''^ 

But in the tablet which we are now (considering, Ishtar 
appears in a totally different cliaracter. ns the Hecate of the 
Greeks, the queen of witchcraft — resembling Hecate in her 
funereal abode \ and in the potency oi* her magic drugs, 
equal to those of Circe and Medea.'' Indeed there is the 



* At fifit sight this aeinun alien from the attributes of Veiiust but tlie Greeka 
of Cjthera wonhippod mi ** armed VenuB," (aee PausaDias m, 23). From tbii 
ialMnd «he took her nume of Cythei-eti. 

* TniD«actioii9 of ihia SocLetjir^ vol. i, p. 347. 

* Becords of th* Pnet, toI, iii, p. 104. 

■* T9 x^^**^? ^ 'Ekuto. ratf Km crifvXaitfs^ rpo^tovTi 
Epj^ofifvav v€KVaiu at^a r rjpta koi fi^Xav alpa. 

* Xatp 'Eitarci ^aa-TrXfjTtt kui ti TfXoi appiu orrahti 
<f}{tppnKa ruv$^ c^iSaicra )^ipttm'ti pf}T{ Tt KipKijs 
pijrt Tt Miydctijff fiTfre (ay6ris ll<p4^ij5ijF» 

Thoocntus, Idvli. -• 



102 



Ishiar and hduhar. 



droBg^ resemblance between the lehtar of this tablet, and 
thoQe^^tiBt renowned enchantreHeee, The kettle, or caul- 
(Irpii/or pot, filled with mag-ic herbs remiiids lis of Medea, 

«. who on one occasion spent no less than nme day& and nights 
itr collecting herbs for her cauldron, visiting many lands for 

.,'*that purpose in her car drawn by dragons (see Ovid's J 
Metauiorphoses vii, 234). And Circe, in Homer, loves " 
Ulysses (as here Ishtar does Izdubar), yet nevertheless trans- 
forms all his comp;inionB into swine as soon as they have 
tasted of her noxious viands.* Moreover Ishtar was the 
Full Moon, for which reason she was called the goddess 
Fifteen »-Jf- ^\V' ^^^'^^'^^^ ^^^ month consisting of thirty 
days the full moon was of course oo the fifteenth day. 

These different accounts of the goddess Ishtar seem 
perplexing in tlieu* diversity ; but the theory is maintained 
by wiany scholars that all the great goddesses of antiquity 
were origimilly one, viewed in various lights* Their attri- 
lmtt"« when examined are found in reality to melt into each 
other. But the jKiets took care to keep them distinct, and 
to provide them with separate adventures, and the priests of j 
various cities had likewise a great interest in individualising" 
their own deities. Thus Ishtar of Ai*bela was by no means 
the same diviMity as Ishtar of Kiiievcb, 

Hecate was fablttd tu be the dniigliter of Asturia, which 
is mei*e!y a Greek form ot the namu of Ishtar, and varies at 
other times to Astaroth, Astarte, Astrateia, and Asterocha. 
Pausanius (iii, 25) mentions an Aprefjn^ A<TTpaT€La, whose 
worship was brought to Greece ti"<un the East* 

But to return ti> tht^ story of Action which we thus find 
j^nexpectedly among the legends of the East. 

The persistence of popuhir fables is a curious subject of 
cuntempkition. The iVrabian Nights* Enteiiahniients contain 
stories ideiitiea! with some in Homer s Odyssey, and even in 
early semi-fabulous Greek histoiy. In Egypt has been 
found a Btoiy— that of the *' doomed Prince "^ — identical %vith 
one long known in Europe. In fact there was much gi*eater 



See Odjsaej, book x* 




hhter and hdubar^ 



103 



literary mteivcomraunication between distant nations in very 
ancient times than is commonly supposed. 

In Ovid'« Metamorphoses are several storieB derived 
apparently from the AsBjTian literature l>e8ides that of 
PjTamus and Thisbe, which he expressly states to be a tale 
of Babylon* 



OULUMN I. 

* nbbilu bili-su 

I lie had thrown off his woj-^n-^ut garments 



kimmat-zu elu 

of goods he had lifted off 



2- (JT V- <S=I*) 

(subul ) 
hii burden 

^]1 -TT<T JT 

teiri-Bii 
his back 

(iddu) nisuti-eii ittalbisha 

he had cant aicny hi^ pocerty^ he had clothed himself 

Tr m -T< ^1 

zukuti-BU 
(in) hu dress of honour. 

4. (e:;? -T<) H^! ^^^ -^m --! ^^ ^T 

(Barti) itt^ikhliba-mma 

{with a I'oifal rohe) he covered himself 

rakish agn ikhri 
spU^iididly his diadem he 



B^^ifu 


fnhUtr itnii 1 


^^^^H 


^^^^r^' 


Izdubar agii-su 
hdtibar his diadem 


itibra-mma ^H 
bound roifiid his hrotes ^H 


^^K^ e. 


y? ^y e;<r ^TU _ <]^ 

ana rlnnki 
#0 the couch 


nba Izdubai* ^^^| 
of Izduhar ^^^H 


w 


ina ittii^i 
her et/es lifted 


rubiit I^litar ^M 
(he <im!en f^^^htar ^U 


^^^^ft 


-^T II ^B El 

naBikk-anma 


Izdubar ^^^B 
Izdubar ^^^H 


H 


lu-klijibir atta, ^^^H 
/ trif/ uitirnf if ICC. ^^^^B 


^^^f^8. 


4S 1^ -xld ::£TM? <T- 

sabika yaaei 


^1 T? Jl <Igf ^TT!'^ El ■ 

kaHit ki lima ^^^| 


^^m 


atta 111 mi3ti-ma atiaku lii ^| 
fhi>tt ••<hidt he intf hfisbami and I inli he ^H 


■ 


asbat-ka 

tjttf ivlfc 


1 


H 

^^^^1 


tipsa as eli 
u Idinraasi 


nikubi abni zamat ^m 
I chariot of stone lazuli ^H 



li 



i 



Islitar ant} Izduhar, \0h 

sha ma garni -eh a khurasei-ma Umieu 

wkieh H» wlieele are 0old€fi {(ind'^ in splendid 



I gam a * sHa 

its [Kik 

>2- m m^ W ^^ B\} j^TIT ^T h-mm}*^ 

^ lu-zamdat tarnish ktidann 

thou shah cJasp daily gokiett />mt*e/eM(?) 

rabi 

ana bit-oi lua Hammati 

M/ owr hotfse in green vigour 

eimi irba 

.' the cedar iree^t ahall grow 



Ht-iii ina eribi-ka 

by our house at thy entrance (of it) 

'5- eiT? -TT- -m ^w -m<) ^] m <t- ^^ 

.. .. (hain)arattn linasaiqu 

.... crowds shall kiss 



sepi-ka 
% feet. 



106 



hhUtr and Izdubar. 



..•.«•• as Bipli-ka Harri 

[ifhatl bote doten] beneath thee kitiga 

bill II inilji 

lords and princes 

17- mmm e^t ^m ^ ^e 

mandata eadi 

the offeHiitfH of moimtaift 






< 

n mati 
and plaiti 

Iti -iiaBiini -kka biltu 

they shall biing to thee aj< tribute 



"• ^^^i^^pCF] M AHT- -tB 



* • ka 

t/tif he7\h (and) floch of sheep thine 

tubami lilida 

tmns shall bruHf forth 

(nab) iiiti pai"i(?) ka 

the race of thi/ niuhs 

libabu 
slmll be magnificent 

. . . , ka IB rukubi lu-samkli 

th^ (triwnphs) in the chariot iihall be proclaimed 

-t\ Jw ^ 

la Bamu 
wiihout ceaeing* 




Tsfttar anfl hdnbm'^ 107 

ae nm eanina ai irsi 

amoilff the Chief tf an equal never shall have 

... * pa-su ibii8-ma igabbi 

[t/ien Izdubar] hu t7wufh opened^ and apoke 

. . * aiia mbuti Ishtar 

[and said] to the queen hhtar 

ana kasi akkhaz-ki 

^ flifie I know thee hy experience 

, . pagri u gubati 

corpse^* and bodied 

.... kiinimraati u bubiiti 

, leproay and famine 

akla simat iluti 

- . . crown of dimnity 

, siiiiat earruti 

... crown of royaltt/ 

^■t >TH A->f :r<!^TT 

rihil 

poison 



^^^loJ 


hhtar and hdubar, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


H 80. 


e^^^^M < 5i^T y- ^e^^H 


1 


• ■.....«.««.■.. lii-iiRbiik ^^1 


[^nanif things (?)] / will omit 


H 


^^^'^] ^ ^] 4i->m ^}Vr -m 


I 


,,,.,.. , Eiakkhaltu 


**•««•••.«••• si^mghte^r : 


H 32. 


^mm^^^ Vi< ^^K <m 


I 


akkhaz-ki 


..•••...••... / know th^e fft/ td'ptvituct 


1 


Column II, 


U 


V ^- <T5f= A^ ^T^^^i^^ , 




Sabtidimma . . . • 


wniliun f?^ 


2. 






ana Tarzi khainiri-ki 




for Tarzi th^f husband 


3. 


\^^m ]}^] <^-T< C^::s2s^-xH 




Batta ana &atti kasta-kka 1 




i/ear after year with thn cups 1 




-n<T -<T< T^ I 




taltimissii 




tlwu didat poimn hhn 


4. 


m r -ET <=Tm ^jn et s^in e^ti <tc et 




allala ent-ma tarami-ma 


^^ 


a noble Eagie aim thou didst love 



hhtar ««'' Izihthar. 



U»fl 



=■ *! \}< m J! ET -Til ^ JI -n<T ^T HI At^^ 

takhaUi-fiU-raa kappa-«u tjiltibbir 

thou didst strike him {and) his tcmgs thou did^i break 

izzrtz as kieati iBiesi 

he stood fast in the forest {and) fluttered 

-Til ^T- 

kappi 
hiif frinfjs^ 

T. ^m b:tt <- £T iH ~ii ^)]v <tt m 

t araini - in a iirm akh garni i' 

thou did Jit lore also a Hoft fid I 

^]} ^ m 

emuki 
of Btrengih 

T -E£T <4-Hfff -- -TT<T ^TT I ?» < 9 

takhtarrifl-fiii sibkti u nibitti 

thou didnt pidl out by neimi at a time 

JT *T j£!n T? ^T< 

Buttati 
Aw teeth 



«• s^!TT£^TT<-^£T ^TE -^^cIT -r|^.>f ^y 

tarami-raa kuiTa imliit 

thou did fit lovH a horst^ {fhwiomi 

gabli 



^^m ^^^ 


) hhfar and hduhar. ^^^B 


^^B 


c^n ^^ H< «s< --!< < -}% BrTT t^m 1 

ifetakklia zikti u dirmta I 


^^H 


&e drmk a ijotion emd with fever (?) ^J 


^1 


-TM -;T< H JT ■ ^1 


^^B 


thou didM poison him. ^^^H 


^^^L^ n. 


iw #^ V- -eT ^ £T -IT<T -^T< f^ JT _ 

Sibitti kasbu la nama taltimiesu ■ 
5l?feri doubMiours mthout reasinff ihou didM poison him H 


^^1 


dalakliu ii shatA taltiniissu I 


^^P 


imVA /er^r and fhhfft fkoif didM poison him 1 


^^m 


ana mnmi-su ilat Silili J 


^^B 


A«> mother the goddean Silili ^^H 


H 


- -e^ ^-H T; .yr<T ^|< h- H 

kaRta-kka taltiinis ^^^| 


^^p 


taith thy cups (liou didM poison A«?r ^^^| 


^^1 


s£yn Ecn <::c ET EhS ^ M j^TTT ^- -ET 1 

tarami-ma eab tabula M 


^B 


thou didst lore the kmp of the land fl 


^^H 


"gn -rid T? Tf -T<|v EI -EET !£T!T -TT<T ^TT 

eha kaiiiam-raa tutansh 


^H 


whom coniimially thou dkht make ill 


^k 


eemukki 


■ 


with thy drugs 



hhtar and hththar. 



Ill 



eamsarama (?) u (za) Imkh.i akki 



^W ^ 



XI 

and 



<IeJ -T< 

mkiti 

metijm 



takhatRi-*^ii-mri ana iirbari-a 

^Cfu didst strike hwit and into a Leopard 



tuttaiTi-su 
thou didst change him 

^«- ^w ^T <T-n<T B:yy t^^ jy -::u ^y ^jn 

iidarradu-8u kaparru 

they drove him out the people of his 



aha ramni-811 



i»- < iH igf T- jy «=yyy«= -^y ^ v lu 

u urku-8u iinassaku 

a7id Ais omn dogs hit him 



*idy 7yy<y jy 

sipri-su 
to pieces. 



^K 112 


fslitar miff 


hduhan ^^^^M 


^H 


t^m ^n <c:: ET 


tt JT <tT^ -ET "5^ 1 




tarami-ina 


ieiillanii ^^H 




thou dkh( iove also 


a workman ^^^H 




t;^ ^ ^T^Hi 


^T <^ H 




amiln \\w is ear at 


^H 




a man without effucaiion 


o/* /Aiiie ^^^1 


^^m 


W --B TH? -T<Tv ET JT ^^ e^TT T; 1 




flha kainammfi 


euguia 1 




who ronMaritfii 


/r^ }ra(;«!>t ^^ 




^\^}]^m 


1 




nasa-kki 


■ 




took from the(* 


■ 


^^^^ 22. 


*T it^ ^W ET 


■=m= -H¥ Ei *jn 1 




tami »aiuina 


imamiiiani 1 




a?jd day every 


A<? warf^f briqhi H 




i^^ -V <iy 


J 




paseur-ki 


■ 




thy dishes 


■ 


^^K^ 23. 


^;^] ^m tB^ 


;£yn <K cj^ ET 




ina tatfa 


Upita tak-nia 




in {thy) pot 


« ihomoml morsels 




^TTT -TT<T <2<i Jl 






tarikis-eu 






thou didst boil for Mm 


m 




Jsktar and Izdatmr. 



X13 



«- j=E jy <t^ -tl :ff t-t]] <<K JT t^ni 



kiasuta 
{on the) fmitrday 



kar a - m oia ti bbu t 

ifpmi oiii tin* tjoodneisjt 



ieiillani-ya 
m^ sermul ! 

<m^ -<* 

ki-ai kill 

tmili us eat ! 

^-- < JT -::tl ^ 

ti gukalish 
and with iuteUlgemt 

khardat-ui 

vj our pot'herlm ! 



2«. s=B JT <s=y^ -ET '^ s=E fcV ::: <ig[ 

isullanu igabbi-ki 

the workman said to thee 

^7- m Vi <T- <c- -^T T? ^?H} -n<T <!- ^^ ^ 

yasi mina tarrieinni 

me why tcouldst thou destroy (?) 

Ummi la tipd anaku la aknl 

my mother! not thou cookest, I not will eat 

sha akkalii akali pisati 

for I should eat food bad 

irriti 



n 

and 

Vol. V. 



accursed 



114 



l.t/itar mill Tzduhar. 



nakiitzi 
{uiiil) the unclean fhUujR 




ilpitu 

thousand 



tnstuiumu-[ina] 
Hon hast poisoned if wit/u 



atti taemi-ma 

thou hfiitnle^t 









3-2. ^T f}< ::£TT jy Tf -^T MH -^T -££T<T 

takhatsi-ftii ana tallali 

thou (luht Mfrike hhn {(uul) ittto a piltur [or Itmp) 

-m (^^Wi\ -T!<T JT) 

Ui (taiTi-gu) 
(f/toH (lifLst clHtftae hint) 

tiiBesibi-Bii \u kalial ina(dahari) 

(hvH diilfti jJftir hut* ru the mir!i*f {of the desert) 

val t*lu mikklia val 

not 1 have mlded a crotcd (of (htinjs) not 



aiidda 

/ have added 



hhtar and hdubar. 



115 



u yiisi taramm - annima 



and 



mjMilf 



thou wouUhi torn nie 






tike uhIq 

Isbtar 
hhtar 

lehtar 

hlitar 



anni 



Mi> 



iguknm-ma 
wa$ ver^f wt'^tlit and 



[heard] 



ana 
unto 






samami 
Heaven 



[ascended] 



38. ::^TT IH ^T 

illik-ma 
(anrf) she came 



Ishtar ana pan 

Ishtar before the face 






Anu 
o/ AnUj 



[abi-sha] 
[her father] 



ana pan Anatu umma sha 

before the face of Anat her mother 



iUik 



she 



came 



^0. \}^ -^^\)m^^i] t^m ^^^ 

abi Izdnbar itta(di) 

my father t Izdubar luis flung [insults against me] 



IIB 



hhtar attj hJuhin 



1. 



2, 



XoTES xsu Observations. 
Col. L 

UlMltt, 'lie liHil thrown off; Hek '^'^rn to let fall, Ilipliil 
of 'td:. to fiill 

BiU, Hcb* "^^2 old elothee, Joph, ix, 4* And in Jeremiah 
xxxvii], 11, ^7^ worn out clothes: old ivigH, 

Kimmat-^u ' his goods ' occurs several times iii the Tiglath 
inscrijition, e,i\ gr., coL v, 24, Mrfiuf-j-u u lamnf-zfu *his 
spoil and his goods ' (to jixj city Abbut I earned home)* 

EIu^ was removed: Hfted off fi-ora— Heb. nvVn, extraxit, 
jibduxit» snbdiixif {Cnxt.) Hiphil of ^7i^ 

7kV, the Lack: e.r, ip\^ *he fell to the gi'ound fiom the 
itack of ]m hor8e/ nltu t:<tr kun*i 3 R 4, 49. And on 
the black id>eli»k ' droinedaiies with double backs/ Aha 
ifiinai/a tsln-j-iith. 

RitHitt^ poverty, from 8)1 pauper 

Itttdbh^ T coujugation of ffil7, to clothe. Zakut, a 
fine or handsome drese, see the TranBactions of this 
8ofiety, vol. iii, p. 527, where it m exphiined lnhit» 

* dress/ and employed for the dn^aw of a god, of a 
king, Ac. 

IttakMilHu * he eovt^-red*: root D7n : compare khaliupii 

* coveriuge ' or * drees/ and the adj. takhlupH * covering ' 
in Hirs, Xinn'. col, ii, 3. 

llirkuh^ Kplendidly : from Jl * nplundid ' : used of dress 

ill SjTiac, see Cast el!, p. 847. 
liihm. This verb seenift relatetl to the Heb. lEM fascia 

frontem tegens. and ^^y a splendid head-dress or 

cuhru. Or elne, to ^^^ ornavit decoravit. Ezekiel 

nses IMD for a tiam, 
Dunki, conch ; seat of repose : for dumki from "IDl 

enbavit. jnonit. 
Jttmi^ T eoiijugatiou of b^\t^J to lift, 
A^asik^ *fei^s.' HeK p'02 oscnlari. Khtihu\ *'to marry/ 

Hence jj( t£ '^TT<T khahi ' huj^bands/ and khmtt 

* -wivee; 



I 



hhtiir and Izdulnir. 



117 



10. 



11. 

13. 
15. 
19. 
21. 

24. 



25. 

26. 

29. 



30. 
31. 



Tipsa *thou ahalt ride, or go/ fronj ytl'^D uicessit. Cojh- 

pare the aimals of Ae8iu*banipal, page 123, tapBit mm 

* in the coarse of the night,' 
Mmjarm^ from ^ -^JJJ qarru the wheel of a chsiriot, 

see the Taylor cylinder, col. v» 83. Jhni-$H perhaps 

from Arab. i^7 spleiidiut. 
ZamdaU "TD2 conjiiga\4t, copnlavit : whence T'D!{ aimillat 

a golden bracelet, 
KudanUf perhaps derived from DJID * gold/ 
Samnuiti^ from sami * green/ or from rTO!t to ^*ow and 

flonriKh, properly said of trecB and herl>s. 
HamamWu probably *tTOwdH* from *l*Dn acervus : tiirba. 

But the word is broken and therefore donbtfiil. 
Lihahu, Probably from Arab,' MPQ f^peeiee, honos, gloria 

{Schindler). 
Trm^ compare tin*' possedit* 
Pa IB not simply ' the mouth/ but moans * the open 

mouth': hence pa ibm * open mouth he made' means 

' he spoke.' 
Akkhaz^ This word is broken here, but restored from 

line 32 where it is perfect. vU'Wac-^;, ' I know thee 

by experience/ froru the verli ^TXl experimento 

didicit: expertus eat, &c., &c., (fiiuiorf). This verb 

occurs in Genesis xxx, 27, where the authomed version 

has ' I have learned by experience * — 
GubafL TDi corpus : perhaps pronounced gumn 
Kurumnvxt^ 'leprosy; is a word well kn«>wn from tlie 

deluge tablet.— ii^/oi-i * famine/ from 2^2. vacuus. 
Jii/iilf 7jn ^poisun; A cup of 7in, causing trembling 

and death, is mentioned more than once in the Hebrew 

scriptures. 
Usbuk, I vrill omit (?) Chald. p^)i^ dimittere, relinqucre. 
Natkhaltu^ slaughter (?) from "^Vn to slay. 



Col, IL 

2. Kkfwiir and Khair both metin 'huslmnd.' 

3. A'aicto, * cup * : same as Kas 012 calix : poculum 



lie 

LT?fK 



itihtirr ijiftl Izihihar, 



Talfmibsu. Tliis word occurs bo fi't-quently that itn true 
explanation afforda the key to the meaning of the 
Legend. Taltimw-su is a verb in the 2ud person 
Bin gill ar, and stands for tastimis^'iu^ according to the 
well-kno\Yn Assyrian habit of exchanging S for L, 
of which, by the way, another example occurs in 
line 5, viz*, taltibhxr * thou didst break,' for tastibbir^ the 
T conjugation of the verb HU^ to break. Again, 
y-44< is not here the plural sign, but the syllable Mis 
as happens in many other words, ea^, gr. the adverbs 
■j^ ^-4^ salmis * perfectly': >-^^| |-44< kamU 'for 
ever ' : £^ s.;t J-^h azmis ' nobly ' : see my glossary 
Nos. 349, 350, 351. The %^erb sim signifies * to poison' : 
Arab, sammam * to poison,* sam * poison ' : mmhn 
'poisonoun/ In the Michaux inscription R 70 simma 
la azj:a is ' poison that cannot be cm^ed/ Hence kuiiim 
' thou didst poison ' : tastini-su (or iastimi-ssu) ' tliou 
didst poison him/ The enclitic pronoun su tlirows 
back tlie accent, as usual, which h^ts the effect of 
doubling the consonant S. Of this there are innu- 
meral>le instances in the inscriptions, such as Uit'^issu 
instead of tm'-su (upon hini). 

4. ^4 llala may be the Heb. 7 vH bright^ famous, glorious, 
Ertt, an Eagle: ^vi'itten ^]^]] ^Tf. I gave the word 

erti^ some years ago, in my glossary No* 19. It is found 
in a list of birds 2 R 37, 9 ^Titten tflf ^JJl 5=f Jfc 
and etjuated to >^^J ^ "^TJ nmru an eagle, Heb. 
*1H?3 aqnila, Em is the Cliald, *iy gryphus: avis 
rapax: Sehindler p. 1379. 
Tarami, Heb, J2TT) dilexit. 

5. laklialsi fi*om Heb. ^HD percussit, 

Taltibhir, The last syllable bir is broken off, but is 
fortimately preserved on a small fragment found in the 
Museum of a duplicate copy. 

6. hzaz * he stood fast.' Root Ziz * to stand firai or fast/ 

apparently the Heb, tt^- This word is a great 
favourite with the Assyrian writers. Tazziz 'thou 



hftttii' iuut IzdnhifT, 



119 



UKK 



tlidet stand,' in th** aiiiiala of ARsnrhunipHl ]). 124, 

written jTyyy ^^^ -ffi^ ^\ 

Kuati * forest * : suine as Kisti. 

Imsi 'he fluttered/ Heb. ^JS2 to flutter the wings: 
related to 71^2 to fly. 

Acrp/rt * wings/ Syr, MD3 ^a<i/>a *a wing/ 

Tnkhiarri^^ for tukhtalli% R for L. Root !f7n extraxit^ 
in the T conjagati^m, 

Suttati, * the teeth/ llel). JU? a tootli, whence the plural 
suttati conies regularly, in the same way that sutta * a 
dream' roraes Jroin HJtt^ or t\'2)2J * sleep' quasi nuitttt, 
and 67;?'^// * bricks ' from p7 qua^i libinti. Also sat (a 
*a year' quasi Mantcu from n2tl^ or n2\!> * annus/ 
10, htakkha^ * he drank': root HpU^ to drink, 

Zikti dnuigUt, potion : root pp\ fudit* 
15, DaliikhH. Heb, HpTl ardenn febrin. Deuter, xxviii, 22. 

S/m/</, thirst? II eb. nnil*. 
15. Tutaris, for tutansH. Root J^l^ uocere : to make il! : or» 
to do harm, from in mains, 

Sernu-kki^ ' with thy »emut or drugs/ See line 3 where I 
hare treated of the word fnem ' poison/ 

18. Udarradn ''they drove out/ ("hald. and Syr* 11:3 to 

drive out or expeJ. 
KapaVf a to^\Ti or city. Heb, 1D3 pagns : vicus- 

19. A^assak, to bite, II eb. y^l momt)rdit, 
Sipri, 'morsels/ Hek 12t!> * to break,' and snbst, *a 

broken portion/ 
'20. //*»//««» is probality derived from un 'a helper/ Heb. 
y)2P adjuvit, auxiho fuit: and ulhoin foremost, or 
taking precedence, 
Au marat * %\^thout instrnction/ Thi^ phrase occurs iji 
the legend of the hiiancy of Sargina the fii*8t: see 
this Society's Transactions, vol. i, p. 278, where it is 
said *'He dwelt with £^ ^ rf £1^1 '^I^ "*'^*' 
nu ismrtl *a rude tribe of men/ I have there derived 
nu usfvrtl, * untaught: iiide : uncivihzed ' from the 
Heb, ID^ erudivit, caRtigavit, disciplinam adhibnit 
(Schindk*r p. 77')). 



120 

ONE 

21 



22. 



23. 



24. 



25. 



27. 

28. 
29, 

30, 



hhfnv anil Izihimr. 

Siigitrd ' wages.' Heb, 13\I^ prfemium pro labore* 
Nasa-kM, tulit a te (mercedem tulit), from MtZ73 tiJit. 
Fassu7\ * a dish ' t\c, tjr. m 4 R ' eat precious food out of a 

golden paMuVy and drink prfoious liquor out of a 

golden goblet/ 
Tatta * a pot/ Heb, Tl"T oUa. This word occui's on the 

Deluge Tablet VI, 23, wntten ^ff ]} ^]] duda, 

^^Ihda ki apiu^* (now I will open the pot). This 

second example affords a useful cunfirmatitm of the 

first. 
Jtpita, Heb. d'tM mille, 
Tak^ a momel, Heb, "T7 and verb M31 ' to break small' 

The phrase /T»- ^{2^ appears to mean * thoueaml 

bits' i.e,^ an * omnioni gatherinn.' 
Tarikis * thou boilent/ Heb. )i?TD * to boil/ whence 

ntl^mQ ahenum, a Ciiuldron, in Le\4ticiis ii, 7 (see 

Gesenius). 
Kusiita ^ the feast day.' Heb, HDD feast : solemnity 

feast day. 
At 711 * with us/ 

Kul, eat ! imperative of h!^^ ' to eat.* 
Stikali% adv. Root 73ti? * to act with intelligence/ 
Kara! speak out I declare! Heb. Kip to speak or 

proclaim. 
TihbuU goodness: from iltO bonus. 
KlmrdAi% * pot herbs.* Arab. Khadmi ' a green pot herb.' 

plur, KImdrawaf, {Catufatjo). 
TaryiH^ * thou dost destroy/ from Heb. DlJl destruxit. 
Tipa 2nd person singular fi*om the Heb. HDN, to cook, 
PiWdi ^bad; Glial d.Ur^l, mains. 
IrrUi * accursed/ ft'om IIJ^ maledixit. 
Sakuiziy Chald, !nj?tt? *i'es abominanda.' It especially 

denotes unclean nauseous /ooc/, or that offered to idols 

Ilpku^ Heb. 57M a thousand, see line 23, 




hhtar and hdnbar. 



121 



U. 



TiiMummu * thou hast poiHoned,* raaj' b© the T conjuga- 
tion of mmmam * to poison.' But this is not certain. 
It may be a tense of the verb STM * to hide,' Heb. 
DJID ocdusit : ^the unclean things which .thou hant 
hidden in the pot/ 

Miikha^ a crowd- Heb. TTSp^ a crowd ; caterra (Greseja.) 
from root mp congregare* 

Aridda * I have adde ' " ' erb occurs very fi*eqitently. 





ON A MUMMY OPENED AT STAFFORD HOUSE, 
On the 15th July, 1875. 



By S. Birch, LL,D. 



Read 2nd Nopfmhepf 1876. 



A Mummy presented by General Stantun, British Consul- 
Gencml in Egypt, to his Gntce the Duke of Sutherhmd, was 
unroll etl by me on the 15th July, at Stafford House, in the 
presence of the Duke of Sutherland, Lord Dufferin, Sii' H, 
Cole, and a select parly assembled for the purpose. The 
mummy was enveloped in a eartonage or lieeu covering, 
covered with stucco, and laced up like stays behind. The 
original cord had been replaced by modern string, Imt it was 
otherwise intact, and did not appear to have been previously 
opened. The period of the mummy was apparently about the 
XXV III th Dy nasty, if not even later, as the paintings were far 
inferior to those of an earlier date, and the hieroglyphs con- 
fused and illegible, the mummy by no means belonging to a 
time when the process of embalming was in gi'eat perfection. 
Tiie body was with some difliculty extracted fi*om the 
cartonage, and found to be swathed hi bandages of rather a 
dark colour, and by no means so full and numerous as is 
usual in the later class of mummies, although packed with 
some care. No inscription occurred on them, nor was any 
amulet or other object found to give a clue to the embalmed 
person, the only object discovered being some white leather 
placed about the back of the head, eitlier a hj^^ocephalus or 
else a scull cap, fiamm^^ but it was too far gone to determine 
ita character and use. The body was very thin, the skin 
excessively brittle, the hands crossed over the pubes, giving 
the usual aiTangement of a female also ; a later examination 



On a Muinmtf Op^netl at Stafford House, 



12a 



of tlie skeleton has led to the conclusion that it was the 
mummy of au old man. It had not been prepared by the 
bituminical proceas, but resembled the later cla&s of mummies, 
such as were made as late as the Roman Empire* It did not, 
however, exhibit any given Egyptian charactemtics, andwas 
evidently an Egyptian, although not of high rank or wealth, 
as evinced by the absence of amulets and other paraphornaUa 
of the upper classes. It was said to have come from Thebes, 
probably from some of the recently discovered tombs in that 
locality. 

The cartonage represented the deceased in the form of a 
mummy. It was composed as usual of several layers of 
linen, glued or cemented together with gum, and covered 
with a layer of fine stucco, on which the different scenes 
were painted. The face Wtis red, the colour of a man, and 
it had the usual head dress, naminify coloured blue and yellow 
at the ends, as if representing a kind of cap rather than the 
actual hair. Under this was a diapered or chequered collar 
uBx of five rows, almost always seen on mummies ; other 
rows of the collar represented white dentals on a green 
ground, or yellow and green dentals. Here it must be ob- 
served that the painting is probably intended for one of 
these collars made of porcelain beads, numerous specimens 
of which abound in Egyptian collections. Undernoatli the 
collar was a scarabaeus^ x^per, flying with extended wings, his 
head touching the 8un*s disk. Between the hind legs of this 
scarabaeiis was the signet or round cartouche emblem of the 
eolar circle or course enclosing the disk of the sun* This is 
called "the Hut the lord of Heaven,'* the usual appellation 
of the winged disk so often seen in the cornices of temples, 
tablets, and other places. Beneath this was a picture repre- 
senting the vignette of the 125th chapter of the Book of 
the Dead or Ritual, In the centre was seated thehawk-headed 
type of the god Socharis, wearing on his head a eolar disk 
and urseus, seated on a throne placed on a pedestal, bevilled 
in shape of the cubit of truth, a form of pedestal usually 
assigned to the god Ptah. Socharis is mummied, and holds 
like Osiris the crook and whip. On the later monuments, 
and in this scene, after the XXth D^masty, Socharis often 



124 



(hi a Mummtf Opened at Sta^onf Home. 



replaces Osiris, auJ was doubtleBs considered t<i be a type of 
the same deity. Before Socharis was the panther skin on a 
pule, also an emblem of OKirisi and a form of the hieroglyph 
nenu ** again/' or ** renew,'* probably referring to the 
meterapsychosia or '* second life.'* An altar with a water* 
jug, papyrivB flower, and two other plants were in front of 
Soeharis-Osiris. 

The inseriptione on this cartonage were badly written and 
confiised, exhibiting throughout traces of ignorance, care- 
lessnesSj and a complete decline of aTt. ThuR, behind the 
head of Socharis was rudely serawk-d, ** OHiris the revealer of 
good,^' Socharis was supported behind by the goddess Ma or 1 
Truth, lier flesh yellow, wearing the ostrich feather and 
hf tiding a douljlc bandage j and it was in tlie llall of the Two 
Truths that the great judgment took place. She is appro- 
priately here. Before her, instead of her name and titles, is 
inscribed, ** Osiris the lord of truth living/* She is followed 
by Amset, the first genhis or daimon of the Amenti, mummied 
human-headed, holditig a feather and doubled bandage. In 
these scenes Osiris is often accompanied l>y all fonr of these 
genii and his son Arndiis, besides IsJs and Nephtliys ; but the 
substitution of Ra-Socharis for Osiris may have inaugurated 
a new departure fnmi the religious dogma of Osiris. The 
hieroglyphs scrawled over the head of Amset read, instead 
of the usual titles of Amset, '' Osiris his lord, dwelling in 
the west, lord of Abydos» he gives supplies of food/* hotep* 
This of course has nothing to do with Amset, the scribe 
having thrice repeated in this section the name and titles of 
Osiris. Amset presided over the south, and the sepuleln'al 
vase matle in his fihape held the separately embalmed 
stomach of the dead. Before Socharis-Osiris stands Thoth, 
the scribe of the Hall of Judgment. He raises one hand, 
addressing Socharis ; in the other he holds a symbol of life. 
His function in the hall Wiis to record the judgment and to 
announce the condemnation or acquittal of the deceased. 
The deceased was supposed to be here but not depicted, and 
the inscription al)ove Thoth does not give the usual declara- 
tion, but only states, says Tahuti, the very great, the lord of 
Sesen, *' or Hermopohs tht* scribe of Truth of the gods 



On a Mummif Ojterteff at Stnjford Ihnse, 



125 



supplies food/* The flesli uf Thotli in coloured blue. Behind 
Thoth wae a mummied nuake-headed deity, weariug un the 
head two feathers, and holding two swords iu hand. 
TUfl 18 either one of the forty-twi» deuiuus of tlie hall, who 
f each puuiKh a particular ftiii, «ud here placed to indicate the 
presence of these demons, ov else the god of the seventh 
gate of Aahhi or Egyptian I%ly.sium. His name the text of 
the 144th chapter of the Ritual states to be Mates-sen^ or the 
** one who pierces them." Aah ;i^ru i«, however, said to be the 
name of the per sou who c«>nmiand8 iu it. Over his head was 
inscribed, ** OtsiriB Nebset^ devoted to Oeiris,*' apparently the 
name of the deceased, or if not, the titles of Orpins, Beneath 
this compartment was another, having iu the middle OHiris Tat 
or Osiris considered as the Established, or Emblem uf Stability 
of all things, wearing at the top of the emlJeni a sun's disk, 
having at each side an ostrich feather, allusion to his character 
as lord of Tnith, The four horizontal bars nf the emblem 
represented the four fouudatiojis or establiahineuts of all 
things. At the right eide was seated a hawk-headed raumnued 
deity holding two swords, evidently a type of Horus, but 
also occmring as that of the guardian of the 14th gate of the 
Aahlu. Above this representation was the unusual repetition 
of the ritles of Osiris, as Osiris lord of the Aion or age, kiug 
of the gods, the revealer of good, who gives supplies uf 
food to the Usii-is Nebset (^^p- Z**m)' ^^^ ^^^^ t*ther sidi?, 
seated facing, is the mummied jackal-headed god Auetn 
or Uapi, also hohling two swtuds, with the titles again uf 
Osii*is, '"Osiris the lord of the Aion, etei'ual ruler, who gives 
suppUes to the Osiriau Nebefset/' or ** Merefset," 

The lower part of the cartouage had a third scone, a box, 
in which was the barge of the god Sekar on its stand, the prow 
tenniuating hi tlie head of an oryx, the body of the chest 
surmounted liy a hawk, behind a flabellnm. Iu the 1st 
chapter of the Ritual this barge or box, tailed the hanmi, is 
described, and Thoth says, "I am the chief workman who 
made the ark of Sfjcharis on its shores/' this mystical 
' object lieing supposed to be produced by Thoth. Ou the 
right side of the ark is the second genius of the dead Hapi, 
cynocephahis-headed. standing mummied, holding a doubled 



12(1 



On a Mmnmif Ojwm'd at StaffonI Home. 



bandage. This, siippoBin^ the other figures represented 

Ameet, Tuautrautf, and Kahheeimf^ would complete the 
four genii of the Amenti. Chi the other side was the ntandard 
of the lotUB, two plumee, collar and signet emblem of the 
god Nefer-Tum, Ron of Ptah and Bast, often foiuid on eofliasj 
but ffjr rea«on8 unknown. 





127 



ON THE NAME OF AN EGYPTUN DOG, 



One of the dugH on the Tablet of Aiitew-Aa II bi>re 
the name of T J ^^<=>'^3^, which Dr. Birch explains 
nomewhat Joubtfiilly "' pied'' or *' spotted Sphinx.'** Tht^ 
word has a foreign look» and recalls iiimietHately to the mind 
the Berbcriau name of the greyhound, O » * t Q] ahaikoni\^ 
with this diflerence, however* that O -I Iffl iti*aikour is com- 
monly used for the whole species, whilo T JP^k^'^^^^i^ 
ahakrou is the peculiar name of only one uidividual dog. 
To be called r J ^L*^^"^fJ^ ahakrou^ a dog needed out 
really to be of Libyan breed : king Antew-Aa, or his master 
of the hoinidH, took a fancy for the Rtrange-Kounding name, 
and applied it ^nthoiit much troubling themselves for its 
tnie meaning. Thus, iii France, where some people are fond 
of giving their dogs foreign nanieHi without any reference 
either to breed or colour, I luivo known a setter called 
lamiharly Pmu and several white curs who enjoyed umo- 
cently the title of B/aek 

Many of the tiihes that hihabit the wilderness to the 
weet of Egypt, speak even nt»w dialects akm to those of 
the Touaregs and the Kabyles.^ If the identification between 



* See Tmut. Sac. Bib. Arch.* tol. iv, part It i)flge 181, 
' HftTift^uu, Ettai de grammaire Tatnachek, pp. 17, 21, 
^ See the vocftbularr of the Siouali flialrct in Cailliaud, Voifag§ tk Jdh'oS, 
torn* i, 409, 202, find H(ttiiite»Ut Eatm de Qrammmre Kahyh. 



128 



On the Name of an Egyptian Dog. 



T J wfe^'^^~^^^5^ abahrou and O-iilD abalkour is allowed 
to be right, it becomes necessary to admit that some at 
least of the Tamahou and Robou tribes spoke a Berber 
tongue, and were of Berber origin. 

G. :Maspero, 




FAC- 



18 'I 



4L 



I 




fcAAW TvV-i 








rJm 



iwuns: 



129 



THE BABYLONIAN CODEX OF IIOSEA AND JOEL. 

Dated 016 A.D. (wow ai 8i, Petersburg)^ 

COMFAEED WITH TUE EECEITED MASSORETIC TEXTS. 

By the Hey. Chribtiak D. GiNdBURO, LL.D. 



Bemd %nd Jfay, 1876. 

of my audience will, I have no doubt, be glad to be 
formed of the history of this remarkable Codex before 
I entering upon a comparison of the text and the JlaHSorah as 
exhibited in tliis MS* with the received text and Mapsorah 
a« printed in the authoritative editions. In 1839 Aliraham 
Firkovitfih, the celebrated Karaite Cliaeham, discovered a 
number of MSS. in the synagogues of Tzuiutkalle, Karas- 
mibazar and Feodosia, Among these was a small tbUo con- 
tjiining the Later Pniphets, which, together with other mami- 
scripfs, he presented to the Hietoriciil and Antiquarian t^'ocirly 
at Odessa. Hence this MS, is sometimes called the Odessa 
Codex, As this aged savant restlessly continued his search 
after MSS. during many years and m diflereut countries he 
8ucceeded in acctminlating a large number of both Biblical 
and other documents, which he offered to the Imperial 
Library at St. Petersburg. On the 17th October, 1862, the 
supreme command w^as issued to purchase the collection 
with the condition tlmt the Odessa MSS* were to be handed 
over to the Imperial Public Library of St. Petersburg, and 
this condition w^as fulfilled in 18<i3. 

Students of Biblical criticism and literature must feel 
thankfid that this Codex has at last Ijceij drjufKitpd ai St. 
Petersbiu'g. The princely liberahty with which the Uussian 
Vol. y. 9 



FAC- 



fW 



€L 



I 




Tih?'*! I'll I 



yrn 



nwwni: 



129 



THE BABYLONIAN OODEX OF HOSEA AND JOEL- 

Dat^ D16 A.D, {now at St, Petershurff)^ 

COMPARED WITH THE RECEIVED MA^SSOKKTIt? TEXTS. 

By the Rev. Cubistian D* Oinsbubo, LL*D. 



Mead 2nd Matf,XS76, 

Some of ray audience will, I liave no doubt, be glad to be 
informed of the historj^ of tliie remarkable Codex before 
entering upon a comparison of the text and the Massorah oa 
exhibited in tliia MS. with the received text and Ma^sorali 
as printed in the authoritative editions. In 1839 Abraham 
Firkovitsb, the celebrated Karaite Chacham, discovered a 
number of II SS. in the synagogues of Tzufutkalle, Karas- 
8n bazar and Feodoeia. Among these was a small fulio con- 
taining the Later Pn»phetB, wlucli, together with other laanu- 
Bcripr«« he presented to the Historical and Antiquarian Society 
at Odessa, Hence this MS, is sometimes called the OdeRsa 
Ci>dex, As tliis aged Mwant reatlessly continued hm eearch 
after M»SS. dming many years and in different countries he 
succeeded in accumulating a large number of both Biblical 
and other documents, which he oflered to the Imperial 
Library at St, Petersburg. On the 17tli October, 1862, the 
supreme command was issued to piux'liaee the collection 
with the condition that the Odessa MSS* were to be handed 
over to the Imperial Public Library of St. Petersburg, and 
this condition was fulfilled in 18(i3. 

Students of Biblical criticism and literature must feel 
thankful (hat this Codex has at laBt been de|iOHited at St. 
Petersbiu-g, The princely liberaUty with which the Russian 
Vol* V. % 



130 



The Bithjloman Codex of llonea atnl Joel. 



I 



I 



Goverument publislied the maginficent focsimile of the 
JSinaitic Codex is now beiJig extended to the BabyloDian 
MS», aud we are promised that a photo-lithographic fac- 
Biraile of the entire Codex will appear this year, at the 
expense of the Imperial Rii8eian Government, edited by 
Dr. *Strack, a most able Biblical scholar. As an earnest of this 
promise, Dr. Strack has published separately the prophets 
Hosea and Joel. We are time enabled not only to see the 
superb manner in which the MS. will appear, but to foi*m an 
approximate idea of its iinmeiiBc value to the criticism of the 
Biblical text and the History of biblical literature* The 
Buhscription states that the MS. was finiBhed in the year 1228 
of the era of contracts, that is 916-17 A.D.* Hence, vni\\ the 
exception of two Codices, vi^., the Ben Asher Codex, which 
has recently been discovered at Aleppo, and the MS. which 
the Karaite community at Cairo possess, it is the oldest dated 
portion of the Old Testament yet discovered. It contains 
the Later Prophets, viz., Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekieh and the 
Minor Propheta^ and conBisis of 225 leaves; each page has 
two columns, and every column as a rule has twenty-ono ■ 
lines* The margia between the two coluniixs and the outer 
margin, or the margin at the edge, gives the Maseorah Parva, 
whilst the lower margin gives the Maesorah Magna. The 
difference between the two Massorahs is that the Massorah 
Parva simply remarks ^ — The expression in question is written 
plene or defective, that it occm's ouce, twice, tln-ee, six, 
twenty or so many times, without giving the passages, 
whilst the Massorali Magna rubricates all these instances, 
and enumerates tliem cither alphabetically t>r according to 
the order of the Bibhcal books. ■ 

The extreme importance of thin MS. i\o*^H not simply 
cojisist in its great agLv but in the fact that it exhibits 
textual phenomena which, up to the time of its discoveiy, ■ 
have been unknown to Biblit al students and Hebrew philo- 
logists. . These phenomena may be divided into three 
classes. 

mm^y oncryi n^nxD 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 131 

I, ITie disposition and readings of the text and the 
Massoretic gloseee* 

II, The vowBl-poiiitfl, which are not only different in 
form» but, uuhke those of the received text, are placed above 
the letters ; and 

III, The form and disposition of the tonal accents, which 
are likewise entirely different from those commonly adopted 
botli by Jews and ChriBtians in the printed editions of 
the Hebrew Scriptures* 

The wide range of subjects involved in theee phenomena, 
and the limited time allotted to me, preclude the possibility 
of discussing all the three classes. I shall therefore confine 
myself in the pi^sent treatise to the fii'st class^ leaving the 
other two classes for separate essays. 



I, — The DisPosnioN and Readings of tee Text 
THE Massoretic Glosses. 



AND 



Though it is greatly to be regretted that we have not as 
yet the photo-lithographic fac-simile of the whole Codex, yet 
the published part which contains Hosea and Joel will ap- 
proximately shoAV what results we may expect from a careM 
inveBtigation and collation of the enthe reproduction* As 
far as the formation of the letters is concenied, the part at 
hand yields suflBcient material for definite conclusions, 

(I). 77ie Letters, — The fL>lIo^ing letters are different in 
form frum those in the ordinary MSS, {see Plate), 

n. The left shaft of the He (n), Hke that of the Cheth 
fnjt i« Aiot open at the top, and the only tlifterenee bt^tween 
the two letters is that in the case of the He the left shaft 
begins a little inside the horizontal or head line, whilst in 
the Cht'th the horizontal line is within the two shafts, as will 
be seen in the words, rPpTTT, Hezekiah (ilos. i, 1), rTCHvOm 
(Hos. i, 7), rrom (Hob, i, 8), &c,, which contain both letters, 

T, Is shorter than the one generally known ; it does not 
reach the bc»ttom line, and, indeed, is not much longer than 
Yod, as may be seen in D^ii:T (Hos, i, 2), fT^il^t (Uos. ii, 4), 
•jMynr (Hob. i, 4), nn2t (Hos. ii. 7), Ipyn (Joel i, 14). 



132 



The Dabylonian Code^ of llosea and JaeL 



1, The sliaft of the Yod is longer tlian that of the 
ordinaiy Yod^ and is, in fact, almost as long as in Zain^ aa 
may be Hcen in rPtJ' (Hus. i, 1). 

T. The final Nun is not as long as the one genemlly 
iVvund in MSS,, and is most frequently simply the length of 
the medial letters. It has more the appearance of our Zmii ; 
comp. p (Ho8. i, 1). JS (HoB,ii, 5), and of P*auy comp. •^Dt^'^ p 
(Hos, i, 3, 4). 

If the last word dot'S not quite come np to the end of 
the line so as to be even with the edge of the column,. a thick 
dot, or even two dots» fill np the space. Sometimes, however, 
the dots are pnt between the two last words, which give it 
the appearance of marking an omission (compare line 3 from 
the top on p, 180 a, Kne seven firom the bottom on the same 
page, and line six from the top on p, 181 a). Sometimes, 
however, the broken or the entire initial letters of the word 
begimiing the following line are used to fill np the line. 
Tliis is the ordinary way in which the scribes made even 
Hues, and is also to be found in the early printed books. 

The accents Ma^fia and Sjph-pmuk are not unfrequently 
put in the letter, so that the 1 appears like H eee M*^p 
(Hos. i, i\ 9), onffil (Hos. xiii, 10). 

The words are not always distinctly separated, w^hich 
somtdiraes gives the appearance of a various reading* Thus, 
for instance, ^n 7M *'^2? fhe sons of i lie Imng God (Hosai, 1), 
wonld certandy be read ^TV7^ ^^1, tftf sons of my God^ had 
not the vowel points decided the reading. 

Vet'mular and Sect tonal Biclsions. — Eveiy vei-se is marked 
off* by two dots, which come down to about the middle of 
the letter, and the new verse follows immediately without 
any interval. As to the larger divisions, the text exhibits 
three kinds. We have in the first place what is called in 
Massoretic language, a break in the fniildk of the verse 
(PIDSD y^Hl pDD). 

This brc.ik is in tlie middle of verse 2, chap. i. It is a 
new division, and is m>t to be found either in the printed 
Massctndi or in those MS8. which I have collated. Though 
tlie MasHorali nowhere gives a special list nf tlie breaks in 
the middle of verses, yet both the printed text and the MSS. 



I 



I 



I 




77i« Bafiylonian Codex of Uosea and Joel. 



\U 



^ 



mark them. Hitherto thii'ty-oiie Biieb breokH have bt^eu 
kno'wni,* but this one is not incluil».*d in them. Ah the 
Massoritee defiigned to indicate by theae breaks that some- 
thing is omitted in the text we ha%^e here an omission 
according to these authorities. 

The two other divisions consist of open and closed 
sections* Hosea is divided into 18 sections, 4 open and 1-4 
closed, wliilflt Joel has 1 t>pen aiid 4 closed sections, 

OPEN SECTIONS. 



HoBea V, IK 



uc. 



1 
]o. 



CLOSED 


SECTIONS. 


[osea 


, ii, 


2 


(1) 


» 




16 


(2) 


»» 




18 


(3) 


» 




25 


(4) 


n 


iii, 


1 


{^) 


w 


iv, 


I 


(6) 


»» 


V, 


1 


(T) 


♦ T 


vii, 


1 


(8) 


It 


"H 


13 


m 



X, 1 (10) 



Joel ii, L 



t> 


xi, 


7 (11) 


n 


xii, 


1 (12) 


» 


xiii, 


12 (13) 


i» 


xiv, 


2 (14) 


eel 


ii, 


15 (15) 


w 


n 


23 (16) 


n 


iii, 


1 (17) 


}f 


iv, 


18 (18) 



The open sectionf* are marked by the space of an entire linr 
heing left vacant, wliilyt the closed sections are indicatL'd in 
four difiLrent ways, as follows. 

* The thirtj-oiie mstanoea are as follows :— Gen. xiit, 22 ; Numb. xit. 19 ; 
Dei»t ii, 8 ; Josh, it, 1; viii, 24 j Judg. ii, 1 j 1 Sum. i, 23 j xiv, 19, 36 ; ivi, 2, 
12; XTii, 37-, ixi, 10 j xiii, 2, 11} 2 Sam. t, 2, 19 j ri, 20 j rii, 4; iii, 13; 
xvi, 13 i xvii, 14 J XTiii, 2j xxi, 1, 6; xxiv, 10, 11, 23 j 1 Kings, liii, 20; 
cm. nviii, 18 ; Eielc- iii, 16. In some of the MSS. thia fiiatiis \& L-ullrd 
33^85, and the Maasorah Patra against the piujAiiges iu (juestion renarka 
K03nfi n3 = 28 9uch brmkif. 



134 



The Bahijhniaii Co(h,r af Hmm nnd JoeL 



L By a vacant epaet in tlie niiddle of the line, as is the 
case in sectione 2 (Hos. ii, ItS), 5 (Hi, 1), 7 (v, 1), 8 (vii, 1); 
17 (Joel iii, 1), 18 (iv, 18)^ 

IL By an unfinished hue, followed by an indentation in 
the next hjie, as in sections 1 (Hos. ii, 1), 3 (ii, 18)» 4 (ii, 23), 
6 (iv, 1), 9 (%ai, 13), 10 (x, 1), 13 (xiii, 12). 

in. By an indentation without the previous line being 
unfinished, as in sectioHB 11 (Hos. xi, 7), 12 (xii, 1), 15 
(Joelii, 15), 16 (ii, 23); and 

IV. By a full line preceded by an unfinished one, as in 
section 14 (Hos. xiv, 2). 

In ahnost exactly the same way are the open and closed 
sections marked in the Yemen Codex of the Pentateuch now 
ill the Cambridge University Library, Add, 1174, where, how- 
ever, three Pes (the initials for nmilD) are put in the vacant 
line, one on each eitle and one in the middle, if it happens 
to be the first or last in a column, to indicate that nothing 
is wanting. 

Having thus given the palseographical featm*es of the 
MS., we shall now proceed to the readings of the text. And 
here I must remark t!mt I have collated it with the editio 
princeps of Jacob b. Chajim's Rabbinic Bible (Venice 1525-2<>), 
which alone is the authoritative Massoretic editiou of the 
Hebrew Scriptures, as no reliance is to be placed on the 
successive reprints. 







■ 








^^^^^^B T'he BabylonuiH Coflex of Honea and Joel. 135 ^^M 


^^^^^ VARIOUS READINGS. ^^| 




^^^^^ 5?ttnrT HosEA U, 4 — xi, 7, 


^H 


,1 


f 


lABfLOIUAM Cot^KK. 


CH. V, 1 

rill. 7 




PHilTBD Tk3LT. 


Babtloiiiak Cofitx, 




1 


nfe'^l ^^5 


(1) ♦W ^3 


«'r^ 


mn 


ii. 4 




niJjO^ 


air»9^< 


. 12 ' 

1 




mpit? 


(J) ntj^"^ 


M 5 


H 




ia-> 


^^ 


1 


nwi 


n*W] 


ft ♦» 


H 




n^n? 


njn^ 


.. 13 


onie 


oniH 


n 


H 




Drifcfon 


o;;\iKtsn 


.. ,, 




*Tpn?^ 


0) npn^ 


*. ai 


H 




n*0it?1« 


n^0t3p"jK : 


n lA 1 




njnr-n^< i!^in;i 


^J« ^9.^iirr,1 


.. S2 


^1 








1 




(1) njn^ 




^^1 






D? ^^T, 


IX. a i 


^l?Tt?*v53"n» 


^^•Tb^^^n^S-n^ 


iu. 1 


H 


■Bi C1D^7 


tHm^ 


.> e 




111 


0) 1T3 


M 5 


H 




^^T 


oti'. 


ti fj 




WT 


ytr" 


iv. X 


H 




nijn' 


npv 


. 8 










^^1 


n 








oVi\ 


(J) n'^n 


., 2 


^^1 




Tipi:: 


•ttp5i?i 


u 9 




3ri^ 


nr* 


M 3 


H 




■ nz^n 


u) nijo] 


.r 10 




1«=?^??) 


1P¥?«?J 


,. 


■ 




r ici^^ 


tPIP 


,, n 




q«bjj^^t<l 


wirj-^K 


1, 15 


■ 




H siin 


3in 


.. 13 




RIJIK 


?in« 


ti 1& 


■ 


^^m 


(») W« 


M 15 










^H 


^^^^ D^"nD 


onib 


fi i» 




Dr!n:?fP 




n ** 


fl 










V. 4 


' ^^1 




I'tSl "72 


pfc^*' Y? 


.. 16 




«r^ 


K*^t<1 


., 14 


V 




nnpn 


(1) *nvD 


X. 1 




n_>lI!*K T]"?^ 


(Dn^-itj'K n;^^ 


„ 16 


1 




^^.!1 


«^3.',1 1 „ 










^^1 












iJ?n; 


^3.!"? 


Yi. 2 


^H 




do:* 


DpJIt? 


., 10 




it^p 


(2) ttty!^ 


„ d 


■ 




n^ 


1 f» nvpi 


M 12 




m?)m 


ri'^'ijo^-i 


PI n 


H 


■ ^'t 


m 


.* *. 




^35^P 


^ypk^ 


vil.5 


1 




1?T? 


(J> ^^11?^ 


1. 13 




D?&« 


Dni;H 


M 


1 


H ^^^ 


D^^piVl^ 


xi. 2 




Kihi* 


«lt^m! 


,♦ 7 


I 


H og'Oiv^tst;; 


Dg^qvt;^^ 


,. 6 




d:?^3 


D??^5 


. 14 


^ 




D^6n 


DvSn 


M 7 




D^59«? 


Du^:;' 


Tiiie 


a 






J 



^^13(^^^^ 


77i^ Bahyhiiian Coife^v of ffosea ajid JoeL 








HosKA xii, 1 — Joel iv, 20. 






1 




PxrKTBD TXIT. 


BiATJUOMIAM CODBt. 






Fbihtbd Tizt. 


Baatix»»us Codbx. 






nbiN^pri 


nuK^ri " 


xiii.s 


^J3?D 


11) 'j-n^ts 


rii. 1 




1'7?1 


ll;l 


.. 14 




ntr-i^L' 


(1) D'^hp 








^-m 


[1) np^i 


xiv. 3 




^Pr- 


(i» ^3V1 


. 5 






w^ 


P ii *lf P 


-, 5 




iV 


<i; niu 


M 10 






VI)p}V 


VJJW 


.. 7 




IfEf^K 


(1) 13V« 


»i 11 






DpiVJ 


D^p^Vl 


.. 10 




DJUM 


□31305 


xiii.2 






VARIOUS RExmiNGS. 










hiV\^ Joel. 








tmiHtm TttT, 


BUTLOmAM OODJOt. 






PMlTTtD TiST. 


BinumAa C»bu. 


CII. V. 

i. 5 


^3^5* 'P-l 


(i) ^a^^p; *jp 


ii. 11 


M^ni 


^^^D1 




'^?T^1 


^n 


H 16 




^r)b^ 


*01L- 


1* ti 






'^bij^rt 


*:iDii5n 


,* 20 




n-jiit* 


rrjpv- 


. 11 






n^ 


P nif ni5f» 


. 23 




*:^r^? 


-i'Vir^l^vr^si 


. 12 






- ^?'l 


■"Tl 


,. 23 






m b^Dn 








■ D?^;:3i>?^ 


D?^aii?i 


m» 1 




ib^?.) 


(1) nb5 


M 15 






mipii^ 


nnjp^n) 


.1 3 




«1^q 


t«i^q 


». 16 






«»rin 


K^nn 


iv. 1 




nn;;^fP 


nrj^iRpp ' 


.. 17 






D*3bn 


D^?tt3n 


.. 5 




ty^D'n 


fi) EJ^gtn 


i» »i 






fi?*ni^ 


or^i^l 


u 8 




jnjfj? 


(1) iiij'Fi 


.. 20 






Dp^OliPTP^ 


D?'Di?Ii?^ .. 10 




^rnriT 


(i> Jiynn 


11. 1 






%m]f 


in iL*'p ,, 11 




W* 


*;jB?i^ 


*> It 






^iiy.^ 


{1} ^^;i 


,. 12 




bnp 


(1) Dl^ 


r 2 






DVbq D*J>sq 


D*3tDq D^JTOq j 


.* 14 1 




PV-IT 


nvv 


n 7 






D*:??bi 


D^?3131 


., 5 




t^e??^ Ki?) 


nt3|r; K^J 


ft ♦♦ 






inj in^ 


IHJ 1^^ , 


„ 20 




DOTrr)fe< 


Q^jh-jk 


»» If 












J 


1 



The Babylonian Codex of Iloeea attd Joet 



137 



From tills tuble of various readings, it will be seen that 
tlierearc uu les^ than *J5 in Hu8*'a mid Joel, lU in tht* formt-r 
audSl in the latter, and that 27 of them (viz., 19 inHoseaand 
8 in Joel) are marked ^vith the figure L This plan we have 
adopted to indicate that tlie reading in question is according 
to ilie first or origimil scribe, and that in thetteeond recenMion 
the primary reading is made conformable tu the received 
text. 67, however, are left imtouched, 44 in Uosea, and 23 
in JoeL 

A careful examination of these readings ml] show that 
more than half of them refer to the plane or dt^fV^ctive way 
of spelling which the Massorah calls IDm W772, and might 
therefore be considered trite. But even these have a cali- 
graphical interest, and are of importance in detennining the 
time when the Massoretic rules for wTiting certain words in 
a particular manner were regarded as binding by the scribes. 
In many of the readings before us we already see the 
struggle between the difloront modes of writing which ol> 
tained in various schools and model Codices, and which some 
re^iscl'8 of the text attempted to substitute fur the original 
spelling. Thus it not unfrequently happens that a word in 
plene in the text, and the Massoretic gloss in the margin 
states that it should be defective, and vice versa, or that the 
textual ^\Titing is according to a well-known model Codex, or 
that it should be so.^ 

Some of the readings, however, are of more than caH- 
graphical importance. They give to the passage a difierent 
shade of meanuig. Thus, for instance, Uos* ii, 22 in the 
Hebrew, and li, 20 in the Enghsli^ is, ** anci thou shall know that 
I am the LonW instead of; ** and thou shalt know the Lord." 
It is interesting to find that the Vulgate must have had the 
same text» since it gives the same rendering. Again, Hos. iii, 1 
in this MS., reads, *' according to the love of the Lord toward 
the home of Israel/' and not " according to the love of tlie 
Lord towards the children of Israel/' as it is in the received 
text. 



' * Compare Hob, ii, 5, 21; ri, 3j is., 15; x, 12; lii, 1 (twice), 6, 
Joeli»12; ii,l. 



10 J 



138 



The Baln/hman Codejc of Hoiea and Joeh 



Tlie third instance is in Hob. ix, 2, The words, as we now 

have them in authorised editione of the Hebrew text, mean : 
The floor and the winepreaa abaO not noumh tliem, 
And the new wine shall deceive or fail in her. 

The expression rT3 ?'t her. at the end of the second eJause, 
IS most awkward, and is taken either to refer to the city or 
metropohs, or to the feminine T^IV congreg^ttion^ which though 
not to be tbnnd in the passage is supposed to be iuipHed, 
Apart from the nniiaturahiess of this explanation, this ren- 
dering is against the parallelism, as may be seen even in the 
English version. Our Codex, however, reads DS m them, 
third person phu^'il masculine, that is, the new whte shall deceive. 
or fail them. This reading is to be found in a number of 
other MSS., and is supported by the Septuagmt, Chaldee, 
Syriac, and Vulgate. 

Besides improving the sense of the passage, this reading 
explains the import of an expression which frequently occurs 
in the margin of Old Testament MSS* and ki the printed 
Massorah. Against this very passage, MSS. 5711 and 9399 
in the Massorah Parva, and^MS, 5711 in the Massorah Magna, 
as well as in the printed Massorah, both Parva and Magna, it 
is remarked Dl pl'*2D b PQ, ue., the e.rpresmon HI, IN HKR, 
is supposed to be in two instmices Ql, IN THEM, third person 
plural masculine, viz,, 2 Kings iii, 24 ; Hos. ix, 2. Following 
the opinion of Levita/ modern Biblical critics have taken 
]''"\^2D to mean hnaginary readimjs^ conjectural and fancfjid 
emeudutions. The fact, however, that Dll is here, and in other 
MSS*, the textual reading, and that even those scribes who, 
following other model Codices, did not adopt it in the text, 
were nevertheless constrained to remark upon it in the 
margin, shows that pl^lD does not mean conjeetnral or 
fanciful emendations, but denotes that according to certain 
schools and model Codices it should be or if is so and «o, and 
that it designates another reading. 

The fourth instance to whicli I must call attention in the 
list of variations, is the use of the personal pronoun third 

^ Compare Mftssorelh Hii-MaBesorethi with an English translation and 
critical notes, bj Clmstifln D. Qinahurg, j>. 226^227, Longmune, 1867. 



TTie Bab^lonurn Cocle^v of Iloaett and JoeL 



139 



perBOB. In two passages, viz., Hob. xi, 4, and Joel iv, 1, the 
MS. has Nin for the feminine, whilst tho printed text^ fol- 
lowing the Palestinian recension, has M^n, At first eight 
this difference might seem inBignifieant, But a little eou- 
sideration w^ill show that it is one of the few surviving 
witnessefl which testify to the fact that the Hebrew text, 
owing to linguistical and other reasons, was periodically 
subject to changes. 

In the Pentateuch t*^irr» ^'ithout and with the prefixes He 
(t^T^Ti). and I aw (t*^im), occurs Gr)<3 times, viz., NIH 355 times, 
M^nn *^2 times, and NlfTl 1 1 times^ and is used both for the 
I masculine and feminine. \\Tiilst with Yod^ with and without 
the prefix, it only occurs 11 times altogether.^ This striking 
feet proves beyond doubt that when the Hebrew w^as a living 
language the form fr^in was epicene, and that it was only at 
a later period, ivhen the language was not so well understood, 
that the scribes, for the sake of perepieuity, began to separate 
the forms, using MIPF with Vctu for the masculine, and adopted 
\iCr\ \\^th iW for the feminine gender. In the Pentateuch, 
w^hich was regard*.'d as peculiarly sacred, the scribes did not 
venture to change the Vau into a YoiL Still, to indicate 
the feminme they put a Chirek under the IJe. Hence the 
apparent anomaly of Min. But in spite of the gi-eat care 
wilh which the Pentateuch was guarded^ the new form MIJl 
with Vod crept into 11 passages through carelessness* 

The case, however, was different w^ith the Prophets and 
Hagiographa, Here no such scniples existed, and tlie reform 
was carried through sj-stematically by the Palestinians, so 
that in process of time the old form t^lPT was entii'ely 
eliminated, and the new funu N^n was adopted whenever 
the feminine is spoken of. The Babylonian scribes, however, 
did not strictly abide by this rule* Hence the numerous 
instances in which the old form HIH f^»i' the t^^miiine makes 
its appearance in the MSS. of these schools, It is, therefore, 
incorrect to say that Min> as epicene, was a peculiar idiom of 

* The ©le?en untancea are a* follows i — Gcu. %i\\ 2 ; xii, 5 j mTiii, 25 j 
Levit. xi, 39 ; xiii, 10, 21 ; iri, 81 j ii, 17 i iii, 9 j Numb, r, 13, 14. Thej 
mte enumerate in th« printed Mftssomli on Qen. ixxtiii, 26 i Levit, ijii, 21 ; 
mnd in ftltnost all of i1i« M^B. wtlh tlie Mas^onilj. 



140 



The Bahyhmmi ihdex of Hmea and Joel. 



tlie Peiitateiicli* It was originally used for both geuders 
tliroogh tlie whole Hebrew Scriptiiree, and waB nltiraately 
retained in the Pentateuch for pecuhfir reasons.* 

The Miisaoraiu — As has ah^eady been remarked, this MS- 
contjiina both the Massorah Parva and Magna. Now, in 
most of the notices which have appeared of this Codex, it ig 
asserted that the Massorah i8 almost as peculiar as are the 
vowel'pointB and accents, and that it entu-elj differs fi^om the 
llasssoretic corpus compiled and edited for the first time by 
Jacob U Cliajim Ibn Adoniah in the Rabbinic BiUe pnbliBhed 
by Boraberg, in four volumes foHo, Venice, 1525-26. But 
this says too mnch, and means nothing. If by it is meant 
that it contains Massoretic lists not to be found in the 
printed Massorah, it is nothing peculiar, since this is the 
case mth all the Bible MSS* which have the Massorah. 
And if by it is meant that the headings of the Rubrics are 
now and then somewhat different fi^om those in the piinted 
Massorah, and that the Massorah Parva sometimes cotitvains an 
important remark not to be found in the compilation of Jacob 
b* Chajim, this, too, is nothing peculiar. Of all the MSS. 
which I have collated for the last twenty years for a new 
edition of the Massorah, and a coiTect Massoretic text of the 
Hebrew Bible, I have not fuund two alike, containing exactly 
the same Massorah. No two MSS. have the same number of 
lists, have always the same headings for the same Rnlnics, the 
same selections, the same disposition of the materials, or 
even the same terminology, or the same Massorah Parva, 

My experience has shown mo that each scribe has 
selected a larger or smaller quantity of Massoretic materials 
for the MS. he annottited^ corresponding to the sxmi which he 
got foi' doing the work ; and that the Massorites were not 
bound by any fixed terminology even when describing the same 
phenomenon. Every school used its own signs, and every 
head of a guild invented his phraseology, ^vhich his disciples 
more or less adopted. Hence, to say that a particular MS. 
of the Hebrew Bible contains a Massorah diflferent from the 



^ CompaW' Gciger, Ut^scAfift und Uehersetzangen der Bibdt p. 255* Breslau, 
1&57. 




The Baity hnian Codex of Ilosea and JoeL 141 

pruitetl, or even unlike any other MS., is sayiug nothing by- 
way of distinction, ^iiice in tliis respect it eimply possesses 
the features of all other MSS. It also follows^ that to edit 
the Mcissorah and to compile a glossaiy of its technicalities, 
it is absolutely necessary to collate all the accessible Biblical 

uss. 

The correctness of these remarks may be testeil by the 
appended Massorah of llosea and Joel, I hare here arranged 
in m'ne parallel col iinina the Massorah of eight different MSS*, 
eidebyside, wth the printed MasBorah, and ajt^ainst the Hebrew 
text in Ko far as it is Mtwsoretically annotated. In this way 
the student will be able to see at once how often these MSS. 
and the printed Massorah agree in noting the same phe- 
nfimenoD, and how frecinently only one, tw^o, or tliree remark 
upon the pecuHarity, whilst the others pass it over in silence* 
As the design of this treatise is to point out the importance 
of the Babyloniiin Codex to Biblical criticism and literature, I 
cannot now dwell upon the materials contaiued in the otht-r 
MSS* in the parallel columns, but must confine myself to our 
Codex. 

The Mag8omh Moffua* — It will be more convenient to 
describe the Massorah Magna first. This, as has already 
been remarked, occupies the lower margin of e^ich page, and 
in Hosea and Joel coatains thirty-one Rubrics, whicti are 
arranged alphabetically, or accorduig to the order of the books 
in the Hebrew Scriptures. The peculiarities of tlte Rubrics 
as contained in this MS. \yH\ be pointed out hereafter. 



^H 






^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


^ 


^^^^^^^^H 


F 


li^^^H 


^^^^^H 




1 


142 


TAc Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 




MASSORAII MAGNA. 






HoSEA ytiin i, 1— iv7. 




B.Bl. AoD. Ib26l> bM, AOO, I5i&0. ,Ui:«f>Ei. Orowt. 16. 

1 


B.H. Auo. 99m. 


B.1I. Hau. hUl. 1 


OB. T. 














L 1 


... 


*" 


». 


... 


... 




It tl 





.„ 













in u 







.» 


... 


... 




11 t« 


*., 


.,. 


... 


..♦ 


(D*Di)nK2 n3 n 




If H 





J'nbh m hi 

I inptn 131 ip 









n S 


pmo^Di IDS ini 


pnJO^I i D^Dl DD ki J 


1 






r. 4 


|in3D>D1 *l 


pmo^Di 6)11 




jinaD^Di «ii t 


1 ' 




n n 


... 


■■* 


b^oi i* 


Jin3D*D1 1 






If M 




ho i?Kin* 




1 { 


bv'D^DVipnh 
bi v'^xtx" 




11 H 

M 6 


... 


,.. 


... 


IinaD^DnDDii 


,.. 




t, 7 




... 


jinjD^i h 


pn3D*Di 3 






a. 1 

H 3 







b^i a 


\ 


b^Di ^Bi i 

in h 3 in 

hD3 hn ^333 




„ 3 










V 




» ft 


*,. 


1 


Dm 


DI^Dl 


1 




W »» 




... 


b*Di ii ^ 


... 


«■» 




M 7 


pmD^Dt h 


{ 


3V D^DI h 


} 


nrr»30*oi^i3n 


/ 


M M 


... 


... 


0^3 






. 




^^^^ ^^^ 



T1i€ Baf}ylmiian Cochas of Homa mid J 
MASSORAH MAGNA, 



RJJU1.M&. B.H. Uaxl, 152S. 



EAAtujsUM Cott^x.. PkiHTUt M4i«oua. 



1 






pnjD^i bnt h 



J - 



tinao'Di «^ 



jvn30^t n 



|injD*Dt h 



jimD'oi k^ 



tin3D^v{ 






b^i '6*np3 j 



1131 bnl 



itnpiKni3*nB^n3 
3 tu»n3 1^0 



nVw 


»i 


a 


I'^snjnri^Kii 


tf' 


4 


'Ol 


11 


♦I 


n!i5!?i73 


.1 


f* 


noljtjo 


M 


+» 


W-ir. ng 


If 


,1 


"W3 


II 


fl 


n?1?^ 


11 


7 


nipn^pji 


IITI 


- 


15: 


iL 


1 


^»Trw 


11 


3 


D?'0in«^-1 


n 


3 


Dr| 


*f 


6 


•i?li?3 


n 


»i 


nss 


ri 


1) 


Dn-jjn 


m 


7 


'Fi^sg-i npx 


»» 


rt 



H 










^^^^^^^^H 


^^H" 






^M^^ 


7i^ Babylonian Cod-ex of Hosea and Joel* 


1 MASSORAU MAGNA. | 


' 


itoSEA yttnn iH 8— iii, 4. 1 




CM. V. 


B.M, Ajjp, 16251. 






U.U. AjiSk, 9399. 
















if. 8 


... 


I : 


:; ;: 


... 


ni biDT 1*^'"^ 




,. 


,» 




b^Di h 


... 


... 




,* 10 


linjo^Di *Sd> i 


... 


b*Di a 
b^Di i 


1 


np3 ^DDi a 
jinjD^Di 




t, 13 





f 




1 1 


♦2iJiDa nn 




.. 14 


.« 




... 









• 

1* M 


I : 


... **. 


b^Di i 


♦•. ... 


••• .«« 




f, 15 


... 


... 


... 




nhbiDnrSD'b 


, 


11 17 


- 


... 








1 


u ip 




... 




... 


... 




n 21 




nn^DtJi i 


(b^Di) i 


... 


h ' 




.. 22 


pnjD^Di y^a t 




b^DU 










.. 23 


••' 


... 







«. 




p. 24 




ji naD^Di eiSn 


b*D\ n 








.1 25 


... 





b*Di bm 1 




'"' 




iii. 1 


limDT»i 1 





DtSIl 


lin^e^Di h 






11 *i 










nDEiDip^o-ij 




M 2 




,.. 






m biDi ih^-b 




.. 3 










'' h)Di \'hD"h 


/ 


•• V ) 




D*D1 b 1 


1 








J'hf Iktbphnimi Code.T of Homa and Jom 



" 






AtASSORAH . 


MAGNA. 










iiosEA yttnrr '^u ^^— iiii 4* 


MA Ajk<». 40ft. 


B.M. 


\\A%L. lam 


BAITLUSiUA Cop«K, 


fM-mtms^ llMapbAU, 






„. 








.. . 


fo^l -|pD pnpi 1^' 




•«• 


«M. 


"' 


♦♦* 1 11 


,.M 




*» 


«■» 


.» 






... 


'i^n} ^?3« 


*l 


.» 


.» 


». 


.« 


... 


BiiT^ril 


M 


... 1 




tiniD^i i 




(1. lit 


^pm\ 


H 


** 


1 ™ 




... 


.„ 


ID5 . 


*», 


*nm 




I^*B1 1^31 




hi 


.. 14 


*** 




... 


*« Hnn^n m 


tl* 44. 


*in in p n^D^K 


t4 *♦ 


|in3D'01 h 






: : 


b*Dl HV3 T 




M 17 


»** 




"' 


'" 


♦ n 




1. IS 


Ml 


•■■ 


^*. 


„. 


... 


D^qi?^ 


.. .1 


— 








n^ 


Wl)) 


M fi2 


1 


1 


- 


.,. 


* 1 


DTO3 1 DT*a njrn 

b^D3 
itpni 

-■. (Pi r 


., S3 

. S4 

«. 25 

11 n 

iii. 1 




,. 


-•• 


«3 jw*B^n 


■** "* 


mi?iD 


*♦ n 


.. 








■ ■i '*■> 


'■!1J^ 


M 3 


... 


-, 


... 






131^:1 


\\ 



Vo^ K 



\^a 



i4r> 



Thp Bffhyhnum Codex of llottea ftmf Joef. 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Rosea ytlTin iii. 4— v, 2. 



B.M. Abo, 163*1. B.M. .Vdd. 15260, 



Ascf^DKL Onimrt. 16. B.M. A£D. 9>aa9. B,l£. 



. 671L 



en. V. 
iii 4 

*> G 

iTT, 1 
„ 2 

I, s 

H 4 

.. 7 

n 8 

„ 10 

If II 

n 14 

, 16 
„ 16 

*l rl 

» 17 

V. 1 



...{ 






{ 



b*D) Sdi a 



[ Iin3D*Di bp h 
^H^3:3 bn 1 



( 



b^DI $D 1^ 



nmfD*Di bp i 



-'lin^D^Ditapi 



pms^Dt 3 






I p^^o^Di *]! 




bl !S 



U pn^D^Di b 



{ 

hl31 pIDS 



N1 \K* TO K b 



Iinjo^Di 3 






...{ 



c**:!3 on J 

' ttnjo^Dibp'i 
tan 






*np3 *DD1 J] 

:»3^ '" tin3D»Dii 



} ■ 



*1 




The Bafmhnmii Codea of ITo»ea and JoeL 







MASSOKAH 


MAONA. 






UoBEA y&^n ni, 4— V, 2. 


^ 




BM Haul, is:^. 


UjkmWfJ&MLkM GtfBU. 








.^ 


.„ 


J\-„.-' 


1 


■n? 




•*• 


>iM 


" 


f 


^ 




tM 


*.* 


.,. 


*tl *« 


vm 


T* 


.*. 


«** " 


.!» «. 


*f* +M 


Mri' 


iv* 


-., 


... 


-., 


»#l fff 


D'n^?! njn 


I* 


P» 


... 


... 




• °'^11 


.< 


^ 


M, 


,« 


b*Di hnp3 a 


nw5-l 


., 


- 


' * 


1 


«•• *i* 


•3n»?3 


. 4 


.♦. 


.» 


*** . i ,- 


+.. 


Tp^t 


.. 7 ' 


.« 


... 


... 


b'Di nnn 'yoG i 


W 


. e 


"' 





.. 


m ^ 


j6i K-.ED3 IDS T 


. 10 


«»• 




" 





."T91 


,t 14 


... 




■ 


... 


0?1 


t* IT 


^ 


fan Ki W k 3 

pn3D»Dl 




... 


niiD 


. 15 
. 16 


^ 


nn3D*Di i 


.. 1 




;■ Djn: 


t* +» 


O 10S 


} { 


bDi 




Dn5(? 


„ 17 


'■ 


*>• **4 


D*D1 ^D1 h 


"It?" 


^. 1 


- 


.. 


jVoik^ipm 


~^. 


n^'-ns 


.. 


*• 


f 


ba ^iD pn^iDi 


1 ( 


fcpn 


M O 


• 





... 





ovo 


.. 2 1 
\ \ 



148 



Tlie IJabi/Ionian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
HosEA ytinn V, 8— vii, 1. 





B.M. Add. 1.')261. 


1 

B.M. Add. 15250. 


AaONDBL OftlBNT 16. 


B.M. Add. 9399. 


B.M. Hail. 6711. 


OH. V. 

V. 3 






... 


... 


pn:D^Di bn i<^ 


., 4 






b^Dii 






.. 6 






b^Di }h 


... . 


pn^D^Dippnh 


M »» 




... 




M 8 


b^DI ^D T^ 




b^DI So T^ 




... 


„ 10 






[ 


731 nn:D^Di 

h3 i3n '02 :id: 


... 








. J 










1 


f 








I 


•pon 


) 


n 




{ 


$D 3 b.^DI T 


1 i 


on nni te : n 


II 11 




bnNi 


pn^D^Di 


tt ti 


{ 




\ b^DiVon 








„ 13 




/ 


VtD *«i bn h h 


Vd*«i bn'K a 


} 




( 


b^Di 


jin:D^Di 


„ 15 


... 


pn:D^Di 2 


... 




(b^DI) 2 


vi. 1 


• 




D^D1 1 


1 


^ni *>D 1 ^Tpm 










pn:D^Di br 


V »» 




jin:D^Di 5 


b^Di ; 


pn^D^DI Dp 2 




3 






b^Di bn 2 










{ 


hD hi bn *K 2 


' 








b^Di 


... 


„ 




... 


b^DI ^D1 'K^ 


... 




4 





... 


... 


pn^D^Di 


... 


M 6 





... 


(b^DDh 






M 6 


... 


.*. 











M 7 


... 




(b^DD i 


pn^D^Di : 


pn3D^Di 'np2 : 


» 11 


pn^D^Diopi 





D^DII 


{ 


'>'\p2 top 1 

pn3D^D1 

-pn^D^DrTpn] 


vU. 1 


pn^D^Di 3 




b^Dii 


bn in ha nr 










man nr 


»» »» 


... 


... 


bwn 


... 







The Bab^lonitm Cotie^ t*/" IJomea ond Joe 
MASSORAn MAGNA. 



r 


B.M. Hiu. Lo^H. 


Bahtlowiam CaDEX. 


FSUTTID MABHTIAU. 






L 


-- 


, 


'" 1 




V. 

Tl 
*4 


r ■■■ 






... 


Dns^J 


H 


! 




... 


**« ... 




*f » 




„. 




wt» *.. 


♦)t 


f- -. 


- 


f 
1 




{ pMOT 


,. 11 


1^ M* 


fJimS^Ol t«Dt 5 





it' 


hmn 


M ♦* 


«. 


... 





i+t I.. 


rfa-fr 


„ 13 


»■" «»it 





,„ 





'»73^^ 


M 15 


I 


.,. 


- 


u•D^ k>Tp3 1 


n^t?jT 


wi. I 




„. 


... 





W 


ri n 


*-* M4 


-' 








■m^ 


M 3 


1 


„, 


»ft ti. 





tKTfb 


■ 1. «^ 


1 •»€ 


ii* *M 


f 


hnpi c^b i 

fa'DI 




It 11 




^. 





■" 


O'DV '»yip2 i 


01^«? 


M 7 


-. 


jin^D^oi h 


1 




} n^ 


,» u 




... 


... 


... 


rfjni 


Tii. 1 











'f'^ 


\ 1^ T-i 



\ 



150 



ritt' iMtln/hnuw Cotfed' of Iloseu <tnd Jueh 



MASSOHAH MAUNA. 



I 



I 



OH. V. 

vii.3 
.. 6 



M 8 

M 

M II 

„ 10 

.. 13 

M 14 



B,M. Adi> IfiiSi, 






15 



le 



viiLl 



,M. VVD. 1^(250, i AniM^tL uHih>T. liJ. ll.M. Aiiii. IMOtf. U.M» ILabx.. d 



|in:o'»oi 3 



'K'a33 bn 3 

mo 12? D 



I WD 



hn30*Dl *VDp 3 { 



2^2 



injD^DI 



D1 D 



b*D1 3 
(D*D1; bD31 3 

b*Di b 



nnsD^Di 



nnni ^^Dp 

b' 



D»D1 3 



nnjn^Di 3 



im D'DiDn3|;j^.t,3 bn bi 



ni Kn riD *in i 
}in30'Di k h3 



e«D3 131 *ii«' 



D^l K' 



Dwa 




O^DI 3 
D*D) 3 



pn3D*DT 3 
^D1 ho\ I 



pnjD^Dl t3 



Iin30*oih 



lin^jtD^Oi ** 



pn*3D*Dl ' 
Iin*3D*D^ ' 



pn^3D 

!liT3D^Dt ni 



The Babylonian CodM of Hosea ami Joel. 



151 



MASrtORAII MAGNA, 

nosEA ycnn vu, 3— ix, 2. 



DCVASD. M&. 


fi.M. HAAL. 1628. BAltTU>?(US CilDEX. 


[^JUHTXD MAMOVJJKa. 






,,, 


„, 






^nisj^! 


en. V. 
Til. 8 


3*D1 m 3 


... 




D'Dt *e^31 3 


n!i3pi5 


t. 


... 


... 


Yi\t r)h 




rT3>Bn te^^ ^3 


.1 6 


tV1^*0l 


.„ 


... 


b»Dl 


K4n} «^ni ^piDS ! 


,* 


•"• 


-" 


'" 






n 11 

.. 10 


ffl^DVh 


*" 


nnjD^Di 3 TD -rn 












... ... 


::.' J 


mm *-ip3 IDS H3 


*i rl 


». 





1 


Iinuu Kin 


1. 15 


- 


3D^0l 3 |t3 in 




^1 


n 10 


- 


... 


D^Dl 1^13 ^n5 3 


IT 




- 




■•* ■■ 1 


d;k*333 on 3 
nx^i pv b*Di 


191^ 


TiHl 


- 


.» 


b^Dl K^li^J^Ti 


031 


u a 


pnjD^Di w 


,,, 


3D^D1K^lDin 


^i??-!^ 


n S 






1 


Jin3 n^m^-^iDDD 


., 


o^m^TDnu 


pn3D^D\ i 


■ D*Dl HKHpl 3 


nV^! 


1. 7 


. 




3D'Di i p nn ^'01 *«'T=i 3 


mtB 


\ 


.., " \ , • 


«1? 




1 


0^5^^^ 


. .r 


,aD*DiVD^^|tD'ir(, *" 


*^ 


, 10 


, 


- - 1 ) 


1 HDi ID p m 


, 12 


^ 1 D^Ktsn 


.. 13 




J 


I V31 ini 

1 


i!i^ npi D^ ^n3 3 


X. 1 

„ 2 



152 



Tlie liabyloniuH Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
IlosBA J^ttXin «, 3— X, 5. 





B.M. Add. 16251. 


B.M. Add. 1A260. 


Abumdbl Oeoent. 16. 


B.H. Add. M99. 


aM. Habl. 6711. 


CH. T. 

iz. 8 






D^DID 






M 4 










pnw^oi 


1 






b^Din 






.. 7 






b^i b^ 






•1 11 


pn:D^Di J 




b^Dii 


i 




1* It 




nnao^Di *7 








» 10 

1 






D^DI :)D i { 


■■»DD3 ^D i 


1 
J * 


\ M 12 






b^Di 


... 




„ 18 






b^Di *^i ^ 






M 14 





I 


^DV-b^Di n 


\ 

f 




., 16 
„ 16 





:jin:D^Di n 


1 

f 
i 


te Ki bn h i 
pn:D^Di 

^ «i on 3 : 

...^ ... 

... 


} pn^3D^Dl 3 

ho *7ni bn 3 3 
pn^3D*Di 


M 17 


vnMKv 


1 

J 


(D^DI) pBI «^ 




X. 1 


D^DI 7D1 3 




D^Din 






•• »» 










• 


pnoD^Drip3r 
3'T3nnr- 


t« M 




... 


b^DI *7 







.. 2 






D^D13 






).. .] 


, 




... 








The Babyloii'uui Codex of Hosea and JoeL 



153 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 



AS X^ti. 4«k. 


rt.M. Ham.. I%i4. lUiiVLEkHLi,^ Conti. I'uiiTkb ^AAtujim. 


*3??. 


€0. V* 


... 


.., 


1 '^ 


'- 


.„ 


- ;; I 1 


DDST hpDB rSw 

n oni x^ "^m 


.. 4 


.., 


.,. 




b'OI K^Tp3 t 


uyfxfi 


If 11 


»*t 


*" '■" 


^*' '*' 


**" 




.t 7 


.«. 


.^, 


I 


^t^ 


11 »i 


... 


jo^Dinpnn! ^» 


n?!! 


It *« 


., 




— n-oDl -^ ^** ' 


p fin «* JO in 

»7nrnbDnmn 

TH 5)103 *n *DD 


,1 .. 


?3 Kt)D ^ 

pn3D^Di 




1 





D'0l«hD^03te> 

ouin3 bv* 

303 te 131 

731 ' *D1 Dn 

1t31 fentu 

1 

( 


IDD m ni03 b 

KDl 


II la 

.. 13 

,. 13 


^ 


... 




q.no^l 


M 




j *D1 2 


^'W^ 


M 14 




i| ^Di on Kite 2 


} npi« 


M 16 




pniD^Di a ' 


j.ib^_ 


.. 16 






vnn 


" ^7 ; 






PPia 


X. 1 


• 




2i^? 


„ „ 


3iD3inv 


} ! 


niLD^ 


.. .,| 


„^l 


nni n-iinn 'I [ 




} T».- 


1 

,. 2 

w 6 



154 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoseii and Joel. 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 

HosEA jninn x, e— xi, 8. 







B.l|^ Add. ifjriM. 


B.M. -ipii. Io2ft0. 


ARUFfPI^ OSI^V^T. li* 


B.M. 


ADtr. 9190. 


£t.E. luauliii, 









timD*DlI*V*Dp3, 


I to*mJ 






... 




M s 


... 


*.. 


*.. 


,- 




... 




11 M 




- 


biDl '3 


... 


... 


... 




M 8 

., 10 








'i 

b'0> j 

b^i 3 


-' 


..{ 


in na in 

tn33 int 333 




« 11 




} ! 


i»3vb*o\ "n 

t31 nB'3D 


*1 

1 " 









It T* 
II 11 







b*Dl 3 










II II 

M IS 


1 


on ki ^ho T n 


1 b^Di h 




.. 


... 


' 


II 11 




1 


D'Dl '333^0 a 
3'n3 731- 

TD3 ?D 131 

pDVD^Di on 
on 131 niH 


;. ... 









» It 


,♦. 


M* 


b«i 3 


... 


... 







II 11 


"* 





b'oi i 




f 
... { 

pn30»Di 


Iin*3p'pihp3i 
nn?^j?3inr- 

jin*3D^M 
pbtDlt'^-^ 




11 11 

.1 15 


lit 


... 


... • .. 


... 


.« 


... 




Id. 1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




M 3 


... 


.» 


-iDm «So |D*D 




... 


... 




.1 .* 


„. 


.M 


b^Dl 3 




- 


... 




,. e 


.., 


..- 


.*, 


.. 


.., 


... 




«. 7 


,.. 


Jin3D*D1 K* 


b^Ot H* 


». 


...' 


... 


I 


,, ^y pnjD^) J 




b'OI 3 


■• 


... 


*.- 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



loo 



MASSORAJI MAGNA. 
flosEA J^inn X, 6— xi, 8. 



B ADI>. 46o. 


B.M. U»BL. 1528. 


BABTLOriUN CODXX. 


Primted Massoraii. 














^^v 


CH. V. 

X. e 








h mml PPI h 


-i^.i-i\ rip 


M 8 






1 




} '^w 


>> M 






i 


13K 


} "J^» 


„ 9 

„ 10 
» 11 






toM3i ^^ jD nn 




3^0P 3409 34t3 


»» ft 










b?n^ 


ti »> 








b^Di knp3 i 




»» If 
» 12 

l» M 








b^Di c^S nni h 


n<3n t«3^^ io 


„ 13 

»» M 

» 14 


b^Dih 








D'39->r D«t 


V M 








inu'D nni ^ 


inB'3 


„ 15 




... 


... 


D^DI 1 


DnvDp^ 


zi. 1 
» 3 









^D1 K^-Jp3 a 


'jn: K^i 


n H 









^Di yo3 bD n 




n e 

„ 7 
,. 8 



15() 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel, 

MASSORAH MAGNA. 

IlosEA J^Wn xi, 9 — xiii, 9. 



CB. ▼. 

xi. 9 



zii 1 



». 3 

>• It 

M 4 

M e 

>. 8 

M 9 



M 10 

M 11 

» 13 
n 15 

»' »» 

xiii. 2 

»» 
4 

6 



8 



B.M. Add. 152ftl. 



pn^D^Di bn T 



pniD^Di n 



tin:D^i 3 



B.M. ADD. 10260. 



nniD^Di tD 



AADNOBL OKUBStT. 16. 



D^Di on 1^ 



^D1 tD 



b»Di ^D i 
b^Di b 

b^Di n 

b^i n 

b^Di h 
b^Di 3 



B.M. Ado. 9399. 



{ 



pniD^Di n 



pniD^Di 3 



B.M. Hail. 5711. 



np3 bn n» 

b^^3 So j 
pn^3D^oi 



PiT3D^Dlhp3n 

,^y^3pxr^K^ 

7 D^D ^K b on) 



pnoD^Di nDDl"! 



C^^^3 Sd i 



piT:D^Dipn3*i 

pnoD^Di n 
pnw^Di nDin n 

(D^DI) 3 



The iPihgtonum CmJeiv of Ho»eti mul Jot 





^^^ 


^ 


] 


SiiASSORin >IAGNA. 








^^ 




HosEA y^in ^U 9— xiil, 9, 


p* 


umov AM 


K 465 


B.U. EamL. i^^. 


[{apti^tkiasi Cudu. 


I'AlJtlMI MuMltAlt. 






1 ^' 


... 




... 


# 

, 


ih p D^piDB 1 


on, 




f ' 


•" 


1 


-" 




^«nn3 31 \ 1*303 
M3D3 


M 


p 




^ 


1 

■ t 


V It: in iMt 


\ 


ni? 


^ 


•! 






f 




} 






» 


M. 


«* 


•M* t" 


*♦* 


^01 np3 hn\ 3 


lilt 


t* 


1' 


* 


.« 


.« 


..* ' ... 




ani 


n 3 




1- 


.» 


... 


... 




2|>B^5 


M l> 


4 








iD^DT 1 p nn 


b^oi t(np3 3 


II333 
nwj^n 'pis 


T1 4 

M e 




pn3D»D> 1S3 Q 


„. 


iD*Di b p in 


^ b 


3rwf 


1. 8 




- 


... 


.» 


*,p 


* { 


p'3D 3' lIpK'J 


. 9 






.„ 


•» 


.M 




I^« 


»■ » 


1 


,.. 


.<t 


«. 


... 


b^Di H*ip3 1 


D^^^ 


.. 10 


1 


... 


... 


.„ 


limD^Diipin 


b^i n 


onnpn 


,. 13 
M 15 




u. 


*'* 


■** *■•* 


T»»- tt« 




3T; 

1 -TBPI* 


M 1) 

ziii.2 


1 


.,« 




.,. 





0^1 m\ 2 
* h 




t. 4 


: 


■**■ 


.,. 


pniD*Di n 


. .j 


^31 -"Dripan 




.* 7 

H 8 



158 



The BaJyylonian Codeat of Hosea nnd JoeL 

MASSORAH MAGNA. 
H08EA jrtt^in xiii, 10— xiv, 10. 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



B.M. Add. 16250. Akumdxl Oxis.vr. 16. B.M. Add. 9S99. 



B.M. Hail. 67II. 



OH. V, 

ziitlO 



., 14 

H If 

xiv.l 

,. 2 

» 3 
„ 4 






bp 31 nD a h 



„ 8 



M 10 



LJ 



pn^D^Di h 



DTD ^ bn a 
pn:D^Di 



... { 



b^DI 1 



D^OI T 

b^DI ^ 1 

(D^DD 91 *K 3 



pn^D^DI 3 

pnao^Di 3 



tB^^^3 on T 



(o^Di) ^ i h 

^ hi bn k 3 
b^Di 



pn3D^i n 



jpn^^Di non ; 



b^Di h 



b^Di bn i 



pn3D^Di h 

... I 

pnao^i 3 



pn:D^i 



pn3Dnnp33^ 
pnoD^Di bD3 

pn^3D^D1^T53n 

pn*3D^Di h 













TA^' iiiifnfhnittn Cfufe^r of Ifo^m mid Jo0 








XASSOEAR MAGNA. 






llm^jL jrCTin xiii, 10— xiv, 10, 






BJI. MAmL. 1-^2!^. 


Babilonla* Cosu. 


F«]NTin» UAoiuftAll. 








,. 




,.. 


... 


l^p^bl 




. 





1 


nnr- »Dn h 


1 nri^^r^ 




" 


"' 


{ 




1 




^ 


nnap^oi ^ t 


**' ,t% 


... 


1 

4: 




„ 


... 


... 





Dri^* 


IT ?T 1 


, 


„. 


OD^OV 


( 




M .. 




» 


- 


.» 


-*w 




tf ** 




m. 


.- 


<b*Di) 


"' 


S3 retXJTDl 


-. ,> 




* 


... 


... 


.. 


ni?! 


.. 




^ 


*.. 


... 


>.. ... 


rjj^r^^v 


n 7 




«* 


.*. 


r., M. ' 


... 


hirj 


It M 




♦♦» 


- 





b-^Di knp:i *i 




U It 

o 8 ; 




... 


prrjD^Di J 


... 


... 


^T3! 


II i» 




... 


-" 




knp3 pDT a 


J i^n 


.. 10 






J ■ 


i»l 1*1 




} Q*i?^Vt 


,. . 




*" 


.. 




* i 


[ina n^Ki ^:hdb i 


,T *t 








' 




- 


\ 


i 



1(MI 




The Bahvhnian Coih.r of Hmm and Joeh 

MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Joel 7H1^ i, 1 — iu 5. 



t 1 

M 5 

ft i» 

r. 10 

Pf ti 

M 13 



H 14 

» IB 

., 17 

p. 10 

II SO 



iL 2 



/ / 



1I.1L A]3I». 1fi2AK 



tinats^Dt "t 



lin3D*ot a 



fhlJDW ' 



B M. Aim. llb3M. 









A«(timBx, OuxHT. 10. B»M. Aim. 019d. 



b^DI 3 



b'DI 6«^ 



D^DI D 



b*Dl E'^^JS i 



b*Di i 

b^DI 3 

'PD K1 on 3 3 
b^Dl 

'-b'Di Vdp 3 



b*Dl 3 

} bt>i n 

bv"b'D1^D3 
303 !3T hiK 



b^D^* 



lin3D*01 H' 



Hi Hl^D Die* 



( { 



B.M. tlui. &TI1. 



pnse^Di S 



m*fo 



DH im ^ 3 3 

h*D le-t* ini 

bz 13 Dtr ini 

nn^3D'Di 

*33 pi '33 p 

■'3301 '33D tD3 

nn'JD^Dl 



te "rm DR 3 : 



pn>}D*D1 'T3 T 

ni3 nniK bv 

('DD 303 



The Babyhman Codex of Bona and Joel 



161 



HASSORAH MAGNA. 
JoBL ^MV» i, 1— ii> 5. 



BJLHABL.UR8. 



Binumua 0»B. 



jin^D^Di ' 



Volt. 



■-{^ 






b^Dih 









b^Di h^ipa i 



^D1 I^DI 1 



pnao^i^pnn 












OH. T. 

i. 1 

*, 

.. 6 

i» »» 

.. 10 

n 18 



„ 14 

„ 16 

„ 17 

., 19 

» 20 



ii. 2 



'\ \ 



w 





77*^ Bahjihrnan Codex of Hosea aiul Joel, ^^^M 


1 


^lASSORAH MAGNA. ^^| 


I 




Joel VhI'" '^ 5— iii, 2. 


1 




B.M. A©D. 152.M. 


B,M. Ajj©. IS;!50. 


Abcsise^ OBisirr. 16, 


B.M. Ai»D. d8U9 


B.M. Hajil, 5711 


IL 5 


.., 


i 


«V"b'Di n 


Ki-IinsD^Din 


f 




., 7 


.,, 


... 


♦♦♦ 


pniD^i i 


lin*3D^D^hp3 


b 


,p 9 


••• ■«• 


tvn^b^Dt i 


b^Di i 


pn3D^Di i 


... 


■ 


n 10 


... 


.,. 


b^Di 1 




;in^3D^Di ^Tp3 


1 


1 " 


... 


... 


b*Di h 
b'Di t 1 


pn3D*Di h 


:;: : 


^ 


p; 12 


IDS) ft<i n 


1 








ta 


.. 13 


Iin:D*Di 


) 











F 


11 •< 


*» ••* 


" 







..• «M 


b 


,. 16 ' 




DD 1D1 intc 

1D1 


*.» 


1 


.. 17 




... 


(Dt3i) ^sn b 







1 


„ is' 




... 


b^Di n 


injD'Di n 


^^ 


I 


M 10 





... 


b^Di i 


... 


1 -« 


m 


r 




1 

J 





(D^DD^Vbaib 







H 11 


iD^pi bn i 


*►. 


... 




»♦• •»• 


■ 


.. fil 


pn^D^Di K^ 


... 


b*Di k* 




... «t.^ 


F 


« 33 





■, 


bn «i ^D n 1 
b*Di 


} "' 


nn*3D*Dt hpa 


ta 1 


„ 24 




... 


b^D1 3 


... 


«. 


1 


L, 3e 


pnjD^Di 3 


- 


b'Dii 


pn^D^i 3 





P 


. 26 


... 




b^i So * 




... 




UL 2 





\ 


EDI b& ^T n 
btsi 


nBD3 IDD KT H 
pn5D^D1 


{ '" 





Tlu Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



103 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
JoBa, ^JNT* ii, 5— iii, 2. 



■A]U».463. 


BJf.Hm.1588. 


Babtlohxaii Ck>Dn. 


PimiD llAISOmAH. 
















CH. T. 


- 


- 


pn»wnp*7n 


* h 


n^?i? 


U. 5 


^ 


« 


•m 


bDi ripa i 


l«^;: 


„ 7 


'" 





(iD'DD 


{ 


pi pneiD 


It .* 


W3 


pn^^Di i 


... 


.. 


3}» 


u 


- 


••• .•• 


^ 


* h 


a'5?i?i. 


,. 10 


.^ 


^ 


^ 


. 


n?1 nfe^ 


» 11 


... 


pn^D^D^ ) 




... 




M 12 


... 




... 


* n 


DWn^ IMI3 


.. 13 


bofev 


' 






Dl?« WJJ 


»i 11 


*ni3 


















ov 


„ 16 




{ 


hi a ID nn 
pniD^Di 


1 


«3i? 


.. M 




{ 


3D^D1 


* 


<Ti?»<n 


M 17 








(3«D13 


tWT^Sl 


»» tl 


in:o^Di h 






... 


ii?r^» 


,. 18 


... 




{ 




1 trtTjjg^ 


n 19 




n^ni3 n^^ 






♦jb-iijn 


.. 20 

It t) 









b»Di nK'ipa i<* 




„ 21 
„ 28 

n 24 


pn:o^^ a 








'^n 


M 26 


O^DI K^ ^ 




1 




} ^3* 
D31 


.. 26 
iii. 2 



^^M 


^^H 


^^^^^^^H 




^^^^^^^^j 


^^^^^^^H 


^^^^^HS 




^^^H 


^^^^^^^^H 


^^^^^^^^M 


BH^^^I 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


184 Ths Babylonian Codejr of Ilosea and Joel* 


MASSORAH AUONA. 




Joel 7tri> iiii 2— iv, 20, 1 






BM.Asm. 152M. 


B.&L Aad. 152&Q. 


AAuvoBL Oiuxin. le. 


B.M. Alf». d»d9. 


B.M. HJKL.&7JU 


iU. 9 


... 


... 


D»D1 3^ 








.. 4 

♦1 M 


:. : 




b^Dl 3 


'D1 3 
D*D1 ^D r 






M 5 


... 


... 


b^Di y 


::: i { 


S1D1 i*^o--i 
on 




iT. 1 




pnao^Di n 


(D*D1) DDl h 




pn*aD*pi^oif 




» 8 


... 


... 


*mi 


... 


... 




., 4 


... 


... 




... 


... 




»i 11 







D^pi bm 3| 


1B'^!?3 bn k 

pn30*D1 


} ... 




1 t. 5 






(D^Di) bn h 




}in3cr^73 on n 




II 1* 


». 




D*Di a 


... 


lin^jD^rip3i 




M G 






b^Di E:^*ij3 on 1 


... 


•II .«. 




,. 9 


... 


... 


pn:D*Di^D t 


... 


... 




„ 11 


... 


«.. 


b^Di J 
b-^D^ 3 


,., 


... 




T. 13 
„ 13 


3D^1 bp 1 


f 

... ^ 


bo Ki bn 3 5 
b'Di 


J 







,» 15 
„ 16 


'731 -" }inJD^Dl 
f*D1) 


1 I 


0^DlE*^^3^Din 


]imD'Di 1 








1 1 


nonw ^3v 
SD3 ^Dl ni3i 

(b^i) 


[ { 


jin*3D^[?il 




Ti ii 


ttn:Q^i 3 


... 






... •« 




,. 17 


... 








linjD^pi *3^D*» I 


... 




„ 18 


nnjD^Di j 


tin30*Dl 3 


b^Dii 




... 




M 10 
It 1« 


H m2\ bb h 


linjDW 

} 


b*o^ 


tin3D*01TDDk"l3 


... 


1 


,..oj 


*D1 IDS «T i 


pn3D*Di ^i2 


"* 








The Babylonian Codki^ of Hosea and JoeL 



MASSORAH JVLiGNA. 



mmAnm. 40. 



B.M. tl«iii., l6'iS, UkmiucmiAv Co&ex. f^zinKD Uamkoau, 



tin:Q'oi 3 






r^a^mo 



* i* 

* ^3* 



# n 



j^^'Va 1 on n 



IT 

J 



iT, 



^1 ^D ) 



:^ 1 



I 



srt D*:)b 


t+ »r 




tt e 


D'Tiajn 


t, » 


mn] 


*t n 


nri^ 


M t* 


4tib; 


H 12 






. O'^v^l 


a 16 


npqp 


.t 16 






17 
IS 






166 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoaea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA J^tCin i, 1 — 8. 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



B Ji. Add. 15250. 



Amtmdk. Osmrr. 16. 



B.M. Add. 9S89. 



B.M.HABL.illL i 



CH. T. 

i. 1 



^nnna 



n 2 



IDS »-i a 



>» 3 



» 4 



1DD K1 1 



7«-)fi:^* 03 tDD3 



Dmn 



^n^nn 3 



R-i3 



1 



5|-11 



on B^in^ bi T 



Dm 1 



3 
3 

3 



tDD Ml 2 



3 
fill 



...{ 



iDTye^in^^Din 



Doa n^ Dm n 



onn 



QD3 3: Dn\ n 



a 

omn 
r 



Tlie Babylonian Codex cf Hoaea and Joel. 



w 









MASSORAII J 


PARVA, 








EosEA yu^n it 1— B. 






Bj^lLCItUlt CODSE. 








p *ro b 


,,* 


*»t 


♦" ." 


,« 


y^^n ! 


CK, 






3 


1 


3 


n*^a 


11 


StSB^ Vd 


}... 


: 


> 


: : 




«1 


*** 




IDfiKl J 


Dl 3 


nil 


n^rup 


1* 


». 


,,- 


**. 


«M >»i 


a 


^^n| 


*l 


A 


- 






1 




" 


b 




.„ ^ 


ban n:ii p^n 




13 tSj-i^si inigi 


,. 3 






IDE Kl 1 




n-»i 


r^^ njn; i^k^i 


.1 4 


1T31 bo b^ 


' ,« 




..p 


„. 


^1? 


♦♦ II 


. 


«. 


,.* 




.„ 


VTTt^ 


It 


»« 






#» 


.»; 


^^ni 


M tl 


«. .^ 1 




1; T 


-nl 


n^V^P 


+ * *♦ ; 


>« 




. -♦♦ 


« 


ntr nnpii 


M 


?3 riB nfe 

t<03 DD 


1 • 




„. 


- 


Hi 


. . 


Hn _^ 




„. 


Dfii fn I'^rr 


DHII 


"9P1 


^» If 


- 






•,. 


p3r3 1^ 


S^'! n^a 


H M 


- 




^ 


^ 


.*♦ 


D*rUi'!:Vni 


I. 7 


*- 








3 


nrPJI 


■t ti 


•- 






{ *<■• N.. 


... 


^lO?^ 


It It 


'« 




J 




^ 


riDn^ps^ 


«t ii 


..♦ 




,** 


31D D*Dn 


... 


c^mD| 


It M 


Dm T 




,« 




E^Dat Dm 1 




II 11 



168 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosia and Joel 
MASSORAH PARVA, 



B.M. Add. 15261. 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



AmCNDKL Obismt. 16, 



B.M. Add. 9889. 



BJC.HABL.inU, 



OH. T. 

t e 

ii. 1 



.. 2 



on 



M 4 



M 5 



Dm h 



I I 



A 



Kbi ^ IDD 



M^ :i p iDD tdJ 



}... 



w ^Tpa pfi to 
«? fco K? iro 



DD K-l ^D1 ItD 






} ■ { 

.1 Dm h 



1 

Dm ^ 

n 



Dfi K-l ^31 10 
13n 



Dni 



D1 



Dm 
Dm 





T/ie Babylonian Codejs c 


>/ UoBm €md_Jm 


• 


169 


^^^^ MASSORAII PARVA. 




fPHHB Ho9i4 ^*tnn h 9^u, ^* 




9C«JU>».4£k 


RM. Bau.. 1&3&. 


BABfi^niAl CllBCI. 


^ftUTBI M&tKimAa. 




OH, ¥♦ 

L 


► 


-*. Jk+i 


.m' 1 


«!? k!? tds id , 

fi^D5 Iin3D 3 


} . 


^ 


: 


1 


b 


■** '"' 






IL- 


t^ { 


nni 'PI toB T' 
H71 Hb\ ¥h ina 


>■ .** *.,. ., 


ft6 IDS 1?VT! V 


} 


- - i6 


<i 


a 




... 


b 




19:16 


tt 






.» 


... 




11?!' 


II 


- 


• 


n 


,.. 




D1PP3 H'rii 


*i 


ins 


^«. t^ 


t» 


,*. 


-' 




« 


■"** 


•M - . .'^i* 


■** ■•* 


».»> 


^^. 




p. 3 


« 


«. 


... 1 




, 


Vjr; '131 




03 on ^3 


..* 


^^ 


i.ni^ 






.t a 


Dm n 


». 


•" 


.. 




"I?!?:!' 


.. .* 


™ 


». 


», 


». 




rnr* 


,, 4 1 


.„ 





V 






"WCIl 


*!■ *i 


^ 


^ 








n'^lDBjll 


ii -* 


^ 






... , 




njQV'^M 


,. fi 


1 ^ 




Dn^ 


.„ 




"9;!? 


t* f* 


* 


• 


.« 


^ 




O'WSiJl 


»« *t 


i 




It! 


rui K' 




or? 
■19195 


ti II 


Dm ^ 


4. 




Dm ^ 




ijtm 


r. « 


- 




n 


n 




n«!? 


n ,1 


w 


.- 


i 







n'wqx 


*, . 


^ 




... 


n^j3 fife? im ^ 




n-jj-n^l 


. a 


. 





„. / 


pnns «' 
KnninKa 


' 


D,frai 


.. . 



170 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea yti^n iii 6— ii, 13. 





B.M. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Add. 15250. 




B.M. Add. 9899. 


BJf. Hav. 5711 


CH. T. 

IL 6 

» 7 


h 





s 


^ 


1 


n M 


... 




... 


... 


... 


„ » 


... 




1 


... 


... 


M n 


... 


... 


2 
3 


^ 


... 


u 8 








^ 


^ 


1 


»» »» 

.. 9 

*• It 
»» f » 


-? 
^ 





K^l K^l DB n» 


tented 




i» »t 


... 


... 


... 


... 




»» »» 


... 


... ... 


b 


^ 




» .. 






n 


n 


r 


M 10 


^0 3 




:iD 


:iD 


X 


»l »» 








3 


jt 


... 

on: 


l» II 


... 


n 


... 




... 


., 12 


rtDa r 


: :: 


3 




J^^an 


>» »i 
,. 13 
«t II 




y 




:^ 


Dm ! 





27*^ Oab^l 


c»^n Cc?(/«j; 


f Ihsm tmd JmL 


171 








1 




MASSORMl PARVA. 


^' 




HosiA jnir^rr li? s— ii» is- 






mmM3fj>.4S». 


B.S1. Ha«l. !&;». 


BASTtOSdAtl C0fit*. 


PWirrWl MAHQiAO, 


















«n. T- 




'JO 3 






-. 


D'J«l 


It 1 


- 


'" 


^ 


b 


DriTtn 


# 


3 


.» 




'" 


•3q|«i? 


M t 


• *M 


.,. 


■" 


3 


ni?v 


. 


•¥» 


.» 


,.. 


... 


'W'5' 


tt 


h 


... 


h 


^ipfic^n im ^ 


VWl 


• t 




b 


^D^ m ^. 


«in^ j-r ns ^ 


w 




.*" 


rt? )^m jD 


<1 






IDo npi 




h 







b 


Dn'P5 


*♦ 


-- 


- 





sni 


<» 


1 




i* 
i 


b 

1 


TOW'^JI 


J-l *■ 




b 


— 


V 


nn^l 


. e 




„. 


- 


.„ 


... 


«h' 


tt II 




"- 


■" ^ 





*m* **' 


St'OT*^! 


It 11 




■" 


b 


^ 


D0?'i?3* 


II ti 




■D ia*n n 


} - 












D'oa DO 






** 


li ir 




'- 






h 


«>PP «^1 


t* »» 




- 


*'* 


'" 1 


**■ III 


'^•l* 


i» " 




.,. 


- 





3D 


IW^nrj 


I* tf 




... 


.. 


1 


1 


'FiOJJSJft 


». 10 




- 


"■ 




^ 


Bhrnini 


II II 




,-. 


•" 


- 


■t« *i< 


1 T."??:?! 


11 It 




... 


*- 


te 


i !«• r.» 


'f'trn-i 


1, n 




,w* 


t*i ■'. 


■" 


... 


nstog 


n II 




M^ 


.» 


».. 


1 «.P .«. 




11 11 

41 II 




3 


3 


,« 


I'irai 3 


wrpi ni?v 


It *l 




f> **^ 


— 


"• 


roam 




1. 13 




Dm b 


h 


^ 






Ht PI 

It 13 




1 ..* 


.» 


h 


^ 


apTCTp 


II II 












• v \ 









• 






172 


The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 








MASSORAH PARVA. 








Hosea ycnn ii, 13— ii, 21. 






B.H. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Add. 15250. 


Abumokl Obuwt. 16. 


B.M. Add. 9399. 


B.M. Habl. 5711. 


OH. T. 












it 13 








t^DT DD i{ 






)« n 


h 


... 






... 


M II 

II II 
II II 

.. 14 
II i« 

11 II 







h 


^ 


^ 
^ 


If I' 

M l» 

1, 16 

II II 
.1 16 




h 






3 


»i II 
1. 17 
»i II 


... 




on) h 




h 


»1 M 






-1 


1 


T 


• 1 M 
II •! 


bonrnDmna 


bn Ki b3 3 






3 


,1 18 




... 


h 


n 


n 


M 19 







•... ... 





• 


II II 
1. 20 




... 




... 


.. 


M II 
M II 


$D$ 


^OJ 


>^at)Di 


i*. 




M 21 






i 




i 


♦1 II 




J 


i 




i 



ThB Babylonian Codex of Hmm md JmL 



m 







MABSOIUH 1 


PA EVA 








HosEA ytnrr ", i3— ii, 21. 


- -■- J 


pet^Aim. ifiS. 


BM. Haw.. 162«. 


hA9nfiwiA» C^wm. 


Puerno Huaaun, 






1 






I"Vo 3 ;D IDO 3 


a^jne^ 


OH. ▼, 


5 ^3 KH 1 




- ' 


J'PSJD fBllID 
•31T0 •» KfT 


1113 






k 


naana rjsn 


1 . 




'• 


„. 


!• 


b 


ajD' 


M 1 


' 





^ 


1 


•-» ano 


t* 1 


^, 


.« 


^ 


a 


B^nn 


♦* r 


•** 




.n 


...^ 




M 1 


w* 


„. 


.. 


... 


i^W»i?i 


"1 


»* 


V 


b^« p ^ 


y 


' fi)?» 


fl 


f 


... 


0^3 


... 


1?:^ 


TT 11 


n 


.,* 


>., 


a 


DP^ 


If t* 


,^ 




... 


^ 


tsm. 


» 16 


.„ 


MI M* 


„* 


... 


a9!5 


11 1* 




1 


I b 


*.i 


"^,^■01 


II ti 


VdiV 


i 


h 


V 


n'jjap 


,. 19 


.- 


.., 


,„ 


in bni b 


ri'TOVni 


. .. 


- 


.» 


... 





n'Oir"? 


. 17 


.„ 


1«A *.* 


*-. 


... 


pprn^X 


II ii 




.„ 


... 


... 


T13^ 


}» tJ 




.,. 


..> 


... 


"JJJ?! 


*l T* 


.„ 


«. 


^ 


... 


"W "05V! 


i» n 




... 


... 


V 


Dl'?5 


ti 11 


-* 


bn Hi ^ i i 


1>0 


bmmVmna 


ai?i^ 


*T 11 




.., 




... 


'e;^* 


f. IS 


. 


.,, 


bmbn 


... 


'OiiPq^ 


n 1© 




... 




... 


°W^ 


11 11 


^ 


,** 


VQl'p 


... 


DJBB'ri ejllTD?! 


u 20 




♦.. 




... 


ni5n^pi3ni5]n^=0\ 


11 1* 


.. 


So J 


vn^D 


b^f?2^>D^^^^ 


T!3?iB 


ti ti 


.. 


.« 


... 


"> 


D»]?33^'!J1 


11 *• 


ilD^i 


i 


... 


i 


^wm 


n 31 


Ml 


a 


,.. 


, i 


' T?'?n<ji 


TT 11 

1 



174 



Hie Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 



MASSORAH PABVA. 
HoBEA yt&in u> 21— iii, 4. 



B.M. Add. I&251. B.M. Add. 16260. 



Abdiidk. Obismt. 16. B.M. Add. M99. 



aiLHAU 



OH. ▼. 

ii.21 



H 22 



M 23 



24 
25 



iii. 1 



» 2 

>l M 

n 8 



ytdii 



iDDinn 






3 

bD3 bs i 



DD k-i n 
bmh 



T 

bDiVosi 

{ 

bin 

bDa'a!*! 
bni i 

3 






{ 

1DD y vo h 



pKnte 
ptcni nn 

b& 









TTte Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



175 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosBA J^ttr^n ii, 21— iii, 4. 















kMMBAl>D.466. 


B.M. Hael. 1528. 


Babtlomiah Codbx. 


PmnTiD Mamoeah. 










iiD D^Dai h 






OH. T. 


— 


... 


... 


D'Pinv n^rj?' 


it 31 


-. 







b 


D'pm?' 


II II 


^ 








i 


?i*T«l 


M 22 


^ 








1 


Pinn 


l» »» 


: : 


... >•* 


... 


b'DsVosi 


DV3 rvCt 


,* 28 

tt tl 


». 


... 








rj^c 


ft It 


iDDiwnn 


tDDiwnn 


b'l n 


bin 


r»!7t 


.. 24 


- 





... 


^ 


i3'5>P3 


M 25 


bnih 


*! 


... 


bnih 


"W^ 


t» 1* 


-. 


... 


... 


«^ 


»<^^ 


i» It 


*. 


... ... 


... 




nppnpp 


tf »t 


M> ... 


.» 


... ... 


... 


n)|«fi 


II tt 


3 


... 


3 




'0^8 leK' 


It If 


.~ 


... 


h 


> 


sng 


iii. 1 


S 


^ 


^ 


h 


ngritf 


II tl 


; ' 











npwiji 


., ,. 


-. 




^ 




n33«t? 


It tl 


.- 




hDbn^iD 


.. 


D*)b 


II II 


*anK hi S 






h 


'3q'K\ 


It It 


' -. 


... 


... 


*. 


♦W8 


II II 


•' 


*. 


om^ 


*. 


'7'3?^\ 


It 2 


*. 


S 


^ 


*. 


■^rk\ 


II It 


- 


... 


... 


s 


«!?;) K^i '^tri t6 


11 8 


*• 


... 


... 


... 


'JW 


1. II 


- 




... 




'!rii3 K^ 


II It 


w ^ 




^ 


... 


«rH) 


It II 


•1- ■.: 





• 


3 nnnai bd '«• 


} D3^ 


ft II 


- 








♦38-031 


ft fi 






... 




T|'^ 'JBTJJI 


II It 


3 




9 





««',?. •• * 



176 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



[The remainder of this Article, together with additional 
notes, will be given in Vol. V, Part 2.] 






r 


^M 




^H 


^H 


^H 






i^^in 






^^Bhh 




^H^I^^^H 


^^^^^^^^^^H 












^^pa^B 777. 


-^ 


^^^^^^^^^H 


-. ^ 'f 


row H^bTf IT) 


Mod SUN 

HiBlKW. 


Saj>«AV. 


1 Power 
1 in 

1 Kri^^Jiib, 


1 


1. 


"■ jf- 


M 


h 






2.:' 


;:• 5 


3 


n. n 


f 


1 




3:'. 


> -1 


J 


1 


: 8. 9 


■ 




4./: 


A 


^ 


H 


1 k, c 


1 




1..^ 


^ 


n 


V 


r 


1 




e. 


' V 


T 


« 


Bl. 


1 




7. 


z 


T 


s 


t 


1 




a. 


■^ 


n 


V 


tk 


I 




9. 


^ 


D 


ID 


,//l 


1 




10. 


-V 


^ 


? 


yh 


1 




11. 


1 


1,3 


6 


kk 


1 




12. 


4 


h 


1 


t> 1 


■ 




13. 


'^ 


D, Q 


n, $ 


z 


■ 




14. 


t 

7 


!'^ 


H 


zh 


■ 


^r I 


13. 


■V 


D 


A 


te 


1 




^^^ 




^^^^^^^^^— ^- 


^^1 



177 



A SKETCH OF SAB.EAN GRAMMAR; 

WTTH 

EX.UIPLES OF TRANSLATION. 

By Captais W, F, Pridracjx, F.R.G^S., Feilow af 
ihe Universitt/ of Eomhiifj, 

Smd 4dh Jannaf^, 1876. 



rNTBODUOTION. 

ALTHOUtm the British Museum poeaeefiee the largest 

LcoIIection of Sttbican inscriptions extant in any European 

|.coimtry, no systematic attempt has been made by any 

Snglish scholar to elucidate the gi*ammatical principles of the 

anguage in which the epigraphs are composed. The labours 

'of Oeiander, Ewald, Levy, Gilderaeister, and other Continental 

writers, have done much to smooth the path of Habaean study ; 

and later students, such as Lenoraiaot^ Praetoriiis, Halevy, 

and D. H- Miiller, have formulated with exactitude some of 

the more important canons of the grammar. IL Halevj-'s 

latest work, Etudes Sah^ennes, which first appeared in the 

Journal Asiatique for May- June» October, 1873, and December^ 

1874, and which has subsequently been repubhshed in a 

separate volimie, has formed the basis of the folio vidng sketch ; 

id although I differ fi-om him in one or two particularf?, I 

lot help acknowledging the industry and skill by which 

he has shown that he is not less distinguished in the field of 

philological research than in that of original discovery. But 

there is still much room for further investigation ; and I have 

3me hope that the publication of the foUownng imperfect 

Vol. V, la 



178 



A Sketch of SaiMt*an Gi*am7jmn 



fiketch may stimulate some of om* Engliflh OrientalistB to 
pursue further a study wliich not only lies invitingly open to 
them* but which, as near akin to the language of inspiration, 
posBesses an extrinaic value of the highest kind. 

There can be no doubt that the Sabcean is an independent 
branch of the great Semitic faraily. To which of its con- 
geners it is most nearly related it is difficult to say. Its 
antiquity b shown in its display of foiins sometimes shared 
in common with other languages, and sometimes peculiar to 
itself. As instances of the fonner Idnd^ it is sufficient to 
adduce the following characteristics of the language. It 
agrees mth the Ht:brew and differs from the Arabic and 
iEthiopic in possessing a Hiphil conjugation ; it agrees with 
the Assyrian and differs from the Arabic and ^Ethiopic in 
refusing a prosthetic Alif in the X. conjugation ; it agrees with 
the Assyrian and Arabic and differs from the Hebrew * and 
iEthiopic in possessing declinable triptote nouns ; it agrees 
with the Hebrew and differs from the Arabic and ^Ethiopic in 
forming ^ pluralis mum in Q ; and it agrees with the Arabic 
and iEthiopic and differs from the Hebrew and Assyrian in 
having pi ur ales fracti. Perhaps the most distinctive pecu- 
liarity of the language is the reduplication of the 1 in the 
plm-al of the subjunctive imperfect tense. 

In its alphabet, the Sabaean resembles the iEthiopic, and 
there can be little doubt that for a considerable period there 
was only one language on either side of the Red Sea. As 
Sabaean inscriptions have been found in Abyssinia, it is 
probable that Sabeean is earlier than the Geez, In both the 
Sabeeau and the modern Aniharic we find an admixture of 
words which are inexplicable by the aid of the other Semitic 
tongues, and which are probably attributable to an earlier 
Ciishite stock. The relics of this primal race, which is typified 
as the serpent Aru, are probably still lingemg in the Agau 
and Bilen districts. 

The Saba^an vocabulary has a great affinity to the 
iEthiopic and Ai^abic. It is, however, dangerous to infer that 
every word we meet with can be satisfactorily explained fi'om 

* There is^ however, good reaw^n to believe that the eajlieit form of the 
Hebrew noun waa both declumbbj and mimated. 



I 

I 



I 

I 

I 



ii'ith KrampUs of TratmlaHi/tu 



ll'J 



the cognate languages, even when there m an apparent 
identity with aume well-known root. It in notorious that 
the Arab leidcologists are determined to find an Arabic etymon 
for every word which occurs in a native author ; and it ie far 
more likely that each words as ^ ^ ^ ^^' *! O ^ (plur. 'I O ^ r^i) 
a chief, and X ^ J > ^ ^if^^ ^^ independent vocables than that 
they have any connection with the roots JU and c'l^. * 

The point on which I differ chiefly from the Continental 
writers is with regard to the regular plural of noima, which I 
believe is formed in D and not in 1, This opinion is based 
not only on a carefnl examination of tlie texts, but on 

the tl priori ground that as ^ is in Arabic the dynamical 

development of _, and ^« of — » so in Saba^an ^ ('"'» c'r 
Cm) would be the analogous form produced from the mimation. 
In Hebrew the mimation is found in the adverbs D^t^^ 
(aoc* of ]Dfc4j truh/^ 0\T) (ace, of |n) gmtis^ etc. ; and although 
a mimative nominative is not found, it appears in the con- 
atruct Btate in such words as Hp^np and T'NIOD. From 
tlie stattm comtritcUt^ of the singular^ therefore, the regular 
plural in D is developed, and tlie Sabeeim ^ |^ ^ ^, for 
k instance, is the etymological equivalent of the Hehrew D^0^H. 
The final ^ is, I believe, in eveiy case t'ithor the enclitic 
demonstrative, which often has merely the force of a definite 
article, or an adjectival ending, corresponding to the Arabic 
\^* I may also add that my views tliffer from those of 
II. Haldvy in regard to the employment of the conjunction 
*|, I do not think tliis is ever used to give a precative sense 
to the verb except when it governs the subjunctive mood of 
the imperfect tense, and that it is never thus employed witli 
the perfect tense, I should perhaps add a word upon the 
tenn **Sab8Ban," which I have adopted in preference to 
** Himyaritic/' The latter term was borrowed from the 
Ai-abss who were only acquainted with the Kingdom of the 
11^? II 4^' or Himyarites, But it is evident from the texts 

' ' JtsL^ ^ ^^ ^J ^ ^^^ lexioona to meaa a mfe, beoautte iko follows, or 
conforms with the wlshei of ber liuibatidt. 



180 



A Shtch of Sab^an Oramrnar, 



that this kingdom rose upon the mins of the ancient dynasty 
of which the chiefs bore the title ofh^f^H<^lfSnAIfl1lli 
King of Sabii and Dhft-RnidiiQ. Sabli wag a district of which 
n?) 3 (M^^!/^^') ^^« *h*^^ capital], and Raidan or Dhu-Raidan 
was, as I have shown in a former paper,* the name of the palace ^ 
of the kings near Zhalar. The language employed in the 
ioscriptionja was that of the people of Saba, as the frequent 
references to the kings testify, and it is therefore only proper ] 
to call the language after them, instead ofafter the inhabitants 
of a petty provincial kingdom. 

An older dialect is perhaps that of the fl^^Hj ^^ people 
of the kingdom of lla'n, of whom so many inscriptions have 
been brought to light by JL Halevy. This is very similar to 
the language of the OXB JB 4'^ ^^ people of Hadhramaut. 
The principal characteristics are the treqnent employment 
of a paragogic ^ in noims, when in the construct state, or 
employed with the enclitic ^ ; the use of a Saphel instead 
of a Hiphil conjugation ; and the possessive suffixes ^ , 
O ^f and oHi^, instead of the more ordinaiy foims (dV 
and qU V- 111 thege two latter particulars it resembles the 
Assyrian. 

In conclusion, I may state that I have selected the 
inscriptions in the British Museum for translation, because 
* doubtful passages can be so easily verified either by an 
inspection of the monuments themselves or of Mr. Netherclift a 
excellent facsimiles. There is therefore no room for vaj^ioriuii 
readings. I have added a translation of an inscription, which 
is now in the British Museum, but which at the time M. Hal<5vy 
copied it as No, 68(5 of his Eeiueil^ was in my house at Aden, 
The true reading of the text, which was to a cert^iin extent 
incorrectly transcribed by M. Halevy, \vHl be apparent from 
my translation^ and will I triist lead to a peaceful settlement 
of a dispute, which was for some time carried on between 
MM. HMvj and Praetorius, on the subject of this very 
stone** 

1 On iome Meemt DUcoperm in Smth^Wetiem Arabia, TranB. Sot?. Bibl, 
Arck, VolII, p. 1. 

« Hal^, £fude* Sabienntft, Pam, 1875, p, 30 j PractoriuB, Smirtige ««r 
JSrkMmn^ der Mmjari*^hcn IntthHJttn, Drittea Heft, EaUe, 1874, p, it. 



wtt/i Eoiamples of Tj^mlatiofi* 



181 



GRAMMATICAL SKETCH. 



L— OliTnOGRAPnY. 

There are twenty-nine letters in the Saba^n alphabet, all 
of which are consonants, although two at least of them are 
also used as vowels. The accompanying table exhibits the 
letters, and their equivalentB in the cognate Semitic hmgnages, 
Ae all our knowledge of Sabfean is solely derived from the 
iiiBcriptions dhacovered in El- Yemen and in Abyssinia, it is 
imposBible to lay down precise rules mth regard to the exact 
phonetic value of the letters, and, indeed, it is only witliin 
the last year or two, that the power of some of them has been 
determined* They may, as in other languages, bo divided 
into the classes of (a) Gutturals, (b) Dentals, (c) Labials, 
(d) Sibilants, (e) Palatals, and (/) Liquids. 

(a) The GuUuraU, jH, V. V> O, J, f|, V- 

Of these f>| represents the spintm lenis of the Greeks, 
and the Alif Hamza m } of the Arabs. Possessing, 
as it does, the powers of a semi-consonant and semi- 
vowel, it can never be elided, nor can words in 
which it occurs be written defectively. O, as in 
Hebrew, must have been prononnccd as a very 
strong guttural, ae many words are spelt with 

it wliich in Arabic have c , sl*^ fl J^ ^ '-H A* ' 
^ represents the ordinary c, of the Ai-abs, but is 
occasionally in Sabfean confounded with "], fi*om 
which it is evidently derived. 

(i) TJie Denials, g, H> B- ?• 

These were probably prnuoimced in the same manner 
as their representatives in Araliic. 



182 



A Sketch of Sabivan (rrammar^ 



(c) The Labials, fl* 0» €^ 

Are also repreaented in all the other Semitic languageB* 

(*/) The StMhnt^, g, A> A* ^. X" 

Of these, J appears to have an intermediate sound 
between % and ^J 

(e) The PahtaU, H» X^ CD' 

if) The Liijuids, % % ). 

In addition to the above, there are the two fatmal letters, 
P, and the explosive \: and the two weak letters, <D, and ^, 
which have the double consonantal and vowul powers. The 
latter is, however, veiy rare, except at the end of words, and 
it is even doubtful wliether it ever ocein*s medially excepting 
the name of the Semitic lunar-god Sm, Botli and ^ 
have diplithongal powers, and words thus spelt may be 
written defectively, e,tj, i — 

^ f for ^ ® ?j ^* ^«y »" 

1* for 1tf a chief; 

^ VV ^ f*'i' <1> V ? y h > '^'■'^ l^rofher^ ; and 

X ^ J fl f f*^>' X 0> ^ > B 1** IJuifhramant 

The orthographic signs used in Arabic, such as the Ja-ztnaJ 
Ta^hdhf, and Iltimza^ ai-e not represented in Sabivan, although 
the words are of eom*se influenced by the principles which 
govern those signfi. For instance, Alif is invanably 
Hamzatum^ and we know that many syllables must neces- 
sarily be Jiizmatum^ from analogy. Mmlmddad consonants 
are generally, if not always, written in full in the ease of 
liquids, and are contracted in the case of guttui^als* The 
WaslcL, and prosthetic Alif are not found in Sabsean. 

' Cf. Dr* D. H, MiJUer'a valuable remarks on tbe pronimciatioti of thi» 
lett<?r, wbicb in SaM tieeiiia to hflTe been the equiraleiit of thp Arabic J 
{ZeiUehriff d, B, if, G. XXIX. p. 688). 



witli Examples 0/ TiHrnnlution* 



183 



IL^ETYMOLOGY. 



1. The Verk 



The verb in Sabsean is with very rare exceptionB triliteraK 
and from the first, or gi-oiind-form, are derived six other 
forms, which, to use Dr< Wright's words, '* express various 
modificatiouB of the idea expressed by the first." 

The following table shows the original and derived foiTos, 
eo far as they are at present known, the numbering being 
reckoned on the basis of the Arabic. 



No. 


Ambla 


Sabcpun, 


Hebrew, 


Force. 


I. 




XO^ 


^?. 


Simple 


IL 




1f«iiS 


^^^ 


f Intensive 
1 Causative 


IV 






h^pp 


Causative 


■ ''' 


JmJu 


?insx 


VtSj'^nn 


f Reflexive 
1 Effective 


VI L 




AOTKV 


^?)?5 


( Reflexive 
( Eiit'ctive 


VIIL 




1hXiH 


.. .. 


r Reflexive 
\ Kecijirocal 


X 


J^\ 


M^XA 


.. .. 


J Reflexive 
\ Kogative 



It will be seen from the above that the second form is 
produced by doubling the second radical of the fo^t or simple 
form ; the fourth by prefixing the letter ^ , or in the Minasan 
and Hadhraniaut dialects, the letter |^, to the simple fomi ; 
the fifth by prefixing the letter X to the second form ; tht* 



1194 



A Sketch of Sah(ran Grammar j 



seventh by preSxiiig the syllable ^ ^ to the simple form"; 
the eightJi by inserting tlie letter )( between the fii'st and 
second radicals of the simple form ; and the tenth by pre- 
fixing the syllable X A ^^ the simple form. 

There are two tenses to the verb in Sabasan, tlie Perfec 
and the Imperfect; and four tnoods, the Indicative, Sul 
jimctive or Conditional, Precativo, and Imperative, 

Owing to the nature of the inscriptions, on which all our 
infnrmatioii wiih respect to Sabnean grammar is based, it is 
impossible to state with certainty the suffixes of the fii'st and 
second personB of the Perfect Tense, or the affixes of the first 
, and second perHons of the Imperfect. We know, either from 
the inscriptions or by analogy, that the following are the 
forms of the third persons of these Tenses in the singular, 
dual, and phiral niunbers : — 



PERFECT TENSR 





MASCULINE. 


FEMININE. 


Snl penf, JSiiu/. 


XOJ 


XX^^ 


9 J 5 J 


?sn 


x?hn 


»» n 


^N^n 


X h J n 


n 11 1 


So^ 


xs©* 


11 11 


^?j 


X^J 


Brd pers. Diiai 


?xo^ 


fXXOJ 


yf n 


??4n 


?x?hn 


i> 1^ 


?^?j 


?x^^ 


3rd pers. Pftty. 


oXOJ 




11 11 


^tsn 




' *i 1^ 


<i'ft>n 





Vfith Kmmples of Translation* 



185 



^lieii one verb in tlie perfect tense is the consecutive of 
another in the same tense, the letter ^ is adtled to it if in 
the eingulan Hnd is substitnted ftjr the letter X >f ^^ the 
feminine flingnlar^ and for the letters f and (D if in the 
dual or pltinil, €*<f. : — 

1^ O X ^ O I h O ^ , he aided and preserved, 
S J H S X ^ I X ? y h X' ^'*^ glorified and solemnly vowed. 
L| ^ ^ ^ y O I O ^ ^ ifl , fhci/ eomtrucfed and compkted^ 

is paragog-ic ^ m probfxbly a sign of energy, and may be a 
relic of the old Hebrew form, as m p>Pi^- 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 



^rd pers. Sing, 
„ Dual 
„ Plur. 



MASCULINE. 



oyot 

Not found. 



FBUIWINS. 



o^OX 



The Subjunctive mood m fonned from the Imperfect tense 
by adding an energetic ^ to the third person singnlar, 
which i8 doubled m the phn^al : — 



SIMPLE FORM. HI PHIL rORM. 



Zrd pets. Stftg. 
Plur, 



S?Oo)V? 




The Precativu mood is formed by preti-xing the prepo&ition 



^■F 


■ 


^^^^^^H 


^^^1 166 .4 Sketch of Sithmm Gramnyar. ^^^| 

^^^H *], mth or without the prniioims ^ and X H* ^^ *^® ^^^ 1 
^^H jujictive : — ■ 


^■^ 


SIMPLE FORM* 


BATArREL POBM. H 






S?0a>XiS?1 1 

hhT0<i»XA?1 1 


^^H It would appear that in verbs of the formation 1^J% the 
^^H medial 1 is preserved in conjugating, as in X S *^ A » whereas 
^^H in verbs of the fonnation **"j% the *i is eHded, as X^^' 
^^^ft from ^f J* In verbg I'^S, the 1 falle in the imperfect 
^^^H tense^ as V ^ ? fi^om Y ^ (P, efr. The final ^ and K ai'e 
^^H always maintained in verbs '^"^ and fc^'^7, as in <I>9^^> 

^^H Owing to the want ut vocalization, it in difficult tiv 
^^^H ascertain the participial forms. The participle of tlie I, 
^^^^B conjugation is probably found in the divine epithets ^ O ^ f 

^^^H or O S f and O ^ |^, and in i^nch words as < fV 1 ^ > ^'^^^ 
^^^B of the IL conjugation in ^ ^ b| O ^ » etc. The forms 

^H h ? ffl S n X ^ /"'tl , Q] n * n X ^ ^"-^ apparently derived 
^^^H from the V. conjugation. 

^^^B The impersonal verb ^ 4 (Arabic ^xi ) i^ always 

^^^H written in the feminine genden as in the common plirase, 

^H S^OhX'I^IX^OhlXHI* ^^came there has been favour 
^^^K (in times past), and intti/ there he favour (in times to come), 

^^V The fbllow^ing are the personal suffixes of the verb, so far 
H as they are known :— 




MASCULINK. H 


CD ^ V — = f'W AruL li ^H 


fc- 



irith E^campUs of Trandatioiu 
Mjir.£AK Dialect* 



1S7 



Plur, 



ILASCUIilHB. 






a>A 



The same foniis serve, when appended to the no\m^ 
to indicate the posseeeive, as — 

(D y >1 rio, hii sefvant; 



2. TtCE NouK, 



The Noun is di\"ided into two clasBes^ tnij(oUs and diptotes. 
Triptotee are known by the tennination ^, naually called the 
Mtmation in Sabauui, which answers to the Tanwin in Arabic, 
Owing to the con8onantal character of the langnage, wt* arc 
unable to indicate the vowela which reepectively denote the 
nominative, geniti^^e, and accusative cases, but they were 
probably tlie same b8 in Arabic, e.y. : — 






^^^1,^1 (15, /. 11-12) = ^Ui^ pron. Anva^x^. 
A nonti is diptote when it does not poBBess the mimatiou, as 

The following nouns are diptote :— 
1, Proper names which retiemble the II. conjugation ol th^ 
verb» ad ^ ^ ^« 



188 



A Sketch of Sahtean Grammar^ 



2, Proper namee which resemble any of the persons of the 

imperfect, as — 

3. FVoper names which end in )(, whether masculine 

feiniaine, as — 

4, Compound proper names, as — 

X$»BV> n»6V^iS 

5. Pruper names ending in ^, the Arabic \_ as — 

6« Proper names ending in Hamza, as^ — 

or consisting of more than three letters, as — 

>X8o. n?>^. 

This rule is not, however, constant* 

The genitive case follows the rule in jEthiopic, and is 
formed either by the governing word being in the status 

eomtni£tus, or by the addition of the preposition ^ to the 
second word. The latter form might pt^rhaps be more 
accurately termed the possessive case. 

The mimation m triptote nouns is lost in the staius con- 
etructiiSy as — 

^ A 1 6 » « i:inff, 
hn tHlA1^> line, of Saba; 

^ X ? n » ^ ''^^^*'» 

^ O 8 Y 1 X ? n> ^^'^ ^^^^^ ^^ tempk of Ydtla^, 
In the regular ptoal, the status constrmtus is marked by 
a Y, as — 

h ^ 3 I ? X V 1 f*l ^ I ? V1 r*l ' '''^ 9^ <^''^ goddesses of Man ; 
fH n A I ? A 1 ^» "'^ ^'''9^ ¥ Saba. 



wUh Kxamples of Translation, 



189 



Tile raiination also falls natiimlly before the personal 
^uifixeSj as — 

^ ^ fl O, a servant or worshipper, 
^ V H n ^» /a'5 servant 

There are three numbers to the noun in Sabaean; the 
singular^ dual, and pluraL 

The duaP is formed by suffixing ^^- to the emgular, 

?SH^^^^ twoforU; 
but in the construct state the \ is generally dropped^ as — 

1*1 n A 1 ? A 1 3 » ^'^^ ^"ff* ¥ ^^^^ / 

hX^'^iltXI^H' ^"^"^ mutresses of the cotUige; 

whilst the f thsappcars when the determmative 4 V ^^ '^^^^" 
ployed, as — 

SVS^^Silh?!!* f^^f^^^^^^ the two seasons ; 

- ^ I I ■ L i I 1 I I i I u A n f ^'^^ t^^ homes of Hirrdn 
h^Ohl>IS^VlSVSX?n4 and AV,«««; 

[fhe (wo repositories of 

^l*l^^®iyX80hVh^^^' tf'^ ^'/"'-ino^ of 'Athtor 

[ and Shams^*^, 

The plural is divided into the phtralis sanu^, and the 
pluralis fractus* 

The piuralis sanm^ of masenline nouns is formed by adding 
^ to the status construetus singular, as — 

[6] A S f*! * ^^ human heing^ 
^ n 1 n* human betJigs ; 

^ } O fl , beasts of burden, 

* In the cianipl©» giTOn by M. Hiil$Ty from Ms own inicriptions afc psgt 
62 id J^titdet 8ab4enneJtf I am of opinion that ilie U is the demonstmbiTe eDolitic, 
and not ft pftrt of the duJil. 

3 Thia U probably a cotitmctioii ^^ J n 8 , '«"^' 

' The pronunciation of tb© regular pluml was probably 4ma m the nomi- 
nativGi and \ma in the objectify eoM^. 



190 



*1 Sketch of Sabofan Grammar^ 




The plufxilu ganus of feminiae noims is formed by adding 
)( to the singular. 

The following are the more common forms of pluralis 
fraetm : — 

1. The Arabic JUjIi as— 

^)^l, fruit: ^>i%^> frtiif! 

^ L, g (P, an idol; ^ h g <D ;», , idoh.* 

2. The Arabic J3^, as — 

% ^ N fH» ^ fr^^atQTij ; ^ X ^ ^ H f*l ' fttuhtorun^ 

3. The Arabic j^, as— 

^ b| "I Q, fl .AfW; ^ H 1 <I'i ehildreiu 

4. The Arabic ^Le » as— 

^ O }, a plain ; ^ X ^ ^ ' plmm. 

5. The Arabic \[^^ as — 

X ? ^ O , lowland ; JH ? ^ ^ ^ hnvhw(h. 

(>, The Arabic JUi? as — 

(D 8 ^ , a habUatiou ; 0) ^ ^ t halntatmu 



= Arab* 



** ^ 
.'^*- 



, pftira/ ^li^ . 



7. The form jd^id, as — 
^3^3. ^^'^ *^^^'^ of « *^^''// ; ^ X^ ? ^ ^ > Btationes. 

8. The form iLal, as — 

^ J ^, tr /3?^eV^i; $ X ® J J fH ' P^*^^- 

^ TMb poiiGMea aIio a feioinine form, i^a V V i 111 a free-born woman ; 
plural y^^^\^^^J^e.bor»mmum: X ? h ^. <>i»««'*>». XTH^fH. 



3 This wcnrd appean to correspond most eloselj witli the Latin come*. 



with KtatnpifiJi of IWuiiihtion* 



191 



It may be observed, that verbals are sometimes masculine 
in Sabeean, feminine is Arabic, as — 

^ 1 r"l rS ^ ^ prai/er, aU^«. 

The adjective, in Sabasan, is often formed from the 
.mibstantive by the addition of a Lj, as — 

^ ^ J ^, tlte east, S O ^> ^^t^rn; 

^ } O ^, the west, l\\o^, icestem ; 

Gentile adjectives are, in the singular, often formed by the 
addition of f , as— 

1^ O ^ J Main, ? h ^ ^ ) ^ Minwan ; 

hnA' *^H ThfllH* « SabcBan; 
but this is elided in the plm*al, ae^ 

^ *| O ^, Mintran* ; 
^ X $ } I f ^ P^^P^^ ^\f Hadhmmnnt. 

There is no article iu Sabaean, The final ^ of the 

mimation has no doubt the force of an indefinite article ; 

and the demonstrativo enclitic \ serves as a sign of doter- 
I mination. But article, pur el drnple^ there is none ; and the 

theory of M. HaMvy, that ^ is used as a definite article, 
^cannot be upheld. The paragogic ^ is common in the 

Hadhramaut and Mineean dialects, in the case of words in 

the construct state, ae— 

but this 18 not an article,' As for the compound names, 

V^A^^H?* n^AV^A^^ ^^^^7 ^f Sabeean nomen- 

* The neftreit correiponding fonn would b« the final ^ of Uie Amnwftwi 



192 



-1 Si-etch of Salnran Grmntnar^ 



clatiire would have cc^nvinced M. Halevy that in royal 
appelktions, it was usual to employ an epithet of the 
deity as the second divisiou of the word, governing 
a verb in the first; and that in the above names, the 
word is composed of the epithet of the divinity V ^ A > 
t.e., the participle of the verb y ^ il] = the Hebrew 
root riDC?, alhis fuiu and the Arab, y^ (U-jX »^^ ^^ 
verb 0^9= Heb, JTT cognovit ; whereas in the second 
word, the epithet is from f] J A » *'^'> ^^^ participle of 
flJ^, the verb, whence is derived the Hebrew 1^^3, 
chetmh^ and signifying to he jtiuihti/^ powerful ; and the verb 
V ^ l»|. Similariy, ?1 O V ^ A* 11^ ^^^Iii^i the latter con- 
stituent was probably originally ^ "^ O = Heb, root ?T7y$ 
elatu^ esty and Arab, *Lp (Is)- It ia an interesting featm^e 
in the Sabsean language that (especially in proper names) 
we BO often see the original form in ^ in verbs of which 
in Arabic the third radical is * and ^J^ and in AmmaBau M 
or (in intransitive verbs) "^. 

The syllable © y, which M. Halevy takes to be the 
forma plena of ^^ and which he assimilates to the third 
personal pronoun NIH and to the Hebrew article 'Hi ifl more 
probably the sniEx of the thii*d possessive pronoun, as in — 

^ ^ J HI ® V n V» f^f^ ^% of J^asM*^, 

n H ^ N V ^ ^ 4*^ ^w aanctuanj of Madhak 

In the Hadhramaut dialect we accordingly find ^ in lieu 
of © y , as^ — 

^ h O $ ! A n ^ ^^ ''^ ^^^^ ^f ^^^ Mnwam. 



with E.rnmplefi of Translation, 
IIL— The Pronoetn. 



193 



The following table exhibits the forme of the demonetra- 
tive pronoims in SabsBan : — 

1, The near Demonstrative (THIS). 





fllNOULAR. 


PLtniAL. 


L Mate. 
Fern. 


H 

XH 


^\ 


^ . 


The diMani Demonnfrat 


ire (that)» 




SINOULA.R. 


PLURAL. 


Fern. 


X®V 
X?V 


X^V 



I 



The connexion of the distant demonstrative with the 
pronominal eystem of the other Semitic Ian gii ages, 18 not 
readily apparent to the Hturlent; and ^-eat credit ie due to 
M. Halevy for the acnmen he has displayed in establishing 
the radical identity of tliis part of speech with the forms 
under which it is preserved in ^^thiopic/ 

The plural of the near demonstrative receives the 
paragogic ^ in the Mincean dialect, as ^ ^ f*|, and a form 
Y^ y ^ is also found, but it is uncertain whether tliis is a 
dialectic or a regular form* 

Closely allied to the demonstrative are the monosyllables 
H ^^^^ XH' ^^*^^'l^' though ei^s of the genitive case, have 
invariably a possessive gignification like the Arabic ,3 and 
^j The form ? V ^ ^'^^^ found with identical force, as 



ToL. V. 



Hal^vy, Etude* Sahiennei, Parie, 1875, pp. 63, 237. 



13 



194 A Sketch of Sabwan Granmar, 

The conjunctive relative pronouna are:^ — 

^^ ^^ 
H» XH' «M «Aaf = Arab. ^iJ^, j:l\ 

HlhP^ XHIhfl' ^'^ '^^^^^^ ^^^ "'^'^1 whoever^ Arak ^ 
If m used adjectively like the Arab. ,^jJU and agreea 
with itB flubstantive in gender, number, and ca^e; €*^., 

(D V — f=j = Arab, ^ , ^iJ \ 

<^ V X ^ ^ H» '^A»*^A '^'^ *«^ ofered. 
When used eubstttntivclj. it is equivalent to Hlhri" ^^ — 
® V h ^ n 8 V H» it^fi^«oev€r may break it ... . 

The texts Jo not eupplj with examples of the neuter 
conjunctive pronoun, nor of the interrogative pronouns. As 
they are invariably written in the third person, we have no 
opportunity of knowing the form of the first and second 
persons, but the third is probably in the siiigidar ^ 'i' and 
in the plural ^ y, M. Halevy's remarks on this subject may 
be studied vnih iuterest.^ 



IV. — The Demonstrative ENCLmc. 

In some of IL Hal<5vy*8 inscriptionB, an early form of the 
demotistrative is found as p| T^ This is probably identical 
with the Aram, MH^ tkU^ and thtnce h I the Heb, NH, /o/, 
and the Arab. |^, m \^ \}1^. "^^^^ f^ V ^'^ Sabaean is 
however generally found combined Math an enclitic ^i a^ ^ ^ , 
corresponding to the Heb, |n, and the Arab. \ lo! 
The demonstrative force of this letter is well displayed in 
the Arab. \^ and the Heb, H'^. In Sabwan the enclitic 



Haldvy'i Etudes SabSennet, Parit, 1875, p« 68. 





mth Ewampkn of Translation* 



195 



is invariably added to the raasculine singular demonstrative 
^, a6 4^1 and fr*^qxient!y to the phiral '^^f as *i*l ^. 
It ifl not nsed with the femudne demonstrative, aud in 
the distant forms the final X ^^ equally an enclitic, and 
is of equal power. But it must be added to every noun 
which is preceded by a pronoun ; ae — 

HXSHH'IXtV 
h^iSMX^V 

It is obvious that when the noun is thiis made determinate, 
it loses the indefinite mimation. 

The enclitic is also occasionally added to a preposition, 
when it occulta before a determinate nc»nn, as— 

H X 8 H f I X ? V i h n. '■« 'A«« calamity. 
riiis must not be confounded with the other prepoeition 

A word is occasionally emphasized by the addition of the 
syllable ^ 'j^ to the ordinarj^ enclitic ^, The etymology of 
this particle has been explained above. It gives the 
signification of fhh {(self, the verjj^ as S V H ^ ^ ^ I H fl' ^^ 
the thrine iUelf, in the very shrine. Ilalevy m uiistaken in 
thinking that \ is merely a contraction of ^ y, or that the 
latter can be employed by itself. On the contrary, 4 ^ is 
invarialily f )niid m conjunction with l|* The two examples 

hVnVH ^"d SVMV 1^^ British Museum Inscription 
No. 2\) are in the liadhramaut dialect, and the normal 
forms of V n V H '^^'^ V n V ill Sahaan are f] V H 
and M V> consequently H V Fl V H ^ SH V H and 



A Si-etch of Sah{pan Grammar^ 



v.— The Ni^ERAXs. 

The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 follow the analog of 
the Hebrew and Arabic languages (in (»ppo8ition to the 
iEthiopic) in placing the feminine form in )( betore masculine 
nouns, and the normal form before feminine nonnR. They are 
as folio we, an asterisk being placed after eueh ae do not 
actually occur in the inscriptions : — 





MASODLINK. 


FKMTKINB. 


I. 


IH'i'/h 


nxi'ft 


2. 


?S8 


?Xh8 


3. 


11818 


DX818 


4. 


iion^s 


IlXo^^^ 


5. 


DiSB*^ 


DXAD'.i* 


6. 


D8HiH 


DX8Ki>i 


7. 


floRiS 


UXoPA^^ 


«■ 


I1SD8 


DXSB8* 


9. 


floAX 


nxoAX* 


10. 


HBo 


DXBo 



Some dialectic forme are found in the inscriptions, such 
as the Bubetitution of y tor ^ in X H' r"!? *^^^^ ^' 8 ^^^ X 
in the same word ; the elision of the ^ in ¥ X H 8 ^^^ *^* 
the t\ in 8 H n ' ^^^ ^^^^ substitution of ^, J, or (as in 
Aramaic) X f^'' 8 ^'^ 8 1 8* ^^ *h^ Min^ean dialect the 
letter y is inserted between the tirst and second radicals of 

HUB 



with E^JcampUs of Translation, 



197 



It will be observed that tlio cardinal niimberB. with the 
exception of the dual 2, are triptote, although the niimatioii 
is loet in composition, and the demonstrative enclitic, both in 
it« simple and it« iateueitied form may be affixed to them, as 

HXon^fH; HVSJ^o. 

The carcUDal nnmbur« from 11 to ItJ are formed by the 
addition of ^ ^ O or X f ^ ^ » ^^ ^^^ ^^^ may be, as : — 





UABCULISf£. 


FBlflNINX. 


11. 


^^olHV^i 


X^JoixVA 


u. 


^^olXoR^h 


x>^o|on>h 


17. 


J^olXoHA 

1 


XJ^oloHA 



f ■ 

m The cardinal numbers from 20 to 90 are formed by the 

I addition of ^ to the original masculine form : — 

I 20. ?>^0 60. ?8HiS 

■ Tl 

V in tbi 



20. 
30. 
40. 
50. 






60. 
70. 
80. 
90. 



?oniH 



The phonetic variations noted above of course take place 
in these words ; and in the Mina^an dialect the pai'agogic 
l^ is inserted before the final f , ajs ? V ^ fl J ?! ^^^ 

The numerals 100 and 1000 are represented by ]] X rh ^ 
and U 1 fS » ^^^^ *^^ intervening numbers are formed 
regularly, as in the other Semitic languages, as— 

BXhflllhll'.f, 5.K); 

llX?illl8iS. 600. 



198 



A Skateh of Sabmm Gfwnmar, 



So far ae we nre able to judge, the ordinal numbers are 
formed eitiiilarly to t!ic* carcUnalt}. There waa doubtless a 
change of vocalization, but the force of this cannot be pre- 
dicated with certainty in a purely consonantal language. 
The formation of the Iractious itt notyet accurately determined 
for want of texts. 

The system of notation employed by the Sabeeana was 
exceedingly simple. Thd figures are always placed between 
two ladders, tlms n I H which at once distinguishes them. 
Up-afid-down strnkeK are used to denote 1 to 4; 5 is y, 
the initial of |'| I| h^ ; 10 is O, the initial of ) ^ O ; 
50 is '^, or half of $, tlie initial of BXhl). IW ; and 
1000 is ^, the initial of i^"}^- 

The nearest approach to such a system is the Roman. 



20 
30 

40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
1000 



3 
4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



I 

II 
III i 

nil i 

^ i 
ly 
iiv 
iiiv 

Mil''! 



oo 

ooo 

oooo 

i 1 i 

§ ol i 
i ool g 
§ oooT I 
|aoool I 

i 1 i 



until EaiQmple9 of Thm»hiiotu 199 

The unite are often joined together, as P ^ 1 1 » LTI — 1 1 1 1 
^ etc. Examples : — 

IniilOOOol 47; 

I OOO^U I 180. 

The figures O O are eoriietimes connected together, thus 
3, but being placed i^vithin the ladders, it is inipossible to 
mistake them for letters. 



VI.— The Particles. 

A. — The Prepositiong, 

The inseparable prepositions consist of one consonant, 
the vocalization of which is nncertain. They are x — 

(a) f], in (of time or place); //i!/, through (of agency 
or inBtruinent) ; accordmg to (Heb. Aram. ^, ^th* 
n - Arab, y )* 

{h) *! to ; for (to indicate motive) ; on account a/ in 
canaideration 0/ {Heh, At'dm, ?, jEth. f\i Arab, JV 

The enclitic 4 may be added to either of these preposi- 
tions, and they may be used adverbially in the sense of tvhen. 
The ^ ie also the sign of the precative mood, when pre- 
ceding the imperfect subjunctive. An attentive consideration 
of the texts has convinced me that it never has a precative 
force when joined to the perfect tensct 

(c) f^ as, like as; and with the adverbial sense of when 
{Heb. Aram, 3). But this is not really a preposi- 
tion, but a formally undeveloped noim {cj\ Wright's 
Arabic Gmnmiavt edit, ii, p. 312).^ In the Minsean 
dialect, it appears to have the force of *|. 

* For a more lengthened inquiry mta the power of tkii pArtiole, see Hal^ry, 
Simd4t Sahimmt, pp. 91-94. 



200 



*4 Sketch of Sabcean GiHxmmar^ 



*' The separable prepositions are of two Borts, Those of 
^' the lirst class* which are all biliteral or tTiHteral, have 
*' different terminations ; those of the second class are 
" flimply nouns of different forms in the accusative singular, 
" determined by the followmg genitive " (Wright, p. 313). 
They are consequently without the miination. 

The separable prepositions of the lirst class are : — 

(a) f ^1 O over, upon, to (Heb. ^^y, 'hy i Ai'am. bj? ; 
Arab. J^y 

(b) T ^, from (Heb. Aram, |P; Arab. ; ^Eth. 
A^^ -)• But in Saba^an this particle usually 
appears as ^ f] » 

{€) t{ Q, **V/, up to (HeK ly; Arak ^ ; ^th.?^]iri;) 
The poetical form ^ H O, Heb, ^3?, is 4*l«o found; 
and the Ha<ttramaut dialect gives the form t{ ^^ 
The separable prepositions of the second class are:— 

(a) l^f f|; (^eiwem, amojtif (Heb. p5t Arab. '_^V 

(^) &|on:; ^^"^^'^ ^"^^' ^5^* ^^l^- Itj)' 

(e) O'lV' ^'fi^'^^^A (ifter; different from Arab, ^i) ^ ■ 

(J) ^f]^' before, of time (Heb. Snp, Arab. j^V 

('') DH^i ^''^/^'"''^ of place (Heb, DIJ?, Arab, ^fj)- 

(/) n J A> *'' exehamjefory in comideration o/(Hulevy). 

There are also a few compound prepositions, as J] O f] , 
composed of [] and J O (Heb. Q^^ Arab. 1^^ with, tieat^ 
bu) and equivalent in meaning to the Latin apml ; 01 '^ fl' 
beliiml^ in the neitjhbourhoud of; X V X Fl ^ ^'^- Fl ^^^^^ XH'X* 
Heb. nnJ:i, Arab, .^^^ beloio ; > f fl 11 = Arab. "^^ 
mtfkout; and Ylofl, composed of ^f] and ^"]o (Heb. 7^9, 
Arab. J^ ^). Cf. Zeitschift d. IK M G., vol xxijc, 
pp. 6U6-60^. 



with Examples of TrannUitiun, 



201 



B. — The Adverbs. 

Very little is knowu about the adverbs in Sabaeau, but it 
seems pretty clear that, as in Arabic, the accuBativu case of 
a noun ie often used advevMalii/^ as T X II ^ i * f<ivourabbf. 
The adverb of negation u perhaps Jj ■*] (Arab. \\ hut 
this only occurs in one inscription. The inseparable adverb 
"^ (Arab, j), veriltf^ truly, is found occasionally. 



C- — Th^ Conjunction a. 

The iollowmg are the inseparable conj mictions: — 

(a) 0; which ib usually employed for connecting 
words and sentences (Heb, Aram. *), Arab, i, 
iEth, (D :) but is also used as a disjunctive particle^ 
like the Ai-ab. \^^\, 

{b) ^; this sometimes connects single words, as 
J 1 I iH h h > ^^i* i^ more usually introduces the 
consequence resulting from an antecedent cause 
(Arab. J^, Heb. ^H). When it follows tj> in the 
disjunctive sense of the latter, it introduces the 
apodosis of a sentence. 

{c) 1; that^ in order (hal^ which is identical mth the 
preposition J and is prehxci] to the subjunctive and 
precative moods of the imperfect; and to the 
perfect in the sense of because. 

The following are the separable conjunctions : — 

(a) O^i or (Heb. iH, Arab. ^O, 

(6) O fi| ^ ; as well as* 



202 A Sketch of Sabcmn Grammar^ 

(c) I fj became^ in thaL This conjunction appears to 

s 

he derived from a root similar to the Arab, '^i or 
^^ adapted, fit^ suitable. Its original meaning is 
therefore conformable/ to, in aecoj^dance witL In the 
fiense of became^ it is commonly need with the 
enclitic \^ or with the demonetrativ© pronoun 

]( ^ ; a» 4 1 1* ' X H 1 1 ¥• ^* i® ^^^ occasionally 

followed bjr the prepuwition f\ or preceded by 

WHn« XHfl* H1' XH1; f-^^edbyprefbdBg 
the prepoeitionB f] and ^ to th© demonstrative 
pronoun, have the nignification of because^ in that, 
XW"^ occasionally niles the precative, instead of 
the simple % XHR before the Bubjunctive is 
i$i order that* 

(e) W^l when (Av ah. 1\, cflieh. W), 

(S) H ^ ?^ 1 ?* originally a day, but generally used 
conjunctively as wheti. 

(A) H 1 H 1» ^/^^ ^''^^' ^^^^'^ == -^^^^ ^' 



wifh Kvampte^ of 7rafulat%on, 



203 



EXAMPLES OF TRANSLATION. 



In order to eoonomize epacej I do not iiiBort the inscrip* 
tione in fiill. They may be found in tlie BritiKh Museum 
Collection, liSGB; in the Zeitadirift der DeniHvhm Morgmland 
GeselUcha/t six (Os.) ; atid in the Journal Asiatique for 
October, 1873, and December, 1874 (//a/.), I have followed 
the order employed by AL Halevy, both for purpuseR of 
' comparison, and because that order groups the iiiecriptiona 
of a similar character, and leads on from the easier to tJie 
more difficult texts. 



I. 

(B.M. 23; Os. 190 

1- ^ n V ® "• P*** nom, = Arab. ^^Ui' ^ giver. The ha, 

altliongh mmhaJ<hfd in Arabic, is not so in Sab«ean, 
being a guttural. In post-lslaraitic times, the designa- 
tion Al-WaAMb is only applied to Allah. 

2. <D V h^ ^ <D, the word ^ |i|, brother, is written defectively 

■ ^^^ ? ''i 1*1? ^* enbst. gen* = Arab. ^\ ' as the governed 

verb is in the plural, and not the dual, as would have 

been the case if the votaries had been merely WaAAiib™ 

and his brother. <I> jj possessive suffix^ Arab* ^. 

1-2. X ni A r® S n ' <I* S n» ^i- «^t.st. plur. gen. = Arab. 
^, Halevy r(.nnarks that the form oSf] is usually 
employed with reference to a tribe, and Y 'i fl "^^'hen 
the natural descent is implied : hence X Fl 1 A would 
here be the eponymm nf the votaries' tribe, and not 
their father. As it ends in X» it is a diptote noun, and 
does not take the mimatiou. 



204 A Sketch of Sitbctaji Grammar, 

2. Y l^ ^ V^ peri: 3rd pere. masc. plur, IV. of f 4 ^, 
to be in possession = Arab. ^J ; hence, IV. signifies to 
place in possession o/, or, of votive objects, to endow, 

3. T V^ 1 f*!' ^' W' ^ lunar god of the Sabfeana, wor- 
shipped efipetiaily at Hirran, Na man, and x4wam, towns 
of Al- Yemen. The noun being compound, is cliptote. 

h y V H ♦ H» ^ possessive adjective, which frequently, 
but not iiivariablyt has the sense of the Arabic ,j, 
possessor^ owner* Here it has the force of the ^'Ethiopic 
genitive particle ^ . ^ ) V * ^ tuwn of Al-Yeman, 
sacred to the cultny of 11-Makah. 

3-4. m^^^^, thUy and the demonstrative enclitic \. 

4. 4 &| '^ J^ ^ ^ H" eubs. The exact derivation of this word 
i^ uuknowji, but as it is only employed upon the 
bronze tablets, and never on any Btone n^emorial, it 
is commonly taken to intlicate the offering itself, t,^., 
the tablet. The final ^ is the demonstrative enclitic, 
tJm^ which takes the place of the mimation. 

4. ^ "I 4'* '^^^j* derived from a root = ylra6, _^ or ^ 

adapted^ ft^ suitabk^ proper. Its primary meaning seems 
to be in eon/ormitif icithf and with the demonstrative 
enclitic ^i aceording to this^ for this reason^ i.e., because, 

5. <D^ V V ^® J P®^' ^^^ pers, masc. sing. L^ Arab, i^j 

he obeyed. In Sabsean, with P, it signifies to hear a 
prayer favourably^ i.e*, to grant it. 

5-6. <I> V 1 h iH ^ n ' n ' P^'^P- ^^cording to. 1 h |*| $ , a 
triptote noun derived fironi 'I ^ |>| = Arab. JL' ^^ 
ashd^ and equivalent to iJL.^ » ^ ^^^^^9 o«^'^'<^' ^ petition^ 
a prayer. <I> V ' ^^^ possessive suffix = (the prayer) 
addi^essed to the god, lit, his prayer. I cannot see on 



wfi!/i Examples of Tramiatton. 



205 



what grounds Ha!<^vy translated ^ }*i (S ^ ^ ** grAce." 
There is no diffioulty iu the plirage, if we h^ok cm the 
prayer addressed to a god as, thereby, coming into 
the god's poesesHion. 

6, (D ^ V f © ^ : 1 ie here a conjunction, signifying, 

because that, in thaL ^ ^ O, perf. 3rd pers. masc. sing, 

TIT. f>f Y 0^ = Arab. (JjT intetj^r fuit : therefore IIT- 

fligiiifies, to restore to kealtht to kef.p whoh\ to keep safely, 
Halevy thinks that *^ here indicates the precativc, but 
the precative is not a mood of the perfect i^im^ ; nor 
18 his difficulty about Y ^ very clear. 

7, (I> ^ 1^ H ^ fH' P^^"^' ^^^ P^*'^* masc, sing. III. of t( O j*! 

= ^4ra^* III- j^Lji ^'^^ iusigt or help; to prosp^er. 
^ X ^ ^ H * adv. = Arab. |«^^, , ftc<\ of the triptote 
Doun ij^ \ favourahli/^ or with favour* 



Translation, 

Wa/iMb""^ and his lirotherH, the Bcn^ Kalbat, have 
endowed H-Makah of HiiT^n witJi this tablet, becansc he 
has granted the prayer addressed to him, in tliat he has 
restored them to health and haw assisted tliein favourably. 



IT. 

(B.M- 21 ; Os. 21.) 

This inscription, with the exception of the proper uameg, 
is almost word for word identicid with the preceding one* 
The pronoun \^ is omitted before SHSJ^^- ^'i^* ^^^" 
demonstrative enclitic is a sufficient detern una five. The 
verb ® ^ V ? *^ 1 ^"^ ^^^^ wanting, apparently throngh 
an error of the ai*tist. 



806 



A Sketch of Sabaean Grammar^ 



1. SVi^* n« prop., probably derived from a root = 

Ileb, i^^lN Arab. ^, eignifying '* lo/ti/^'' or ^'superhm^ 
As it ends in ^ , it is diptote, 

^ H 8 ^ $* a well-known triptote Sabiean name, here 

in the genitive = Arab, *xj^. It ia stiid by the Arab 

lexicographers to me B]i ^' si generous maiv' or ^'a lian,'^ 
In Sabfean, the eponi/inm of the great tribe which held 
the country about 'Anir&n, 

2. ? 4 W' V^^^' ^^^ P^'**^' raasc. sing. IV» ? 4 ^. 

'Alh&n son of Mai-thad*"" has endowed H-Makah of Ilirran 
with this tablet, bL-cauwe Il-Mtikah haa granted the prayer 
addressed to biiii [in that he has restored him to health] and 
in that ll-Makah baa assisted him favourably. 



IIL 
(B.M. 36; 08.34,) 

1' ^ V l rH X V h^ '^* I'^'^P' ^^'^^' pecuharly formed from 
the two wui"dfc5 X^f*i' »^^f^f\ i»Liid ]]^, mother, with 
the poB8essive tiuifix ® y ; eomp. the Hebrew Ahab, 

2. B y SO^' "' P^' *^'^' ^^ uncertain etymology. 

2-3, tXI^H' "' eubst, fem. dual of ^0\[, an omier^ lord, 

^- hXD*^' '^- Bubst fem* = Arab. hL^, lit. a house 
constructed of branches of trees, but here meaning a 
roughly made house or cottage ; with the enclitic 
deraoiietrative \ to di*aw attention to it, 

1 *»i n» P^^P* compounded of f] and ^ ^ *i^, = AraK 

^_^^ ^ , Othindf over against^ hard by* 



with Examples of Tramlatimu 



207 



a-4, 4 y "1 V, 11. mibst. raasa ^ MiK WIQl a dty, with the 
demonstrative enclitic *|. 

4- n ? ^ ^' ^*' P^' ^^ ^ large city, the citpital of the kingdom 
of Saba, the Roman Afarmboy and modem Mdrib, 

?X^^ perf. 3rd pere. fern, dual I of ^f J or ^ ^ 
=s Heh. U^"^ posuiL 






an idok with the 



4-5- S S 8 ^» **• s^ihst. = Arab, 
demonetrative enclitic \, 

5-6, ]1<B|"| "1 ^ r|, n. pr. epithet of Il-Makah : AwSii is 
apparently a town of Al-Yemen, dedicated to the 
cultna of that god* 

(W. — tIIVV^<^ — ?IIV?0<I>1; these verbs have 
the feminine dual pronominal suffix f U V* 

Ukhturnhn and Shafanram, the two owners of the 
cottage, which is hard by this city of MaiyaK have offered 
this idol to Il-Makah, the lord of Awam, because he has 
granted the prayer addressed to him, in that he has kept 
both in safety. 



IV. 

(B.M,34; Oe.330 

1. H O 1^ fi|, n, pr. masc, from the root ^ O |^, to pro8pei\ 
As it resembles the 1st person of the imperfect, it is 
diptote. 

S E iH V ?? n. pr. Bnmame of As'ad ; probably the 3rd 
person sing* perf, IV. of l| ]J jl| = Arab. ^^^, It 
would, therefore, be equivalent to ** Le Gros " or 
"The Fat;* 



808 A Sketch of Sah<Fan Grammar^ 

4 O V y » n. pr, formed from the 3rd pers. sing, perf, IV. 
of ^ O = AriAt, U^ ' ^'^ helped or astttnteif, 

2. f ^ U n H« "' P*"* ^'* ^ S^^ of the SahfeariR, from a word 
equivalent tu the Arab. fXk**' ^^*^ ht\iceti», 

L 'I 9 4, lu mibet, = ^Ofc), an ima{je,wifh the deinonstra- 
tire enclitic ^. 

J X 8 ^» n. pr. a well-known god of the Sahfeaos. 

fH n *^ V' i» pr, aha of a Sabaeaii god, 

H 1 1 4^ I X H^ ^^* P^' ** name or epithet of a Sabeeaij 

go ride 88, the "* lady of the tenieuoB '* ss |_> ^ a pro^ 
hibited space^ of pasture or of water, 

II h H ^ n I XH^ n. pr. also of a goddees* Hal^vy 
identifieH ^ ^ O [] with the Vodona of Ptolemy. If 
this m tlie rase, 1 shi>uld be inclined to translate the temi 
as ** the lady of tlie Vodonita?,** a8 ^ ^ O f| , ending 
in **(, iR a diptote noun, and ]] S ^ O f| wonid be the 

plural of S ? S H ^ fl' *^^' h h K ^ n^ '"* mhalritant 
of Vi^fhfta, In the plnral of gentilf nounR, the final 
\^ or ^ tjf the sing, is always dropped. 



As*ad YahaRman hoii of Yah a an ban t^ndowed DhU- 
Sam&wi with this iraa^e, because he baff kept hira safely 
lu the name of 'Athtar and Hanbjiw, and in the name of 
Il-Makah and /Mat-Hitna'^ .md i>/a\t-Badnnim and /MiV 
Samawi. 



with E.TampieR of Irmiftlatiotu 



209 



V. 

(B.M. 17; 08, 15.) 

1- rt 1 * n h ' ^* P^' ^^^^' restored by Ualuvy aa ft 1 H fl fS > 
which, although always mascuHne m the Bible, he 
compares \vitli the names Abigail aud Abishag, which 
were feminine. The word (1> i f| appears to be omitted 
before BHS^H- 



2. Xhn=Arab. 

state. 



I » a daughtert here in the constiiict 



T ^ ^ Q, II. pr. maec. of doTihtfiil etyniolngj% Ending 
in L|. it is diptnte. 

X? h ^ V' P^^^* '^i'*' P*^'^^* ^i^g" f*^'^^* ^^ ' ^*f ? H ^^ 
^~^- ^ V X X J H * ^^^ siibetaiitival relative in here 

^ -6- 

expreesed by the form O V ^ — fl = Arab. iik_^^-iH. 

XO Jj l><^*i'f. 3rd pere. i^ing fern. I. of X^ J' — Heb. 

JlDU?^ to place^ to ffive^ aud in Sabgean, to plut'e before 
a (piU i.6.> to offer. 

4. ©]] VfO^^I* *1^^ suffix here refers to the whole 

tribe of which the votary was a representative* 

5. X H 1 1^ ^^h a fi^er foi-m of 1, eomp. 1 IJ, X H 11 1*' 

btcame oJ\ in tluxL 

X B ^ h ' perf, 3rd pers. fern* sing, of the imperBOnal 
verb H O 4 = Ai-ab. ^ , to he well with a person. 
In Sabsean it appears to be always used impersonally 
in the feminine gender, 

•*5' *1 I H 11 ^ H X» itnp^rl* precative, 3rd pei-^i, fern, sing, 
of B O ^, governed by X H 11- 
Vol. V. I* 



210 



A Skfitch of Snhtran Grammnr^ 
Tranj^/ation, 



Abiinelok, a lady of th- Bevu Marthad'"^, the daughter of 
^Auanaij, han endowed Il-Makah of HiiTan Avith this tablet, 
which she has offered to him because he has kept them ealely, 
and hecanso it haw been well /;* timffi past, nnd may it he well 
in firnfj^ to torn*" with tbt^ Beiifi Marthad'"". 



VI. 

(B.M. 24; Os. 22.) 



1. H A "1 I*' "■ pi- f*^'u- = ? Arab. i^^JX^i f>laeh>e»», i.g., 

Nigra, or Nera. 

flHnoi?hn 1.. F. oi a h4be = ^ ^^, ?hn 

iov CD ^ f|, as the word is governed by J(H. 

2. '"I ]( <D ^ If, \u pi%, probably a towii or district of 

Al-Yt*inen, the abode of the BemVAbd,, 

H ? h H I S R' ^^' P*** ^^^ uncertain etymology. 

Halak^^\ a lady of the Beni 'Abd'"\ daughter of Bin 
Diiyan, has endowed Il-Makah of Hirnln with a tablet, 
Ijeenuse * . . 




VII. 
(B.M. 28 : Ob. 24.) 

L B ? ^ V' ^^ P*'^ ma^e. = prob. the AraU ^-jU, « tnthfe. 



2. DIVA* ^^* V^' "'"'^^^* — Arab. Jl^» smout/i or f(t}<u 



with Examples of TrnmlaHon, 



211 



*^* XH n^ ^^Hl* foi^med of the prep. f| and the I'em, rel. 
pro". X H = X H n I' "• X H 11. /"■««'«<^, in that 

Translation, 

Hadi'"", Bon of SuhP"" bat* undoA\^ed I!-]Makah of Himai 
witli this tablet because he has granted the prayer addi-etised 
to liim, ill that [lie has restored him to health]. 



(/ hnli 



VIII 
(B.M. 1»; Oft, IL) 

I. I] ^<Z' 8> '*■ P^'- maBi% — Arab. '^ 

B H ? A h> ^^' p** "^^«^- fi"ii- *^* m A N "= 1^1' ^ ''*>'*• 

^ ? I! V S n ' ^^-^-i**^" defectively for ? fl V ? h fl 

2?-3. E J ft I ® h n* n, pr. of a tribe inhabiting Al- Yemen. 
D30 ^ ft ^^ diptote, because it reftemblew the l^t pers, 
fting. of the inipeifect. 

D^ft} 11. «-!iib.st. Halcvy thmkn that this word ia 
connected with the Arabic j\ ? he associnfed Mm with 
1m famil^^ and traiislateB it '* subject.*' I am incUnef] 
to ascrilje it to the Bame root, without giving it 
exactly the same meaning. There is no idea of 
inferiority in j\ ; en the contrary, the siibst. '^^\ 
signifies a patient or e^zumple, and m used some- 
times in the isenee of chief (i% Lane's Lexicon, ^uf* 
voce), 1 would therefor»- translate fl ^ ft as the 
clan of a great fl ^ ^ ^^^' ^^^^ nu^h a« the Beau 
Marthad*^. 



31t A Sktteh of Sabmm Grammar, 

'»• H > D 8 h. "• «"''8t- phw. fiac. of II J D 8, fruit = Arab.^ 
*» here in the ace* caee, t^UJV 

7. f ^ O, prep. ^ Heb. ly, ^o, amonffsU tV», 

0^p^, D. siibRt. = Arab. ^ ii earfA, &7n<j. 

7-8. XE?^11» 1^' mibst plur. Iract. of UJH* » receptacle, 
Btorehotme^ bam. 

10. ® B ), perf. 3rd pers. pliir. I, of ? Q J = Arab, ^^, 

he wa» plmsed^ conimted^ safi»fied, 

10-lL h ) H ^» '^' Biibfit. ])lm% frae. of ^ J ]|, a man ; here 
appHed to the chiefs of the great fl ^ ^ ^'^ ^^^ 
Beni Marthad^ in the Chaldee eenee of Ml^. 

T T 

TraiiHlfiHon, 

Tham"™ and Ueaid'™' and tie brothers and Bona of both, 
the Benfl Arfat, a chin of Bin Alarthad'"" have endowed 
Il-Mafcih of Hirr?in %vith this tablet, in that Il-Makah has 
kept tliem whole and has prospered them in (tivim the frnite 
in their land and their stort^iunseB j and their chiefs, the 
Benn Marthad'™ are pleased witli i\m % and because he has 
kept tlieni whole. 




TX. 

(B3L 7 ; Os. 9.) 

1* XB S ? V* '1^ pi'* ^* nneertain etjmiology. As it ends 
in Xf i^ ^^ diptote, 

6* B h S Va "• '^'\l* agreeing ^vith B ^ II 8 h ^ cognate 
to Arab. ^, and Heb. TJ^T^ (Hal^^vy). It may be 
translated *' abundant." 



with Ejcamplm of Translation, 



213 



TVandation^ 

Hainamatt and Iiis brothei-e, and their KonR, tht* Benii 
Arfat, havt; endowed Il-Makrth of HiiTan T\ith this Ublet, 
because he has granted the prayLT addressed ti» liini, in that 
he ha« kept them whole^ and lias pronpered tl^ein in ffivinct 
abundance of fruite in their land and their storehouses ; and 
because it has been well in thne,^ pa^U and may it be well /// 
times to come with the Benu Artat ; and because he has 
laesiBted theni, their chiefs the Beni Marthad^"" are pleased. 



(B.M. 20; Os. 16.) 

1" J ?j n. pr. masc* perhapn 3rd pers, sing, imperf. 
of ^ Q ^, to overkoL 

2- ^n8AI<I»Sn> '^'V^' of a tribe. 

5. S O ^ Y ^ ; ^, a eonjunction, ihot ; *! O ^ f , hnperf. 
3rd person, sing. masc. hi the subjunctive moodj from 
O0^, to f*au€ up^ to elevate. 

f\^^f n. Bubstt in stat. constinietUB with ® D V X ? fl 
in line 6, consequently ^dthout minmtion = Arab. ^j^\ ^ 
primarily a chosen or portu'jthr frieuil^ cw intimate ; here 
meaning the people of the liouse> the inmates. 

5-*5. ^"10' ^ — Arab. ^, and^ also. J"|, aiau hi the 

s- 

const met state = -tVi-ab. ^\^ > a neifjhboar^ but here 

rathtir a relation or kinsman residing in the neigh- 
bourhood, and under the protoctiou of the hrnise. 
Ralivy has well pointed out the similarity of these 
expressions with the Ilebitw n^2 ^^^^ and H^S '*'12, 
which signify the indoor and outdoor dependants of 
the house* 



il4 A *^ht4*h of Snbmm Gnimmm\ 

*>• <P H I! V ' P®^*f* *^**^ P^'"**- pl"^*- fr<-*'^^ = Xib>. ' ^^ praiite. 



•i. H^IIj 11* 8ub8t. loci* fi'om = Ai'ab. .\j, a station* or 
^mf of a divinity ; probably the place where the etatne 
was erected in the temple* 

7. a>l]V?O^V^ P^rf- iii'd pers. slug, IV. of f^©, with 
the Bignification of III. 

7-8. \ n n > n^ pi"t*P* '^'i %i acconlinif to. 1 A ^ Arab. V, 
M D f^l > ^- yubat. plur. fract. of ^ IH i a fuljUmcnt, 
Heb. fr^bn, 

**• ©fSlDXl"!' Perf. 3id pers. i-lur. X. "f ^| 1 ]], ^>" 

hShlDXi'l?* iniperf. ard p^rs. phir, conjimetive 
mood, X, of fi^ llJ* III tliiK and the pret-etiing wonl 
the relative H ih iiiiderstocfd. 

8-9. <D V I] O f] , prep. eompt>uiided of P and ]] , 171 hiH ^ 

ftreaence, before him, 

0-10. H *? ^ <D, u. eiibwt, B ? ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ tli^ accusative 
witli an adverbial signification* 

'Tnuiftlatton» 

Yeshnf and hiH brothers, and their houb, the BeiiCi Kathab^"'^ 
a clan of Bin Mitrthad^™, luive endowed Il-Makab of Hin*an 
with thi8 tablet, because II-Makah has gi^xnted the prayer 
addreesed to him that he %vonld raise up the iumatee and 
kinsmen of their lionsej and they have praised the seat ot 
Il-5Iakah because he has kept them whole in the fulfilment 
of everything which tbey demanded^ and which they may 
demand before him ; and in that he has prospered them with 
favour and with health ; and their lords, the Beni Marthad^ 
are pleased. 




with EjcampUit of Imtntlatiotu 

XL 

(BJL IK; Oh. 17.) 

^ fl 0» n. Hiilmt. ill fitat. coustnict. = Aral). 



215 






ftimv^ 



tsMa|>ly 



STH 



SAK 



Jl y ^ 5 0, perl". Hrd pev.s. wing. raaBc* = Chalcl, F)ll, 
(o /t:ftd (iiult'Vj^). lu Sabi^aiJ, the roeatiing ih io r^lre 
or bestoie. The plural wuffix relatew to the whole tnlx- 
of Marthad^"^, 

1 ^ 1 ® h' IK biibfcit., auc. catje^ plm . tract, of U H 1 <1>? 
a son = Arab, jj^^ , phir. Jj \ , 

1! ® ^ A H ^li ^^ *^4]m ace. caae, plim fract. of ]] J ^ H, 
male = Aral>. <j. The <D appearn to be inserted 
through ail error of the artist. 

fl 1 ^ h » ^* subst., acu. ease., plur. fraet. (►f B *! ^ 0> 
*f fritH-ln!ot'ut*j plants 

® II V n ? 1' V^^'f' Si'tl per8. eing, mayc. Ilalevy 
supposes thiB word to be equivalent to <D J] V f] f ^, 
in No» 11, IinL' lu, and to be connected with the 
Arab. ^_^^r he ruiwmkd, theuce, in an extended 
nieaningj fo protect from harm. Thiw in probably 
eoiTect. 

Y ) f , u. subtit, cognate, either with the Arabic \^ ^ 

lie became in a defect !ce «»r had (•ondltion^ nr |^^ , he 
btcmm confounded^ or erred. Probably tin- former. 

h A 1' ^^' Bubttt, The Arab. ^l*Jt means a tomfue, 
thence emt-Bprnkinif. 



216 A Sketch of Sah^un GiramfHaf\ 

9-10* O^Qo]]^ 11. subst. Compare the Arab. ^,,4^ ^ he 
uttered cahann^ ^m\ faUehooil^ ur \^^, Iw eitchanfeJ, 

!**• H J V* P^'*'f* 3^*1 pers. sing* ma8c% = Arab. j^, W 
vimfe xceak^ to enfeeble. 

)BA» I^^^^* ^^**^^" P^*"^* "^"^^^ masc. = -iEth, UJ94; Ae 
efor^ ; ill Sabaaan it Beems to mean generally U> scaiter* 

10-11. ]] A H h 11 ft, = AniK ^l] ^X' being in tbe ac- 
cueutive case, and baving the generic meaning of 
man^ mankitid, 

11, HYft^f* imperf. 3rd pers. sing* masc. conjunctive 
mood from ^ft^- Compare Arab, ^-^> i^^n ijk-l^ 
haniship, distress, udvernhf* In Sabwan the verb 
governe with [], 

1^' B^ ^ A I J ? 11 n = ^^^* O^ j^, ' without nghttom- 
ms8 or juAticet unjmtUf. 



Tramtation. 

As'ad Faukaman, servant of Bin Martbad^"^^ has endowed 
ll-Makah of Hirraii with tliis tablet because be liaB granted 
the prayer addieawed to liira. in tlmt he has kept them whole 
and has bestowed male children in abimdance, and in that he 
has bestowed tbe fruits [of the tvee] and the fruits [of the 
earth], and lo that he has kept whole the lords of their 
house, and in that he has protected them from lose and evil- 
epeaking and calumny (or enchantment) ; and has enfeebled 
and scattered every man who may have distressed them 
unjustly. 





with Kramplen oj Translaiwu, 217 

XIL 
(B.M. 19; Os. 18.) 

^' X8^?4'1j "• pt'op. Tiifi8t% (jT uncertain etymology. 
The teiTnmation X 8 ^ » ^^* ^^^^^^ words aa this, m 
here geiieiaHy imderetood to he nu abbreviation of 
) X 8 ^ and f 4' 1 ^'^y — ^^^'^'^* l5*^> /^'^^» *^^'*"' 

1 rH n ^ 8? n. pr. Bubftt. = i\j:ab. c-jIJ^ and /?, the 
shoi-tened forai of It-Makah, i.q- the reicard (or reconir 
peuM) of 11, 

*• h ^ V ® I <^ S n ; ^^' P^* *^^ ^ *"^^' sprung from tlie 
Benfi Marthad^^, 

^' ? 1 n ^^> conj* = simply ^^ or more iutensively, 

^ ^ f^ , u» subst* plur. fract- of ^ ft = Arab. ^^ > a 
ram (or other aiximal) hearing much wool, phir. ^41. 
Here it means wool-bearing animals eoUeetively, a 
Pch In thi8 pasBage, Sx\"\ f— f 1 fl M» ^vhich 
is of some difficulty, 1 fthall adopt, as iVir as poeeible, 
Hal^vy's intt'ipretation. 

5-6* S^n^?' iniperf. *5rd pen^. ying. mafic, subjunctive 
mood 1= Heb. and ChakL ^3^; to conceice, to he fp\^at 
with young. The relative ff is undemtood. 

6. Oj^, n. subst. ^ Arab. t,;» «^^tf or pwgeny. 

niTfl* *^' ^^'^li- ~ Arab. J^b* "* « i/ood a^o^^ or 
condition, but used perhaps here adverbially h^h ^ 
joyfully, liappihh 



21H 



A Sketch of Subauin iJnumiutr, 



iHTTj i<^perl* 3rd pers* sing. mtiBCt. h^nlpinetive 
moud s= Arab, jj , to hrin^ forth, 

'• X ® T 1> J^*^ ^/'*'' •' *he word X ® V '^ *'^*^^ musciilint* 
(luniunHtmtive pruuimn (see Chapter on Proaoune)* 

meau8 for^ in conmhmthn of, 

^* nX*^^ P*^'^*** '^^*^^ liers. sing. iim«L\* «igaiiie« to cantiime 
ti> clu uiiythiyg, alwayt^ witli another verK 

'* ^ 1! V X n M» "^ siibfcit. = .viiiiu ^^^, (I />/cictf, f>f 

^ml^ produce; a tmct if land for plantimu *mltivabte 
ktiul : the phir. m P ^ 'I =: S-v^ . 

10, ©]] V n ? Tl' ««*^ No. XI, lines 8-y, 

0*^5 IK mibftt Cuoip* AraK ^.i.t to ItHmiliate, 

Y^^, Bee No. XI^ hiR' IL 

fi/tf'inf/* 

Lahi*atht jiiul hia hou. Tlia\vwal>-iL ami biw hrotlierB, and 
their Hunn. thu Beuu Wahmn. a elan L>t" the Bvni Marthad"" 
have endowed Fl-Makah of Hirran with this tfiblet-,* beeauee he 
ha?j heard tlie jyrayer addrewaed in him tluit the floek whinh 
was great witli young might j<*yf\illj bring furth uH{s|>nng 
(or might bring forth a healthy ortkpring) ; and ll-Makah hat* 
favourf^b]y lieard him in cunBidtjration of thiK tablet; and 
becaoBe Il-llakali lam continued to prunper theio [in fjirittp^ 
almndanee of ma It 8 and because he bati kept their eultivable 
land m good eonditiun, ;md because he Imn [protected them 
from humiliation and the adversity tif enemies, and because 
it has been well in liinei< pmt^ and may it be well in timm to 
fome with Bin WalnAn, 




III tbt; Ublet tlxe«e woi'di dkft inkpUced by a fault o£ the artkt. 



with EjsampUs uj Tt-umslutiotu 2111 

XIII, 

(B3L 15; 0«. 17.) 

nnique ; or Heb. ir\^, tfjvelientUt : CbakL *^W, per^ 

3* ^idSX' P^^*** "^^'^ i)t'Yis. «iiig, niasc. V. of ^ fl 4' 
prob, == Arab. ^J , '*^ prockiifu : but in Saba^au it 
Mppears to liave h future force, io mujut\ to pronme, 

cM- D J V ^ D^ "• '*^lj' = Arab» ,^^:^. conBpiaiom.emtiwnf, 



s t ^ ' 

public ; here probably ueed adverbially. 



4, ^fd' pi'^'P' Arab. ^^ betwui^ amonfftit : of tiiiiei 

1 T 4 / '^» ^^' ^uL»*^t- ^ Arab. ,^ ^^ antumfu thriit'c, 
/' //«(ir. ^ the dtjmoDBtrative euclitic, intenBified by ^ y. 

^* n r n T U n ' ^** 1^^'^ ** cuiupoimd diptute noiuj, i-oiii- 
pused uf V 1 rH = H'-^l'** "^^^ ^^■^'-^*' U^> ''' ''t' fwallvd; 
and n ^ A» (ft^ power/ttiy an epithet uf the deity. Here 
the uaiive of an epoiit/muft, probably a king. 

^'^ n ^ A ^ n X' *^" P'- ^' eoiopoiuul diptote nuiiu ; com- 
posed of OflXi '^ ^"^^'^^ ^^* whieli tile ineaiiiiag is not 
very clear; nnd fl ) f^ , vide niipra. 

*•"'• XDn I ■ **• V^* Coiup* Arab, t»^^ j^-^ ^ 't ffifinuit fcho is 
jifioH In f^tatdre. In thin place, I am iiielined to think 
it i^ a wonianV nfmie* as the Salneans nften traced 
back to their niulerjial uneeBturB in tlieii genealogien, 

U. P O ^^ n. siibst. = Arab. ^^>*. . a *p'eat tribe^ biicli a« is 

divideil int^i «nl>-tribe«, like the Benii Ihxrthad"". See 
Laue*s Lexieun, Botjk I, part IV, p. 15.511. for the more 
modern Hub-divisionh ui' the tribe. 



380 



A SkeU'h of KSAOtjmH Grammar^ 
Translation, 



Watr'^, BiQ Marthad'^, has endowed Il-Makah of Hii-ran 
\nt!i this tablet, whicli lie proTiiiBed publicly duriug this very 
year, hi the year of Samaha-Karib, son of Toba'a-Karib, sou 
uf HuJAamat, beeaxise it has lieen well in Hinei past^ and may 
it be well in limtm lo come with the Beui Marthad^™ and their 
tribe. 




XIV. 

(BJL i; Oh. 1.) 

1 , B n ? K *** P^'^ masc. of nucertain etymology. Perhaps 

akin to Arab, (_^\j ^. that whk/t cast doubt^ or terror^ into 

othei's ; but more probably i^^*^,, part, ot t,^!^, to 
rectify. 

2, h^UOy u. pr*, a towD to the iiorth-west of San'a, 

where tliehf hiseriptit.niK were foimd* Probably the 
head-qiiai'tei'8 of the Beui-Marthad^\ 

3, U f^ } o. Kubst. = MiK ^UJJ?^5 pra'positm. In Sabroan, 

a patron, or tulelarif tfOiL 

•'*■ IllMin' =Arab. jC^. 

7, n f n ♦ ^'- Hatevy ingeniunwly eunneets this with the 
Arab, ^^^i ejchnnge (although it is doubthd whether 
._ ; ^ haw thin nieaniug; Init it may mgiiify nilue ; ef. 
Lane*« Lexieoii, t^uh rott'}, and translates *'in cou si dera- 
tion of." Lenormant trauslatee © fl V X ^ I O J A» 
**la eollectioii de lem' oHramle," taking flJft ^^^ 
cognate with the Arabic <^j^> bat thi« is very 



mlh ExmnpUfi of Translation* 



221 



doiibtfii]. It may be rL*marked, however, that IV. 
i^^^, means /le fjace, which may originally have 
come from aiKjther ruot* In a coiifesftedly difficult 
passage, I adopt Haliivy's suggeBtion, which smts 
the context both here and in thu only other place 
where the words occur (XXXII, 9). 

]] V X J > n, snttet, an offfHng, cf. V, 3-i* 
<D V n H = Arab. <u ^il\^^ m the ivMch. 

8. T^n* perf. 3rd pers. »ing. mase. = Arab. }^^ 

1 J ? ^ J ri. 8ul36t., a donbtful word, but identified by 
Hal6vy with the Heb. "VO^ pemmiati(m, and liere with 
the sense of value. The final ^ in the demonstrative 
enchtic. 

S]18> numeral adj., feminhie, as fljfl is of that 
gender, eiifkL 

]I^P, n. subst* fern. plnr. = Arab, j , , sing, pliu', 
. ,, a rlnq or brace let^ used as a meaem'e of value, 
cf. Heb. Dll^l. 

h n V H H » "• snbfit. nit. genitive particle ^ = Arab» 
The final ^ In the demonstrative enchtic. 



B X m 'I fl n ' ^* snbst, Halevy compares with the 
Arab* y^ , stones^ especially fiaff^stojie^ for paviutf^ used 
as a term for tc^iahts, like the Heb. jTK ^5?N 
(Lev* XIX, 36). 

||?0^* 11' »dj«» aggreeing with above; approved^ 

10. n ^ ^ II ^' ^' P^' composed of fl O = Arab. he 

gave univermlli/ to, all, and f] f A' '^'^ epithet of the 
deity. 



222 A Sketch of Saltffan Grammar^ 

n. B y ^ 2 4'» '^^ P^- ^^*^*^* *'^ luicertaiji etymology, 

D > <^ 8 X H 5 tl^t^ lady of TlmtiH"". Thatir is a \^llage 

near San'S, in the WSdy Thaiir. 

Tyfimlat.ion. 

Rft-ib""' ajifl liiB Ivrotliere, Benfl-Mai-tliad^, and their 
tribe of 'Amrilii, has endowed theii' patron god, Il-Makali of 
HiiTilii, with thi» tablet, becauee he has granted the prayer 
addi'eBsed to him, in that Il-Jhikah has kept them whole in 
eonsideratiaii of their ofteiiiig, in the which waH ihin vahie, 
eight ring8 of very gokb of approved weight, in the year of 
'Am-Karib, son of Samaha-Karib, son of HaA«^far^, the lady of 
Tliani-i'". 



XV. 

(H.AL U: 08. 70 

X J D J» II. pi\ diptote as it ends in X- Cognate with 
Arab. IL of -^ , he strove iaho7iojtsli/, 

^ xHirnn-XHiiv^^- 

4. 



© VJBITI' n*«iil^t. = Arab, 
of towBR and <Mdtivated land* 



a re(/io}i or diittt^i't 




H A 1 ^ U H' ^'* V^' *^^ ^^ distiict. I cannot accept 
Halev^*'H HnggeBtion that the word means a famhn 

from ^^jA^' 

S^V?V^ !-• h>VH- 

koV' P'^''^' ^""'^ pere. sing. maw. 11. ol ^ O 
(see IV. 1). 





irtfh ErompifR of Trmi»lafion. 



223 



SoXIl> P^^'f* '^^^^ P^'^s- ^^^S' masc. = yn?^, perfect 
to enhr^e^ thence fo deliver, TIiih being the second 
of two verlm in ^ippomtion hun the energetic ov 
paragngie l^^ 

^' S V 1 1 X h V X ' <--<>nip. Amb. IL _^'l* ii» its Kuranic 
senfle of /o mnh much shuffhter, ^ i&, im m verj' 
common, iindevntood before the verb ^ V X ' 

HHDfl^l' n. siil)Ht. wz Arab, "j^^ with thr- deraon- 
etraf^e eiielitit. 

tfffrft.^^ here vio/t>tirr. 

HN A rH' '*' Hnlwt,, propt-rly raeauing /?'o^^, nuiHt in the 
inscription, I think, nignifj the well-known tribe of 
Asad. The <lem. enclitic draws attention to the tribe. 

8, ^©^ , to overlook (see X, 1 ). Thia sentence H oX^ — 1 

IB in the precRtive oinnd, 

•*• 1 X A h n> '*' f^uliHt. = Arab, L»b, dutress, ajfifctiom 

9-10. II t A S <^ I fl X ? A h ' ?i* «^l>8t., botii derivtnl ti^oin 
tlie same root = Heb. np2, to ^tnke^ to beat ; thence 
a hlmr^ eahmitu^ irmmff. 



Translation^ 

Anmar""', sou of Shammarat, haw endowed Il-Makah of 
Himm with this taljlet» becanee he has granted the prayer 
addresfied to liim, ina8mnch an he has left him safe in \\m 
district of Malzan, and because Il-Makali of Hirnin has 
prospered liim in his cattle, and becanne Il-Makfdi lias aidt'd 
and delivered hi8 servant AnmSi*^ from the ntangbter wliieh 
befel ill this conntiy from the violence of the ti^ihe of Asad ; 
and may Il-Makah continue to overh>ok and deliver hia 



m 



A Shtch of Sabmin Grammar^ etc. 



servant Anmai-*'" frt>m affliction .ind distresH and danger; 
and in that he has prospered him, their lords, the Beni 
Martliad''" are pleaned ; and betaiise it has been well (in 
times past), and that it may be well (in times to come) with 
Anmar^"* 



XVI. 
(B.M. Oe. 23.) 

1. t^- tor YO<J> 

flbjOi*!^, II. pn verbal from bj O i^j. 

^-^'^ H h n B I? h n 11- Pi- ''^^ ^* ^^1^^'' ^'f nncertain" 
derivation, 

Traminiion, 

[In that lie ban kept] his servant Musa'd*^ whole in 
the fidfilraent [of that] which he demanded before him in 
JhilRiiii, and may II-Makah continue ta keep his servant 
Miisa'd^"" whole in the fnllilment of everything which he 
may demand before him ; and because it has been well (in 
times paet) and that it may be well (in times to come) to 
the Beni Dhabii^ through Il-Makah uf Hiri^in. 



[Additwnal Exampiei of Tramlaiuma will be given 
the next Part.] 






.„^ 



^ 



^^K. 






".V 




\^jmiu!ivtB V 



SHAMAN PHUi. 



225 



CHRONOLOGICAL REMARKS 

ON 

THE HISTORY OF ESTHER AND AHASUERUS, 

OB 

'ATOSSA AND TANU-AXi\RES, 

Bt J. W. BOSANQUET, RRA.S. 



Bead, Gik JuM, 187B. 

Part 1. 

No portion of sacred hietoiy has been more roiif^hly 
handled by historians and commentators than the Book of 
Esther. This book still wanders np and down the bordere of 
legend and history, seeking entrance within the pale of sacred 
Scripture^ and has as yet found no sure resting place within 
the sacred canon. Thongh greatly prized by the Jews as 
authentic histoiy, it only takes its rank in the Hebrew Bible 
amongst the books called Khetubim, or Hagiogi'apha ; and 
rightly so, for there is one remarkable fact connected with it^ 
viz., that while it professes to contain the record of one of 
the most signal deliverances of the ** holy people '■ by JehoTali, 
the name Jehovah is carefully suppressed thronghont the 
book, which seems at first sight sufficient to exclude it from 
the category of sacred -Nvritings. 

But if, as I am satisfied, it is a true and genuine piece of 
saered history, why does the chronological position of the 
history still remain so unfixed and uncertain iti the senile of 
time? Not on account of any obscurity or amhignity in the 
narrative itself, which is remarkably plain and intelligiljlet 
but simply owing to the assumed necessity of fitting the 
events within a framework of conventional dates, put 
together some three centuries ago by the most learned men 
of their day, according to the best materials then within 
Vol. V. 15 



Book of Knther. 




their reach, but whose outliue of reckoniug as applied to the 
Bible, Hiiice the di^coveriee of Layard^ Rawliiis<m, Botta, 
Loft us, and Smith, is found to be untenable, owing to incor- 
rectness and insufficiency of liistorical data. Before then we 
attempt to fix the true position of tlie book of Esther in 
sacred history, it is necessary first that the outline of the 
chronology of sacred history should be clearly ascertain ed. 

The common Bible chronology which still lingers on in 
schools and colleges, is Imsed upon the manifest untruths — 
tliat Cyrus, the founder of the Persian empire, and father of 
Cambyses king of Persia and Babylon, iu conjunction with 
" Darius, son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the MedeSj who was 
made king over tlie realm of the Chaldeaus*' (Dan, ix, 1), 
took the throne of Babylon after a long siege in the year 
B.C. 538 ; that '^Darius the Mede;* sii called by Daniel (v. 36), 
then reigned at Babylon for twu years, organising the affairs 
of that kingdom, and dividing his great empire into 120 
provinces, ^^^th Daniel as his chief minister r and that he was 
succeeded hy Cyrus, who reigned over Babylon fur seven 
years, fi'om B.C. 536 to 530, Such is the fonndation of Bible 
chronology as laid down by such men as ScaUger, Petavius, 
Ussher, Des Vignoles, Clinton, Ideler, and other eminent 
chronologists to the present day. Mr. George Smith closes 
the hst of those who accept this untenable mode of reckoning 
in his valuable work entitled **The Assyrian Epouym Canon," 
p. 157. *' Om- best authority, the Canon of Ptolemy," he says, 
** places the first year of Cyrus in B,C. 538, which would 
indicate the previons year, B.C* 539, as the date of the capture 
of Babylon and the fall of the Babylonian monarchy/* I 
have no hesitation in saying that this chrLuiologieal arrange- 
ment is purely fictitious. There was no such ]\Iedian king 
as Darius reigning at Babylon in B.C. 538. And the authority 
of the Canon of Ptolemy compiled two centuries after Christ, 
is not equal to the authority of Xenophon andCtesias writing 
in the iburth centuiy before Clmst, who are opposed to it. 

The fact, now come to light, that Cyrus king of Babylon, 
that is to say he who repaired the temples of Bitsaggath and 
Bit55ida at Bnbylon, was ^"^ mu of Cambi/ses'' (Trans* vol. ii, 
p. 148), coupled with the clear statement of Ctesias from the 



Book of Esther, 



ii7 



royal records, that the founder of the Persian empire was 
CyniB^ father of Cambt/s€^9, of whom no exploits agaiuBt Bahyhm 
are recorded by that historian,* goes far to set aside tlu^ idea of 
Herodotus, that Cyrus* who conquered the Medes and founded 
the Persian empire, was the same Persian king as he w^ho first 
reigned over the Chaldeans. For unlefis it can be rIiowii that 
both the father of Carabyses and the son of Gambyees reigned 
Lat Babylon, which no one yet haw attempted to prove, the 
revidence of the brick at Senkereh, showing that it was the 
son who reigned, is directly opposed to this commonly 
apted notion. Again, it cannot be true tliat the great 
ing Darius, who ruled over 120 provinces, and who, as 
inheritor of the dominions of '*Ahasueru8, of the seed of 
the Medes,*' is properly called, according to eastern custom, 
iJiis **son" (Daniel ix, 1), was reigning at Babylon as early 
I B.C. 538, seeing that the only known king in history living 
about that time and bearing that title was the well-known 
Persian king Darius, son of Hystaspes, whose years are fixed 
by eclipses recorded in Ptnlemy'H Almagest as beginning in 
B.C. 521. That two such mighty kings bearing the same 
title, born of different races, one a Me do, the other a Persian, 
should both have reigned at Babylon, one precisely at the 
termination of seventy years counted from ** the desolation 
of Jerusalem,'* and the other at the close of seventy years 
of indignation against Jeniealem (Zcch. i, 7, 12), yet reigning 
eighteen years apart, is also inconceivable and absuixl. If 
such were the fact, how is it that t!ve name of the first of 
these kmgs does not appear either in the list of kings in the 
Babylonian Canon, or in the list of MecUan kings named by 
Herodotus, Xenophon, or Ctesias? Dr. Pueey does indeed 
surmise that the Darius of Daniel may possibly be identified 
with some yet undiscovered king of Skdia ; but to assume 
eiich an identification as a fact, and to found a system of 
chronology upon it, is merely fabricating history to support a 
pinpose. Canon Rsiwlinson, a high authmitj on Meiliaii and 
Persian history, writes, ••It must be acknowledged that thtTc 
is scarcely sufficient ground for determining whether the 
Darius Medus of Daniel is identical with nuy monarch known 

^ Ctew Fragmenla, Bitid ({k 47}. i 



228 



Book of Eat/ier. 



to 118 in profane history, or a personage of whose existence 
there remaiua no other recorcL"- In the face then of this 
niieertainty, it cannot be reasonable to make the reign of tliis ^ 
king a fundamental datum in sacred histoiy* Truly, Dariui 
Medws, as distinguislied from the eon of Hystaspes, is ai 
imaginary king; and, to borrow an expresBion wliich hafl 
T think been wrongly applied to Deioces king of Media, this 
nnknown king '* mnst be relegated to the historical limbo, 
in which repose so many shades of mighty names,*' * I have 
begnn at once by calling in question the existence of this 
supposed Median king, because it must ever lie in vain to at- 
tempt to reconcile Assyrian discoveries with Sacred Scripture 
while such a system of authoritative teaching prevails. It 
is obvious, as I have said, that such teaching is purely 
arbitrary and fictitiouSj and ought to be discontinued. It 
has brought sacred history into contempt, and has even led 
to disbelief in the authenticity of the Book of Daniel. 

As regards the date BX. 538, attached to the reign of the 
first Cyrus (Kai-Kliosru), as marking his accession to the 
throne of Media^ it stands npon a different footing. No one 
need dispute the idea entertained by the earliest anthoritiesj 
that Cyras, father of Cambyses, may have come to the throne 
of Media and Persia in B,o. 538. But this is not the same 
idea as that wdncli makes liim king of Babylon at that date. 
Tliis latter idea is as untrue as the asBertion that Darius and 
Cyrus were associated at that time as kings at Babylon, and 
that the first year of Cyrus was B.c, 536, marking the year 
when his decree went forth to build the temple uf Jerusalem. 

I have already shown (vol i, pp. 201, 202) that Cyrus the 
Persian, of the race uf Achaamenes, the founder of the empire, 
died in battle wnth the Scythians in B.C. 53*i» wdien Darius son 
of Ilystaspes was barely twenty years of age (Herod, i, 209), 
The decree for the rebuilding of the temple of Jernsalem, 
issued '*in the first year of Cyrus " (Ezra i, 1), from which the 
dates in our Bibles are reckoned, could not, therefore, have 
been issued in that year, or by that king, wdiose third year is 
mentioned by Daniel. There is, however, sufficient evidence 

J EtilAy TITp p. 418* Median Chronology of Horodotus. 
- AueiouL Monarcliios, toL iii, p. 174* 




Book of Esther, 



229 



to show that tliis Bam© Cyrus, that is to say, Kai-KJioBni of 
the Persian historians, who according to Ctesiae was not 
related by ijlood to AKtyages^ conquered the Medes in the 
55th Olympiad (B.C. 560), and came into undisputed posses- 
Bion of the throne of Mt^dia in B.C. 558. 

The reckoning of the reigns of the kings of Media of 
the dynasty of Deioces downwards is very simple and very 
exact, if not arbitrarily di.Harranged with a view to modem 
interpretation. But before we proceed to fix the dates of 
the Median kings of this dynasty. Ictus go back for a moment 
to the rise of the dynasty of iVi-baces the Mode after the fall of 
the fii*8t Sardanapalus, as truly 1 think related by Ctesias, and 
then come doT\Ti to the reign of Deioces, Syiieellus, following 
Ctesias, has preserved the date of the overthrow of Assyria 
by Beleays (or Beloehua) and Arbaces in the year B*C. i<25, 
with exactness. He places the first year of Bel us the 
Assyrian in his own Auno Mundi 321 G = B.c, 2286*7, making 
reference no doubt to the first year of the Cycle of Belns 
=^B.O. 2287 (Syn. Dind. vol. i, p. 181; Trans. Bib. Arch., 
vol. iii| p. 16). 

From thence he counts 1460 yt?ars in round numbers, 
(p. 312), say 1461, to the overthrow of Sardanapalus by 
Arbaces, that is in A.M. 4676 = B.C. 825 ; and in confirmation 
of the exactness of this date, Megastheues counts upwards 
from the first year of Darius eon of liystaspes (b.o. 5il), to 
BeiochuB and Arbaces 304 years, which l>egin, therefore, in 
the year B.C. 825 (Trans* Bib. Arch., voL i, p. 262). 

This Belochus» or Phul-Belochus of Megasthenes, contem- 
porary with Arbaces. is no doubt the same king as Sainsi-Vul 
or Shamas-Phul of the Assyrian Canon, king of Assyria, who 
began to reign at Nineveh about the year B.C. t^25 (Smitirs 
Eponym Canon, p. 60). The establishment of this dale 
and Bynchronism is of much importance to ancient history, 
and fihouhl be borne in mind as fixed tliroughout these 
observations. 

Wb now come down to the dynasty of Deioces, the 
reckoning of the reigns between whom and Arbaces varies 
according to the theory of the difft^rent writers. I am in- 
led, however, to think with Mr. Clinton that Diodonis 



230 



Book of Esther. 




i 



may have preserved a tme date^ when he places the first 
exercise of influence over the Median tribes by Deioces, 
while bat a youtig man, not yet on the throne, in the second 
year of the 17th Olympiad = B.C. 711, twenty-three years 
before his accession. 

Those writers are not justified who expunge the name of 
Deioces, the first king of the second dynasty, from the list of 
Median kingsj For in the seventli year of the annals of 
Sargon king of Assyria (B.C. 715), ^y<y ]}]} ^^^I JEf 
Da-ya-uk-kn, or Deioces,' is named an having been banished 
to Hamath, together with his distinguished family. He was 
then no douVit merely a youth, for his predecessor on the 
throne, Cardueas, was still one amongst the tw^enty-four chiefs 
of the Median tribes who paid tribute to Sargon in B.C. 713/ 
And again in B.C. 703, Sennacherib received '* tribute from 
the distant Medes,'' and conquered Aspabara another of the 
twenty-four chiefs, so that Deioces had not yet become king 
of Media in B.C, 703.* Herodotus states that 

Deioces reigned 

Phraortea „ 

Cyaxares „ 

Astyages „ 

Together 100 years. 

Now, the question is, in what years did these kings begin 
to reign ? The testimony of Josephns — who, nevertheless, has 
done much to obscure sacred chronology — is invaluable as to 
the precise time of the reign's of these kings. After relating 
the wonderful event which happened at Jerusalem in the 
reign of Hezekiah, of the retura of the shadow of the etm ten 
steps "on the steps of Ahaz,'* which it had gone down, w*hich 
event w^e kiiow from a living witness toctk place about the 
time w^hen Sennacherib s army of 185,000 men was destroyed 
by pestOence on its return fi'om Egypt, intiictiug a blow on 
the power of Assyria not soon to be recovered, he adds, " It 

* Atic» MonareUies, toL iii, p. 174. 

' FwteB deSttrgoii, lino 40. ^'itsehrift fiir AgyptSpraiibe, July, 1869, p. 9Q. 
The Armenian hifltoriun Mo9(?s Oboreneusii gires the auecession of Medmn kuigs, 
ftnd immeft Curdieea*, or CiurdticaB. Dr. Haigh 'was the first to point out the 
Tulue of the record of Ctesiat as a kej to the Assyrian Canon. 

' Smith's Assyrian Biaroveries, p. 28D, Chiirdukka, 

^ EecordB of the Fa&i, vol. i, p. 28. 



53 


years. 


22 


}f 


40 


1) 


36 


V 



Book of Esther. 



231 



was at this time that tliL* dommiou of the AssjTianB was over- 
tlirowii by t)\6 Medus" fEif roihtp r^ XP^^^ a-vveffij T7)v rmv 
*A<T<rvpiwv apXV^ ^^ i^f>;SaJ^' xara'kvdfjvai). Ant, x, ii, 1* 
Til© phenomenon of tlie movement of the shadow on the 
steps I have ab-t^ady whown (Trane. Bib, Arch,» vol, iii, pp. 
32-40, and in ** Messiah the Prince/' 2nd edit., pp. 11 \\ 193) 
waa occasioned by the solar eclipse of the llth January i B.C. 
689^ and eonhl have been occasioned by the sim in no other way 
than by a partial sohir eclipse, tuwardt* noonday, abaut the 
time of the winter solstice. It was then in the following 
year, B.C, 688, that Deiocee, nhaking off t!ie feeble Assyrian 
yoke, \vas phiced on the throne of ^ledia; and if so 
Metlian chronology stands thus astrononiicaUy fixed : — 
Beiooea reigtia 53 jears, from B.C, 688^ 
Phrftortes ^ ^ „ „ 635 

Cjiucares „ 40 „ „ 613 

AstytkgeM ,f 35 ,, ,, 573 to 539 

So that Astyages died in the year B.c, 539, and Cyrus received 
his kingdom in B.C. 538, The year B.C. 538 attached to the 
first year of Cyrus (that is Kai-Khosrn) father of CambyRCS, 
thus rests upon no uncertain authority* 

Herodotns incidentally seems to confirm the correctness 
of this computation in a passage which has given rise to no 
little discussion (i, 130). After describing how Harpagus, 
the general of Astyages, deserted and joined with Cyrus in 
the overthrow of the army of Astyages, he fixes the time of 
the overt ki*o%v in these words: — **Tbu8 after a reign of thirty- 
fire years (cV' erea wivre xal rpi^Kovra), As ty ages lost 
his croTvn, and the Medcs, in consequence of his cruelty, were 
brought under the yoke of the Persians. Their empire over 
the parts of Asia beyond the Halys had lasted 128 years, 
excepting the time when the Scythians had the dominion,'* 
(ap^ain-df rij^ avm ^AXvof iroja^u 'Aaiii^ i^rr^ $T€a rptt}KoyTa 
zeal €/caTOV Bv£p hiovra^ wdpe^ fj ou-ou ot StcvBai ^px^*"*) 
But these 128 years, which are, I tliink, corruct, can never be 
reconciled with the 150 years counted from Deioces to the end 

' Oanou Rawlinson expunged Deiocee from the Hat of kings. F. L«Dormaiit 
jsaikm the year D.c. 688 the lust ycnr of Deiorcf*, Lettrcs A sty riologiques, torn i, 
p. 61. Fjnce Clinton aiid Jackioii Imve both perfeiFed th»t B.C. 688 must luire 
been the fint year of his reigu. Faat. ReU,, toL ii, p< 260 i Jadcion's Ant. to). I, 
p,284 



"232 



Booh of Either. 



of the reign of Astyagee,* The text muBt either be rejected, 
or amended. I wonid euggest, as posBihle, that ttci/tc KaX is a 
late interpolation, and should be removed, and that rpLo-fcaiSe/ca 
should be Bnbstituted for TpirjKoma. There would then be 
no diffieiilty in eouiiting the 128 yearg from the year B.C. 688, 
for we ehould thus arrive at the year B.C. 5t>0, or the first 
year of the 55th Olympiad, for the overthrow of Astyages by 
C^^Tus, wliich ia an undisputed date in history, and testified 
to by Diodurus, Thallua, Castor, Polybius, and Pblegoii.^ 
Herodotus ia evidently incorrect when he calls this the 
thirty-tifth or last year of Astyages, for in this he contradicts 
himself, and is also contradicted by Ctesias. He admits that 
Astyages lived after his defeat, and was treated by Cyrus with 
kiudoesR till his desitli. But Ctesias tells ua that he was not 
only Well tieated, but eontiuued to reign over the Bareanians, 
or Hyreaniajis, and was looked upon by Cyrus as a father, 
and buried with kingly honours. 

Again, thu book of Judith, which certainly contains records 
of true history^ and parts of which are evidently transcribed 
from some Assyrian tablet which contained the history of 
Nabopalassar, which may some day be recovered (compare 
chap, i and chap, ii with the history of the campaigns of Assur- 
banipal), afford s valuable and exact testimony to the same 
reckoning of Median ehrunology. We are all aware that the 
years of tlie reign of Nabopalassar, father of Nebuchadnezzar, 
are fixed by a lunar ecUpse in hi^ fifth year, B.C. 621; and 
if the fifth year of his reign was 621* the twelfth year 
would of course be B.C. 614. Kow, the Book of Judith 
relates that '' Nabuehodonosor who reigned at Kmeveh," 
who could only have been the same as Nabopalassar, in his 
twelfth year slew Arpliaxad, Phraortes, or Frawartish, as 
the name is ^vlitten in the Assyrian inscriptions, in the plain 
un the borders of Ragau, or Khages, not far distant from 

» Mr. Clinton rightly placea rlie first yenr of Peiocea M king in B.C. 687-8. 
Fast, HelL, vol- 1, p. 260. But he suggi^stJ that twentj*iwo 8Uf>erfluouA years 
above B.C. 688, |-liou.gli forming part of the 53 years of Deioces, should be reckoned 
aa years preceding his aetual reign of only 31 years. But if so placed, the laat 
year of Phroortes woidd not coincide with tbe 12tH of KabopoliLsaw, who alew 
Mm in B.C. Gl^. 

^ jiricani Ohronicon. Eouth^ vol. ii, p. 27 L 




Booi of EMthei\ 



233 



Teheran, the prefient capital of the Shah of Persia. So that 
Cyaxares, his son and succeseor, camtj to the throne of Media 
in B.C. 613, the same year which we have arrived at hy count- 
ing with the aid of Josephus from the edipse of B.C. 689. 
ABtyages, the eon of Cyaxai-es, wamld therefore have come to 
the throne in BX. 573, and have died iu liis thirtv-fifth year ia 
B.C. 539, being followed by Cyrus in B.C. 538. These combined 
testimonies afford Bofficient e^-idence of the historical acciuacy 
of the reckoning which places Cyriig, the founder of the 
Persian empire, on the throne of Media in B.C. 538. But there 
IB not the sHghtest gi'ound, thus far, for connecting the year 
B.C. 539 with the capture of Babylun. 

The writer of the apocryplial sukUtiona to the book of Daniel 
Seems to come somewhat near to thi.s idea, where we read, 
'* And king Astyages was gathered to his fathers, and Cyrus 
of Persia received his kingdom/* and then goes on to relate 
the atory of Bel-Dagon, or Bel and the Dragon at Babylon. 
But there is no ground whatever for believing that the king- 
dom of Astyages ever included Babylon. On the contrary, 
Herodotus says, that when the Mcdes under Cyaxares, father 
of Astyages (say in 583), touk Nineveh, *'they conquered all 
AssjTia except the district of Babylunia" (Herot!. 1, 106), 
And he mentions no expedition against Babylon in the reign 
of Astyages. Eight years later, that is in BX* 530, Cyrus the 
grandson of Astyages no duubt conquered that city, w^hich 
is sufficient to satisfy the words of the apocryphal writer. 

j^\j*iatic chi*onology, as understuod by the Greeks in the 
fumih century B.C., closes with the testimony of Xcnophou, 
the most graceful, truthful, and matter-oi-fact of historians, 
whose researches concerning the education of Cyrus, and his 
war with the confederate princes ai' Lydia, Egypt, and Baby- 
lonia previous to his conquest of Babylon are of inestimable 
value, as throwing light on sacred history, Xenophon, iu 
agreement vnth Herodotus, tells us that it was C\tus the 
grandson of Astyages who then conquered Babylou. But in 
jposition to Herodotus, he goes on to say that he lived in 
irmony with his grandfather, and that the fall of that great 
city took place before Cyrus had come to the FcrBian throne, 
and when hia father Cambyees, son of Cyrus and Mandane^ 



S34 



Book of Esther. 



was reigning in Persia ; and that acting as general of the 
forces of the king of Meilia aoil tl^e king of Persia, the empire 
being still divided into two kingdoms, Cyrus, yet a young man 
of about five and twenty years of age, obtained possession 
of Babyltm on behalf of his father, CamhyBes, who we know 
first began to reign over Babylon in B.c< 52 y. Cyrus himself, 
he adds, did not become entitled either to the throne of 
Persia or of Babylon till after his father^e death (B.C. 518),* 
that is, not till after the thrones of Persia and JBabuion and 
E<ji^pi had been usurped bii hU klu^nian Darius^ son of Hystaspea 
(see Trans., voL ii, pp. 243* 244). 

Now^ this last inevitable inference^ that Cyrus, son of 
Cambyses king of Babylon, and Darius son of Hystiispes, 
were contemporary kings, is an historical trxith of deep 
significance, though startling at first sight as greatly at 
variance with the h:jng-aceepted interpretation of Herodotus, 
Nevertheless, it will be found to rest upon unquestionable 
authi>rity. It is a truth essential to the scheme of reckoning 
herein maintainetl, whicli identifies Darius son of Hystaspes 
with "Darius the Mede'* of Daniel, And, with regard to 
the main subject in hand, the position of the Book of Esther 
in history, it leads to the interesting identification of Esther, 
or Ishtar, w^ith the well-known queen Hadassah or 'Atossa, 
daughter of Cyrns,^ wife of Darius, and mother of Xerxes, 
through wdiom Darhis inherited the dominions of Ahasuerus, 
or Tanu-Axares son of C}'rus. He who wxmld deny these 
inferences must first set aside: — 

1. The direct evidence of Xenophon, that Cynis (Koresh), 

eon of Cambyses king of Babylon, and of Mandane 
daughter of Astyages, reigned at Babylon after his 
father 8 death, ami therefore in the reign of Darius* 
(Trans., vol. i, p, 244.) 

2. Of Herodotus, that Astyages his grandfather married in 

the year of the eclipse in B.C. 585, and that the 
Cyrus w*ho conquered him in B.C. 560 was not 
therefore Cyrus son of Mandane. 




1 CoinbjseSf according to GtesiaBj reigned cigliteen jcars, tliat is from B.c. 53& 
to 518. 

* Tbat is, dawghtrr-ia-law. Herod. Ill, 133. 




Book of Esther, 



285 



3. Of Ctesias, that it was the father of Cambyses king of 

Babylon (Kai-Khosrii), who conquered AstyageSi 
before Cambyeea reigned, and therefore not the son 
of Cambyees king of Babylon. 

4, Of the inscription on the brick from Senkereh, that 
'* CyniH son of Cambyaea," repaired the tempIcB at 
Babylon, and was therefore the Cyrus who reigned 
at Babylon. 

^5, Of Herodotus, that the body of Cyma father of CambyBee 
was left unburied (^n the field of battle, when fighting 
With the Scythians, when Darius was about twenty 
years' old.* 

6. Of Arrian, that the tomb of Cyru8 at Pasargadce con- 

tained the body of ** Cyrus son of CamVjyseH," 

7. Of llegasthenes, that when Cyrus (bou of Cambyses) had 

appointed Nabonadius, the last king of Babylon, as 
ruler over the province of Carmania, Darius drove him 
thence (vol. i, p. 189) ; and again, that when tlie laet of 
the kings of the Mcdca (called by him Aspandji, per- 
haps Isfendiar) died, ** Cyrus and Darius ruled over the 
Persian empire for tliirty-six years " {voL i, p. 2()2). 

8. Of Lucian, that Cyrus survived his son. the king 
Cambyses, and tlied, as he supposed, at the age of 
one hundred years (Trann, vul. i, p. 207). 

^9. Of Clement of Alexaiulria (Trans, vol. i, p. 250), that 
Babylon was overthrown in B.C. 510, that is in the 
reign of Darius : and of Orosius, that about the time 
when consuls began to rule instead of kings at Rome^ 
(b.C, 510), Cyrus conquered Babylon a second time, 
that is in the reign of Darius, 

10. Of Joannes Malalas, who records that Cyius perislied 

in a naval war between the Persians and Samians, 
not earHer therefore titan the time of Darius, whom 
he calls son of Cyrus.* 

11. Of Josephue, copying from Berosus or MegastheneSj that 

Cyrus and Darius came together against Nal^oandelus* 
or Nabunadius, the last king of Babylon, and over- 

J Herod., L. I., 20^-214. 2 ^^811 Cojisulitro^ Euscb, Audi., p. VJO, 

' Joannea Malala*, Dxnd., p. 158. 



236 



Book of Esih^n 



threw him (Ant. x, xi, 2) ; and lio w from the captivity 
of the ten trihee (that ie in B.c, i»9G) to the first year 
ol Cyrus, there were coiiBted 182^ yeart* (that is 
69(1- 183 = B.C. 513). 

12. Of the Book of Duuieh that '* Darnel prospered in the 

reigii of Darius, and iu the reign of Cyrus '* (vi, 28); 
and again, that ** in tln,^ third year of Cyrus'* (B.C. 511), 
** the prince of the kingdom ttf Persia' withstood 
him (Daniel) one-and-twenty days," or years, that 
is till B.C. 4m ; also that he ** remained there with 
the kings of Persia," that is with Cyrus and Darius, 
then at Babylon, in B.C. 511 (x^ 13). 

13. Of the eontuniporary saered historian Ezra, who relates 

that about the time of Zerubbabel (B.C. 511), or thii'd 
year of Cyrus (Koresh), wlien DanieVs release from 
Babylon was opposed l>y ** the prince of the kingdom 
of Persia/' the building of the temple of Jerusalem 
was also stopped, and the decree of Cyrus set at 
nought " all the days of Cyrus, even until the (second 
year of) the reign of Darius/' that is till Darius at 
about Bixty-three years old, in B.O, 591, took the 
kingdom, or empire, just twentynjne years after the 
conti3st had arisen hetween these kings as stated 
by Daniel (Ezra iv, 5, 24). 

14. The evadenee of the Babylonian contract tablets, or 

tribute tablets of the reigue of Cyrus and Darius, is 
not yet sufficiently complete to place these conclu- 
sions beyond the reach of controversy. We have, 
however, in the British Museum a series of six 
tablets among otlic^rs, reaching to the seventh year 
of the reign of Cyrns, B.C. 507, that is, of course, of 
Cyrus son of Cambyses, who repaired the temples of 

' Tberft la an inscription nt Persepolis, copied bj Niebuhr, iu which Ban us 
•peaka of himself at on*> time ineroiy aa having become king of tlie '^ proTiiiicp of 
Persia.'* {Jouriid R. A. Soc .^ V^ol. x, Part iii, pp. 274-6). It was probably also 
during these twen(y-ot^e jeiirs that Darius *oii^htto weaken thepowerof Bubvlon 
hj diverting the trade of the East and of the Persian Gulf through the Isthmus 
of Sue* by the canal which he Uicii finislicd. Thia policy wa^ afterwards ivverttsi, 
»ni1 part of the camil de^troyefL See Oppert'i Memolre »ur lea Bapportd de 
rEgjpiG ot do rAisyric, p. 125. 



Book of Either. 



237 



I 



I 



Babylon, from which it appears that he was first 
styled '*kiog of Babylon" on the 28th day of the 
month Adar, B.C. oil. We have also tablets of the 
twelfth and tl^irteonth years of Darius, that is in 
B.C, 510 and 5iKK <^>n the first of %vliii'h he is styled 
**king of Babylon," on the second merely **king 
of the coimtricR,'' whieli seems to confirm the state- 
ment of Daniel and Megasthencs that both these 
kings were acting together at Babylon about the 
first of these years^ B.C. 510. 
I take this opportunity of dj.'awingthe attention of collec- 
tors to the extreme importance of obtaining a complete aeries 
oi thirty-fiix tablets, which no doubt are in existence in the 
mounds of Babylonia, or elsewhere, relating to the thirty-six 
years' reign of Danus son of Hystaspos, whereby to ascertain 
whether or not Darius was styled ** king of Babylon ** during 
the several years after B.C. 510, in which Cyrus is so desig- 
nated, and even do^m to 505, during which six joam I assume 
that the two kings were acting in opposition, and in a state 
of rivalry. Meanwhile the evidenc*e above is sufficient to 
show that Cyrunkiug of Babylon and Darius Medus were not 
reigning together in Babylon in B.C» 538, and that such an 
assimiption as a foundation upon which to erect a scheme of 
sacred chronology can only lead to extreme error and confusion. 
Little light is thrown upon the chronology of the reign 
of Darius by tlie inscription at Behistim, in which the coxirt 
historiogTapher carrfully avoitls to mark events by regnal 
years. One leading fact, however, is derived from the inscrip- 
tion, viz., that the M years of Darius, which we know began 
in B.C. 521, and ended in B.C. 486, when Xerxes came to the 
throne, were divided into two parts^ in these words:— 
** Tkis ia what I diil before I beeanie king/* 
** This is wlu'it I did aft*r I becjiiDe king." 
And by interpreting these words in connection mth the 
histories of Herodotus and Ctesias we learn that Cyrus I, 
having died in battle when Darius was twenty years old, in 
B.Ci 530, Cambyses his eon began to reign in B.C. 535. Ctesias 
then tells us that Cambyses reigned eighteen years, till 
B.C, 518, and that Darius reigned thuty-one years, after the 
iaM of the Magian, till 486. 



238 



Book of Esther. 



613 
512 


1 
% 


511 

610 
609 
608 
507 


a 

4 

5 

6 
1 



TABLETS 

SeItfote<I (torn several in tlie British MusottiDi 

dAted in the roign of Cjnu. 



I CiEua 

\Kxso OF Babiloh. 



WarliA) moritli Ehil. 

Warkft, month Adar, 

Warlta, month Adar, 

Wurka, mouth Atlur, 

Wurlcii, month SiTan, 

Wiirka, month Kieilut 

Warka, 

Warka, month Ab. 



2Hh dftjr, 2nd year 
27th dny 



2od jcor 

2nd year 
3rd joar 
4th yvoT 
5th jefif 
6th year 
yth dftTt 7th year 



28tk day, 

28th day. 

18th day, 

7th dity, 



King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 
King of Bnbylon 
King of Babylon 



Pebsia and 
Med I J.. 



rEing of the two 

1 Coimtries 
J King of the two 
\ Countriei 



621 
520 
519 
518 
517 
516 
515 
514 
513 
512 
511 
510 
509 

60B 
5C^7 
506 
505 
504 
503 
502 
501 
600 
190 
498 
497 

496 
495 
494 
493 
492 
491 
490 
489 
488 
487 
486 



TABLETS 
dated m the reign of Parius. 



Da Ems 
KiKQ OF Babixon 



THE TWO 
CotTNTlUBS OF 

Persia 

kTXTi Media. 



Warkft, month Elnl» 5rh day, 2nd year 
Rtd^bat, month Ehil, 11th day, 3rd year 
Warka, month Adar, 44k year 

* 4 . . * . 6th year 

Bitpata, month Nisan, 1st day, 7th year 

EUanamitu, month Elul» 17th day, lOtli yr» 

Babylon Dili day^ 11th year\ 

t, month Sebat . . . . J 

Karrinabiip month 8iTan, lat ilay, 13th ;jt. 

Diblat, monlti Kiailu, 7th day, 14th year 



Month Taramuij 10th day, 18th year 
Warka, month Siran, 24th day, 20th year 

month Kisdu, 7th day, 25th jtivr 

Warka, month Tisri, 10th day, 26th year 
1 . Belfhazzar f 



Darin a» 30th year) 
month Adar, 4th day, j 



Babylon, month Tammux, 14th ilay^SSth yt. 



King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 



King of Babylon 



King of Babylon 

King of Babylon 
King of Babylon 

King of Babylon 

King of Babylon 



KIni? of ConntriM { 
King of Countrlflt i 

King of Counliiei 

Kln^ of Co^mtilca 

(King of tb« tvo 
\ CotiDlTiea 

( King of the two 
1 Countries 
»t It 

(King of the two 
( Countries 
(King of the two J 
1 Countries 



((King of the two 
\ Countries ?) 
/King of the two 
( Coimiries 



f King of the two 
\ Conn trie* 
(King of the two 
I Coimtriefl 



King of the two 

. Conntriea 



Ma/y mat^ tht* two emmlne*, \\iRt \» <jf Media and PerBia. 




Book of Esther, 



S39 



So that Ctesias begins the second period Rpok^ii of in 
the Behistiin inscription in the Tith year of DariiiB, B»C. 516, 
when Darius was certatulj paramount in E^_>^3t. There are 
tablets in existence which ebow also tliat Dariun was 
recognized as paramount at Babylon fi^om B.C. 520 to 510; 
and these five yeara were no doubt years of usurpation, 
Nabonidochus the viceroy then threw oflf the yoke in 515, 
and Babylon was recovered liy Cyrus and Darius in B.C. 51(>, 
After which it is assumed that Cyjiis reigned at Bal>yh>n 
till B.O. 505. 

Thus far it will be observed that tlie chronological 
question in the scale for deciBion, turns upon thn reception, 
or otherwise, of the scholastic fiction, which places a great 
Median king on the throne of Babylon in the year BX". 538 ; 
or, on the other hand, upon the reaUzation ot the scene in the 
dial chamber of king Ahaz, when, as described by Isaiah, 
the pious Ilezekiah, *' sick unto death," and Ci^nfined to his 
couch, amidst the sdentific apparatus of his immediate pre- 
decessor, Ijchekl the retrogiude motion of tlie sun's *' shadow 
on the steps,*' marking a date entirely at variance with such 
teaching. In support of the reality of t!xe dial scene, upon 
which, perhaps, already sufficient may have been said, I woidd 
draw attention to an almost exact repetition of this scene, in 
the palace of HulakA, tlie khan of the Bfogbuls, at Slanighali 
in Aderbijan, in the days when the empire of the Arabian 
CaUphs was overthrown, in a.d. 1258. This scientific 
mouarcK it appears had, like Aiiaz^ gathered round him fi'om 
every paii of his dominions, philosophers and astronomers, 
who laboiu'ed in works of science under the direction of the 
famous Nasscr-u-deen, by whom as we are told a room in 
the observatory had been constructed with a dome, and that 
** through a perforation in the dome the rays of the sun were 
admitted so as to strike upon certain lines on tlie paveioent 
in a way to indicate in degTces and minutes the altitude and 
decimation of that hmiinary diu-iug eveiy season, and 
marking the time and hour of the day tbrougbout the year,'* 
By means of this apparatus, "an error of surprising 
magnitude, and to the great confusion of chronology, was 
detected in the mode fomierly observed for adjusting the 



240 



Book of Esther. 




commencement of the new year,** ^ Such iras the nature of 
the chamber in which Ht'icckiah lay stretched upon his couch, 
shaded from the noon-day sun, jet watching from within the 
rise and fall of the merirhan shadow on "the steps of Ahax/* 

I propose, therefore, in place (if the erroneous date 
(b.C. 538) to substitute the year BX. 690-G89, wliich embraces 
the invasion of Sennacherib during G90, and the illness of 
Hozekiah in the beginning of <)89, as the essential key-date 
of sacred chronology. I look upon the latter part of the 
14th year of the reign of Hezekiah as securely fixed by 
the eclipse on the 11th January in tliat year; and \rith 
reverence I submit, as a just inference from the precision 
and value of the results, that this sign in the heavens 
manifested in the chamber of the sick king at Jerusalem, 
was nt^t so manifested merely for the confirmation of the 
wavering faith of the desponding king, hut also, by divine 
prescience^ for the guidance and instruction of future and 
far distant generiitions. 

With this master key in hand, the gift of the Almighty 
Architect Himself, a child may venture to explore the sacrf^d 
edifice of Scripture history, and trace, without error or con- 
fusion, the dates of the successive stages of the history of 
God*s **holy people," Alas that the holy people should 
themselves ignore the chief foundation "atone'* on which the 
sacred edifice is raised. Come then, and as it were in vision, 
let us take an artless child as guide — for^of such is the 
kingdom of heaven. — Let us go up to the mountain of the 
house of Jehovah, and bearing in hand the sacred key, let 
us seek the entrance of that lofty chamber where lie hid 
the everlasting title deeds of the Holy Land: for on those 
deeds is indelil>ly inscribed the date of their delivery in Ur 
of the Chal dees'-': and from thence there are but two steps 
upward to the date of man's creation. 

It has already been shown (Trans* of Soc. Bibl. Arch., vol I, 
p. 93) that the date of Christ's nativity was in the autiimn of 
the year B.C. 3, at the beginning of the sabbatical year B.C. 3-2, 
being just 490 yeara after the first year of "Darius king of 

* Malcolm** Hii'torj' of Persiiv, VoL T, p. 224. 
= AtJta TiL 2. 




I 



Book of EatheK 



M\ 



BabyloD," when ^* about three score and two years old" 
(Dan, V, 31) ; that is to Bay, lo the 03rd year of his age. and 
the 30th year of hi^5 rcigu over the Pcrmna* B.C. 492. in 
agreement with the prophetic words of Danitd, ** seventy 
weeks'' (that is 70 sabbatical weeks of years, or 490 years) 
'* are determined on Thy people, and Thy holy city, to finish 

the transgression and to anoint the Holy of Holies " 

(Dan. ix, 24). 

I. Now, starting from this fixed and certain date of the 
Nativity, wo rise by four successive stages, -with extreme 
exactness, up to the time of the laying of the fonjadation 
stone of Solomon's temple in the year B.C. 990. An intelli- 
gent child would first inquire, was there in secular history 
a king called ** Darius king of Babylon*' living 490 years 
before the autumn of e.g. 3 ? All history attests that 
Darius son of Hystaspes was sovereign of the whole easteiii 
world in B.C. 493. 

It is an interesting fact bearing on tliis result that within 
a few weeks previous to the writing of these words, a tablet 
from Babylonia has reached the British Museum, bearing the 
legend **30th year of Darius, kimj of Bahijlon^ king of the 
countries/* that is to say, dated in the year B.C. 492, and 
Babylon is thus set forth in tliat year as the capital of the 
two confederate kingdoms of the Medes and Persians.* The 
emph*e at this time we also know embraced the provinces 
of tlie kingdom of Assyria, seeing that Ezra^ at the 
dedication of the temple (B.C. 485), styles Darius "king of 
Assyria" (vi, 22). 

But it may be asked, !iow can it be ascertained that 
Darius was about ** three score and two years old" in B.C. 492, 
that 18 to say, in the G3rd year of his age ? We turn to tlie 
historian Ctesias, the must trustworthy writer cuncerning this 
period of Persian history, and he states the fact; for w*o read 
— *'^ap€to? Se iiraveXdoDV et'y Ukpaa^, koi 6vca<;^ Koi ijfilpa^ 
voariaas X T^Kevray }^ii)(Ta\ /ikv gttj o^/' having lived seventy- 
two years. Now, if Darius completed his 72nd year say in 



^ Daniel v, 28^ " Tbj kingdom is divided and given to ill* If tdcs aod Per&iiUis.** 
" And ParLud the Mediiui received tlie kingdom/^ 



Vol. T. 



16 



242 



Book oj Esther, 




B,C. 484, and died, he wovdd havo "been still alaut 72, if ho 

had lived to the year B.C. 483, and therefore was **ab(nit i]i '' 
ill the year B.C. 41*3, wht-a he **tDok the kingdom'* from 
Bekhazzar, How very far antruy from the truth are those 
who search for Dariut* Medue in the year B.C. 538, nearly half 
a century earlier than this obviouB date.^ 

Before wo proceed further, it will not be out of place, 
but adding weight to the argument, to say a few words con- 
cerning a very remarkable change of policy in the govcniment 
of the kingdom of Pernia about tlie year B.C* 49i-90, which 
affords another (strong mark of identity between Darius the 
Mode and Dariua son of Ilystaepes. It is referred to briefly 
by Daniel in these words, **It pleased Darius to set over the 
kingdom (that is Darius the Mede, when about 63 yeai-s old), 
120 princeH, which should be over the whole kingdom; and 
over thum thrc-c presidents (Sarkin, TJ*)^)' ^^ whom Daniel 
was the first/' (Dan, vi 1, 2.) Now we kjiow that during the 
greater part of the reign of Darius sou of HystaspeSj the 
pr*miinent featm^e of the government of Pei'sia was its 
tlivi«iou into some twenty, or twenty-thiee, pow^erfid and 
despotic satrapies. These twenty or twenty-three divisions 
arc fully described by IleiodotuB, and are also engraved in 
cuneiform character on three dilleront Persian monuments 
set up in his reign. The sudden division of eacli of these 
satrapies, on an average, into five or six parts, immediately 
after Darius took possession of BabyUoi, is so buld and 
striking a feature of state policy, that it cannot in reason 
be supi>osed to apply to two diflereiit kingn bearing the same 
title, yet issuing their decrees at an interval of 41j years apart. 
This change of government was certainly carried into execu- 
tion by Darius the Mcde, and with equal certainty also by 
Darius son of Hystaspes. The two kings thus spoken of were, 



1 Since tbo ubovo waa in type llie wxtli volume of tlio Spanker** Commeiitiwy 
hva appeared, in vfhkh 1 regret to see tbat the same dnte B.C. 538 is vetflincd for 
tlie unknown Bavins, unci tlie two questions art« graTclj cUftCUSsed, whether Dariui 
Medua muj not have been iho same king as AstjagcB, and the BcUhftMor of 
Disiieb Tivho reigi?it?d tit the clo:?e of BeveiUy jears after the *' desolations of 
Jt?riiAaliTin/* may not he idenliOed with tiie Evil-merodach of Jcreiuiab, who 
rcigrit'd tvroutj--dix yeara after Ibo dcitruction of Jt^vusidem. 



I 
I 

I 



I 




Book of Esther, 



9U 



lerefore, one and the same. Herodotiie reft^rs to the event 
only so far as it affected the satrapy of Ionia, The battl© 
of Mai'athon we know was fought in the year B,c, 41*0; and 
uot loug before the time when Mardonius was sent by 
Darius on tlie expedition to Mai*athou he waB directed to 
proceed to Ionia. And, now, says llerodotiis, " a marvellous 
event oeciUTed (fieyiaTov Gmfia) which would scarcely be 
believed by those Greeks who do not allow that Otanea had 
advised the seven conspirators (at the time of the accession 
of Darius) to make Persia a democracy ; for Mai'donius put 
down all the despotic governors throughout Ionia, and 
eHaf^li^hed democmcies in their place'' (Herod, vi, 43). The 
Babylonian satrapy no doubt was then also subjected to tlie 
same division, considering the series of revolts of pretenders, 
claiming to be sons of Nulxmadius, the late powerful satrap 
of that kingdom, even do^vn to the final revolt c»f his son 
Belshas^zar. After the death of Cyrus II son of Cambyses, 
say in B.c\ 505, Darius in virtue of the rights of queen *Atossa, 
daughter-ui-law of Cyrus I» and widow of Tanu-Axares, 
iminechately laid claun to the provinces of Persia, ** on this 
side the river" (Ezra iv, 11, 10)^ '^^ addition to the 127 pro- 
\'ijices of Media, un the other side the river, already belonging 
to his queen, and his seat of government may have been 
probably a few years later removed from Susa to Persepolis. 
His claim to the empire, however, was disputed by Atrines 
and Mailius at Siisa, Phraortes and Sitrataehmes in Medio, 
Phraates in Margiana,^ and Aristagoras in Ionia. These 
powerful satraps had gi'eatly weakened the empire by their 
revolts, and the fonn of government by satraps had proved 
itself quite unmaiiagealjle. The marvellous change of policy 
spoken of by Herodotus, by which tliis system of govern- 
ment was suddenly set aside, seems to be confirmed by the 
wording of the inscriptions of Darius at PersepoUs, 
especially of that on the tomb of Darius at Nakhsh*i-RuBtam> 
inscribed, as Sir Henry Rawliuson considers, after the 
je^T B.C. 4132 (Jouru. R.A.Sm Vol X, part III, p. 289). 
For in addition to the ordinary titks, *' great king," '*king 
of kingH," we there read the several new and unusual titles, 
* Bebbtuu InBCriptiQU. 



244 



Book of Eidher 



"^Dariiia king of the countries of the people'* (p* 279)i 
*'kmg of the people/* ** lawgiver of the people/* that is, 
ki}iij and latvijiver of the democracies (pp. 2^1}^ 291), It was 
then Darius son of Hystuspee, beyoii€l question, who was 
pleaeed to set over the kingdom 120 princes or lieutenants 
which should be over the wliole kingdom, m the days of 
Daniel, B.C. 492, and not 80Jne unknown king supposed to 
have been reigning in Babylon in B.C. 538. 

But it has been said, that Darius on liis tomb de8cril:>es him- 
self as a ** Persian, son of a PerBian.'* How then coiUd Daniel, 
who knew him face to face, properly speak of him as ** Darius 
the Median '' ? In reply, it may be said he coidd do no other- 
wse ill the year B.C. 492 ; fur, as a Persian prince of a junica- 
branch from Achaemenes, Darius Lad no legitimate claim to 
the empire. He had no greater, but less claim to the empire of 
Assyria and Babylon than his father Hystaspes, or Gnehtaep, 
still living about the year B.C. 492*^ He had, how^ever, a 
legitimate claim to the throne of the Medes, as in possession 
of tile provinces attaclied to the throne of Susa, tlirough 
queen 'Atossa, or Hadassali, which were then actually under 
his eceptrcj together Avith the kingdom of Egypt. Again, 
his claim to tire imperial throne coidd only be through 
'Atossa, after the death of llystaspes : the empire^ therefore, 
did not come into his possession till the fall of Babylon in 
B.C. 493, Daniel accordingly rightly sets forth his title as 
'* sun of, or successor of, Ahasuerus of the seed of the 
Medes/* or Darius the Mede, in B.0, 493, who then "received 
the king<lom/' or empire of Persia thus late in his reign. 

Some indicationB of turbulence, it may be inferred^ had 
occniTed in Phoenicia before this time to have given eolom* 
to the report spread by Arista gor as, that it was the intention 
of Darius to transport the Phoenicians i^nto Ionia and to 
replace tliem by transporting lonians into Plicenicia. (Flerod, 
vi, 3). For the 70 years' clepression of Tyre were now at an 
end. and the joyous city was once more singing as a harlot. 




* Hvsta^pes was still living when Darius had eoiiiplcttKl the inscription g on 
liis tomb at Eiikh»h-i-Ru8tam (Ctesite rrugmenta, p. 49). He ii ako spoken of 
ill tkt: Behialun iiiaeriplbn, column iii, hit-c in the liiBtory of DiLriu»» The 
native Periwu lusloriaua eix?ak of Gushtasp where Uerodotus apeaks of Dariu** 



Book of Esther. 



245 



Again, we know with certainty from the book of Ezra that the 
power of the rulers in Palestine, who hari in opposition to 
the kiiig*e command, oljstructod the fulfilment of the decree 
of Cyras for the rebuilding of tlie temple, was partly taken 
away in the year BX. 491 by Darius, by the comraipsioii then 
granted to the Jews under Zeruhbabel and Jeshua to build 
the temple and to govern themselves according to their own 
lawSi fi-ee from tax or interference from Samaria (Ezra iv, 5). 

Thus, on the final subjugation of Babylon in B.C* 41I.S, 
rwhen Belshazzar was slain, and the walls of that city broken 
down, and ** all " the gates earned away (Herod, iii, 1 50)» 
Darius, having put down the last enemy of his supremary, 
became, as we huve said, sovereign of tlic whole eaBtern 
world, the ruler of the most extensive empire which had yet 
existed on tlie earth. It must be understood, therefore, 
^ that when Danit-l, Ezra, Haggai, and Zechariah speak of the 
"first," ••second," ** fourth,'' and "sixth" years of his reign, 
they count in imperial years from B.a 493, not from B.C. 521, 
or 538. 

This was indeed a marked epoch in the history of the 
heathen world, as also great in the annals of ** the holy 
people " : the commencement of the Persian empire proper, 
spoken of by Daniel as coming up " last,** and out-topping 
the kingdom of the Medes.* Accordingly, Joeephus, follow- 
ing the fii-st book of Esdras, tells us that in the first year 
of Darius he made a great feast, no doubt at Shushan, at 
which were assembled the 127 '* rulers of the Medes and 
princes of the Peramns,''^^ comprehending the whole of his late 
donn*nions derived from AhasueruB (1 Esdras iii, 1, 2); and 
that during the days of that banquet it was so contrived, 
either by the king himst'lf, or by his three princely body 
'guards, all of the Hebrew race, that it shcmld be puUicIy 
proclaimed from ** tlie royal seat of judgment,'' to all the 
princes of the empire of '^Persia and Media'' (v. it), that it 
was now his royal will and pleasure to restore the captive 
Jews, still retained at Babylon* notwithstanding the decree 



1 Dab. Tiii, 3. - Jos. Ant. xi, iii, 2, 

' •* Deliver thysolA O Zion, tliiit dwdlost willi Ui<? daughter of Bab) Ion/' 
(Zx'li. ii, 7). WritteD in the 2iid jear of Dariut} &» emperor of Persia, 



u& 



Book of Esther. 



I 



I 



of CvrtiR, and that the fai*-famed temple of Jehovah ehoiild 
be rebuilt. 8 Itch was the princely feeling of favour and 
affection of Darius towards the lute exiled race* And how, it 
will be asked, coidd Riich a change* of feeling have grown up 
in the heart of the heathen king. The tale has long ago been 
wi'itten, as far ag regardB the Jewish record of the history, and 
only by much secular learning has it become obeeured and laid 
aside. On the secular side, however, of the history, we are told 
that CambyHefi liad been compelled to obtain the sanction of 
the ** royal jiidgos of Persia'* (Herod, iii, 31) to his mamage 
with hia pister-in-law, Hadassah, called his sister by Herodotus, 
and thereby added Meilia to Km Perflian dominions* At his 
death in B,C. 518, Darius married this princess, and fixed his 
thrones at Shnshan, but did not yet put forth his title to the 
tmpire, which fell, of course^ to Cyrus. The whole atmosphere 
of the Median court at Shuslian now became impregnated with 
Jewish feelings and ideas* Esther and Mordecai, of coursCi 
were always about the person of Darius, the one as queen, 
the other probably as one of tlie three trusted body-guards. 
Again, Josephus tells us that friendship had long existed 
between Z^'rubbabel^ *'the prince of Judah," and the expec- 
tant future sovereign of tho Persian empire. So much so 
tliat Daring had made a yow that whenever he came to the 
throne of tho empire, lie would permit the retxim of the 
Je%visli captives to Jerusalem.'-^ Zeniblmbel had, he says, 
been one of the king's three body guards, ** Nehemiah the 
Tirshatha/' or cupbearer to Xerxes, who now took the title 
Artaxerxes (Ezra vi, 14), was also m attendance in the palace 
of the king, being a descendant from the house of David 
(i/e Tov tTTripfiaro^ AaffiB),^ David and Saul, we know, 
were related hj the marriage of David with tho daughter 
of Saul, and the descendants on both sides %vere, therefore, 
of course more or less distant cousins. Through queen 
Esther, descended from Kish. they stood in the same re- 
lationship to the king; so that we may readily comprehend 
how Darius, io consideration of their princely birtli and con- 
nection with *Atos8a, should have pledged his word to either 
of tlic three, that he who should prove himself the wdsest 

' Ezra Ti, 22. = 1 Eadma iV, 43. » Johan : Malila^i p. IGO. 



Book of Esther 



247 



m discotirse Blioiilrl be clotlied in purple, and Rit next to the? 

king, and be addressed as **eoTisin of Darius " (1 Esdras iii, 7). 

In additiou to the daily influence of Eflther, and Murdecai, 

and Zerubbabel, find Nelumiah, at the Median conrt, there 

was also that of thu holj sage, the aged Daniel, the grandest of 

laU the charactei*B of sacred Scriptm^e J The whole policy of the 

1 empire seems to hare been set in motion by the divine spirit 

of this extraordinary rann. In the year b.c, 492, being on 

the extreme verge of his existence, he held a miglity influence 

over the mind of Darius, so that he vrm preferred before fdl 

tthe presidents and princes of the empire, ''and the king 

sought to set him over the whole realm'' (Dan. vi^ 3). He 

aimed not to be clothed in purple, or in scarlet, the abhorred 

^colour of Babylon and ido!atn% but he sought and olitaincd 

liis heart's desh*© from the devoted king — the restoration of 

the temple of Jehovah, and tho decree that in every dominion 

of the kingdom of Darius men should worship the God 

whom he adored (Dan. \^, 26). 

Herodotus has, no doubt, truly recorded how the fiery and 
ambitious 'Atossa, probably not long after the death of Cyrus^ 
in B.C. 505, had m*ged Darius, before his expedition against 
the Scythians, to invade the Grecian states, and how she 
wisely counselled him that by occupying his indolent nobles 
in foreign wars, the satraps might be rcstrahiedfrom breakhig 
into sedition and revolt. There was not improbably a party 
also in the state, who promoted the views ot the enterprising, 
restless queen, known, perhaps, as '* Hadassites," or DIplH, 
'* Hadassim/' For in the book of Zechariah (i, 8), dated in 
*• the second year of Darius," in the month Sebat, or Febi-uary, 
B.C. 490, under the veil of a vision of a horseman clothed in 
red amongst '* the myrtle trees (Ha-lladassim),'* with other 
two horsemen, wliite and speckled, and four ** ciirpenters,** or 
workers in timber, perhaps buildersof ships, great preparations 
are described as being made for war. The prophet Haggai also, 
in the second year of Darius (Hiiggai ii, 20), refers to tlie same 
impending warlike movements, not as commonly assumed hi 
B.C. 520, but twenty-nine years later, in B.C. 49 L The alhisinn 

* A building shown ot the mint of 9uia i» Said to he the lomb of the 
prophet DaiiieL 



248 



Ihok of Es(hef% 



IB tmqiiestionfilily to tlie ten years* oporntions against Greece, 
beginning at ilarfithon, and ending with Salamis andPlatasa. 
And wliile the prophet conniiunes in virion ^rith the nngel 
concerning these foreboding warhJcepreparatiouB, the question 
is aslted — a question which might be asked with equal devo- 
tion and eanicstness iu those most ominous days — *^ 0, Lord 
of Hosts, how long wilt Thou not have mercy on Jerusalem 
and the cities of Jndah, against which Thou hast had indig- 
nation these three score and ten years " ? The answer is, ** I 
am returned to Jerusalem with mercies, My house shall be 
built in it, saith the Lord of Hosts, and a line shall be 
stretched forth un Jerusalem*' (Zech. i, 1(>). "And Darius 
sent \^itli them a tliousand horsemen, till they had brought 
thffm back to Jerusalem safuly " (1 Esdras v, 2)* Yet, 'hiot 
by might, nor by power, but hy My Spirit, saith Jehovah of 
hosts. Who art thou, great mountain ? before Zerubbabel 
thou shalt become a plain'' (Zech. iii, 6, 7). **i\nd the 
elders of the Jews bnilded, and they prospered througli the 
prophecying of Haggai the prophet^ and Zechariah the son 
of Iddo. And they builded and finished it, accordhig to the 
comraandment of the God of lerael, and according to the 
commandment of Cjnis, and Darius, and Artaxerxes (that is 
Xerxes, now just placed on the thi*one with Darius), And 
this house was finished on the 3rd day of the month Adar, in 
the sixth year of tlie reign of Darius the king," that is in 
March, b.c, 485, 

It was at this time, therefore, according to Jewish tradition, 
that ** the men of the great synagogue " were assembled to 
perform the work of reconstniction iu B*C. 491, not separately 
and at different times, but together in a body, at Jenistilem, 
viz., '* Zerubbabel, JcBlina, Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah, 
Mordecai, Bilehan, Ezi'a, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mizpar, Rehmn, 
Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi";* the birth of Mordecai, say 
B.C, 580, and the death of Nehemiah, soy in 431, marking the 
extreme limits within wliich these contemporaries lived. 

IL And now again the tlioughtful child — onr guide — 
at once perceives that iu this ** first year of Darius son of" (or 




Chronologia Sacra-Profana^ K. DaTid Chnit, p. 56. 




Bmik of Esther. 



249 



heir to the 127 provinces of) ** Ahasiionis of the seed of 
the Medes*' (Dan. ix, 2), Darins had come to the throno 
of Babylon after tho completion of ■* seventy years in the 
desolations of Jerusalem/' that is to say, 70 years after 
the destruction of Jerusalem by Nehuchadncxzfir, in the 
19th year of his reign (Jerem. Uu 12). So that Jerusalem 
must have been destroyed in the year B.C. 563, jnst seventy 
years before the year B.C. 4fl3. Nebuchadnezzar must also 
have begun his reign in Babylon eighteen years before 
that date, that is in B.C. /)81, whieh again is a very important 
date to fix in Babylonian hit^toiy, being twenty-three years 
lower than the date in Ptolemy s canon, yet rightly fixed as 
following soon after the sohir eclipse of B.C, 585, and over- 
throw of Nineveh in B.C. 483. 

Again, it ^v^ll be asked^ — where is the record to prove that 
the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar was the year B.C. 563 ? The 
answer is, that DemetriuB, 'WTiting about 222 yearB l>efc>re 
Christ, when Assyrian and Babylunian tablets might lie 
referred to in every royal librai-y in Asia, and counting 
the years of Nebiichadnezzar from B.C. 582, that is froTU the 
fall of Nineveh, one year earlier than Jtnemiah, states that 
"the last carrying away of captives from Jerusalem by 
Nebuchadnezzar'* (alluding no doulit ta the last chapter 
of Jeremiah, r. 30), that is in his 23rd year, was 338 
yeara and 3 months before the reign of the 4th Ptolemy, 
who began to reign in November, B.C. 222, that is 221 years 
2 months -f- 338 years 3 months = B.c. 539 years 5 months ; 
so that according to tins reckoning the 23rd of Nebuchad- 
nezzar began in Nisan BX. 500, and ended in Adar 559. 
But if any part of the year B.C. 559 was commensurate with 
the 23rd year, B.C. 563 would have been commeiiBin-atQ 
with the 19th of Nebuchadnezzar. The testimony of 
Demetrius, therefore, varies twenty-thi*ee years from that of 
the Canon of Pttdemy, and t^onfirmH our reckoning. 

The testimony of Demetrius concerning this date, as opposed 
to that of Ptolemy, is now placed beyond dispute by a recent 
disco veiy. Ptolemy the astronomer knew of no eclipse 
whereby to fix the reign of Nebnchadjiezzar, But wc learn 
from the Book of Ezekiel that the 27tb year of Nebuchadiiezxar 



250 



Btfok of Esther, 



was marked by the deeisivo inark of ft total solar eclipse nt 
TahpanhcR or Daplinfe : and thie 27th year, according to 
Demetrius, wag tliu year B.C. 556, in which year I shall now 
Bhow that a total solar eclipse was visible at Daphn®. 

Hero I regret to find that the propoBcd dates come into 
collision with those of the learned writer in the Speakers 
Commentary on the l>ook of Ezekiel concerning Apries or 
Hophra, king nf Egyjit. For it is clear that if the 23rd year 
of NehiichaLlnezzar ended in B.C. 551*, the death of Pharaoh 
Hophra, as stated by Josephns, ninst have followed about two 
or three years later. For Josephns writes — ** In the fifth year 
after the dG8trnction of Jenisalem, which was the 23rd year of 
the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, he made an expedition against 
Coeleeyria; and when he had poseesBcd himself of it he made 
war against the Ammonites and Moabites ; and when he had 
brought all those nations under subjection, he fell upon 
Egypt in order to overthrow it : and he slew the limj that then 
reiffned^ and set up another,"^ tliat is, he slew Apriee or 
Hophra, who had liecn conquered, though not slain, by 
Amasis some years before, accordmg to Herodotus (ii, 169), 
and confirmed the position of Amasis as tributary king, say 
in B*0. 556, that is in the 2i5th year of his own reign counted 
from after the death of his father, or the 27th year from the 
date of the battle of Carcliemish, bx, 482, which year is also 
coimted as the first year of Nebuchadnezzar,^ 

The ** Downfall of Pharaoh Hoplu'a, and the Ruin of 
Egypt," forms an important epoch in the reckonmg of the 
Speakers Commentary* The learned %mter's date for the 
fall of Hophra, is the common yet untenable date B.a 570. 
The date for which 1 firmly contend is B.O, 55(*^, full thirteen 
years later. This later date is unquestionably to be preferred 
to the earlier for many reasons. In the first place, because 
the ** forty years' " degradation of Egypt/ which began in the 
27th year of Nebuchadnezzar, and which cannot be accounted 
for in the commmi y^echmuhj^ is exactly fulfilled between the 
years B.C. 556 and 517, hi which latter year, on the death of 
the tyrant Cambyses, Darius Ijcgan to reign in Egypt, 

* JosephuB, Ant. i, ix, 7, - Jcrem, ixt, 1, slvi, 2. 

^ Ecek. xxlx, IL 





Book of EMhf)\ 



S5l 



and waa gtently hnnotirerl hy the Egyptians as the restorer 
of their prosperity, (Trans, vol, i, p* 234.) 

Agftin, the evidence of the Apie inonuments, piil>lished 
by MoDBr. Mariette in hie **Sornpenm de Jlerophin," ie in- 
Tal liable as regards the reigns of Ouaphrest or H(*phrn, and 
Amasis.^ For it is dear from tho following copies of tho 
two last Apis epitaphs of the XXVFth Dynasty, that the 
fifth year of Amasis, wliich no one will deny began on the 
12th Jamiary, B.C. ^OH, followed imoiediately after the twelfth 
■ year of Hophra, so tliat this twelftli year of Ilophra must 
have begun on the 12th Jamiary, B.C. 5*>7, and \m drst regnal 
year must have teen counted from 578, though already 
seated on the throne in B.c, 579. 

XXVP Dynastie^ — cinq Apig, 
Apis IV — ne Tan, 16, le 7 de Paophi, de Nechao t 

intronise Tan 1, le 9 d'Epiphi, de P8ammeticlius II : 

mort Fan 12, le 12 de Pharraonthi, 

d'thiaphres : 

enseveli Taii 12, le 21 Payin: 

fige de 17 ans, 6 mois et 5 jours. 

V — n^ Van 5, le 7 de Thoth, d'Amasis ; 
intronis^ Tan 5, le 18 Payui : 
mort Fan 23, le t> de Phamenoth: 
enseveli Tan 23, le 15 de Pachons : 
flg6 d© 18 ans, 6 mois. 

These epitaphs show that the Apis which died in the 12th 
of ilophra, in the month Phavniouthi, tlxe eighth month, was 
succeeded hy an Apis born in the following year on the 7th 
of Thoth^ the fir^^t month, in the 5th year of Amasis, that m 
on the 18th January, bx. 5tlfi. Tho Apis his predecessor 
must have died, therefore, on the 24th August, in the 12th 
year of Hophra, B.C. 567. 

How then can it he contended that IIopIn*a, who certainly 
reigned not less than 19 years, could have died so early as 
the year B.C* 570? Tliose who maintain this opinion must 
necessarily create an inUTnmlinte Aph between the IVtli and 
Vth, which does not appear to have existed. 



* *' Lb Somp^um do Memphis," p, 28. 



252 



Booh of Esther, 




But the iipholilers of this opinion are imder a still gi*eater 
and mfiiirmoiintable diflieulty. For it is clear from the books 
of Jeretiiiah and Ezekiel, that the deatli of Hophra was 
signalized by the occiUTence of a total eclipse of the sun at 
Daphna?, or Tahpanhe^, in latitnrle 31% Homewhere near the 
time of his deat!i, whicli probal>lj took place after Nebuchad- 
nezzar had pitched his royal tent at the entrance of that city 
to besit'go it. For Jeremiah writes (xliii, 8, t*), ''Then came 
the word of Jehovah unto Jeremiah in Tahpanhee, saying. 
Take ^*eat stones in thy hand, and hide tliera in the day 
time, in the bric-k-kihi whi^'h is at the entry of Pharaoh's 
house in Talipanhes I will send and take Nebuchad- 
nezzar king of Babylon, my servant, and will set his throne 
npon these stones ,,<..,, and he shall spread his royal 
pavilion over tht^m." The words of Ezekiel concerning 
Ilopliro are, '* The sword of the king of Babylon i?hall come 

npon thee '" "I will also icater tcith thf Mood the 

land'^ ** Wiieu 1 shall pnt thee ont, I vaW cover the 

heaven, and make the stars thereof dark : I will cover the 
sun with a clond, and the moon shall not give her hght. All 
the bright lights of heaven will I make dark over thee, and 

set darkness upon the hind*' (xxxii, (5-11) *^ At 

TehapJtnehs aho ike dai/ shall he darkened'' (xxx, 18). 

There can be little doubt that these words have reference 
to a total eclipse of the sun at Daphuse, south of Pelnsimn ; 
and I am informed by Mr. Hind that there was a solar eclipse, 
by compntatiun jnst short of totality* on the 1st November, 
B.C. biiVxj the central path of which is hiid down as passing 
somewhat below latitude 29*^, which no doubt was that which 
darkened the day at Daphnte or Tahpauhcs. No such echpse 
can be found in any year near to B.C. 570. Those therefore 
who place the death of Hoplaii in 570, are under the necesi^ity 
aho of inventing a Mai mhr eeiipHe at the mouth of the Nife 
in that t/ear^ which they wilt find difficnlt in confomnty w4th 
any recent lunar tal>les. 

Now it is probable ilmi Amasis, hearing of the approach 
of Nebuchadnezzar towards Egypt, in his 23rd year, B.C. 559, 

* "SniJill corrcctiona quite tx>mpiit:iblc uilli cnkulatioTiB of other eclipse* 
might make the cclipe<5 totnl nt this pomt*"— J, II. II. 



I 



Ihok of EBfhrr^ 



253 



seized tlie reins of government anJ ol the army, setting aside 
Hophra, now merely nominal king, and prepared liimself for 
reeiBtance to the invaeiou ; no that the 3ath year of Amasis, 
counted from this 20th of Hophra, was B.C. 52G. This result 
agrees well with the evidence of two Egyptian inscriptions, 
one at Florence, the other at Leydeu. The Florence hj8crii> 
tion records the death of one Psammetiehus, on the 6th day 
of Paopi, the second month, in the 35tli year of Aniasis^ that 
18, on the Gth Febniaiy, B.C. 52G (tor tlxe Int ot Thoth was on 
the Ist January in that year), and this Psammetichus had 
lived 71 years, 4 months and days, from the 3rd year of 
Necho, which 3rd of Nueho wa8 therefore cominensm*ate with 
the year B.C. 597, as it should he. 

The Leyden inscription reeordH the death of one who 
died on the llth August, B.C. 533, in tht^ 27th year of Amasis, 
having lived 05 yeans, 10 months and 2 days, from the 1st 
year of Necho, month Epiptii, that is, from October, 599, 
In this month, therefore, Necho was already seated on the 
throne, though his 1st regnal year was dated from Thoth, 598, 
This inscription, therefore, agrees also with the proposed 
reckoning. 

The reckoning of this period of chronology is very simple 
and complete, when arranged in conformity with four well 
ascertained total solar eclipses which fonn thi.* framework for 
the dates, and the result is to show that King Psammetielius I 
must have died in B,C» 599, and that he put an end to the 
dodeearchy and began to reign in B»Cp 653 or 054, as stated 
by Manetho. 



CIO, UOth Sept, Total s«)lar eclipse in Anneiiia. Invasion of AsiaLy tbe 
ScytkiauB, wlio crossed tht? CaucjiKua, and fuuglit a battle 
near Armttvir, or Erivaii, during the darkness of an 
eclipse, (Horodotiia, and Firdousi.) 

r>85, 2Bth Miiy Total solar eclipse in Asia Minor during a battle between 
Cyaxares and Alyattea, when Astyages married the 
gnintl mother of CyruB II. (Herodotua.) 

683 , tMi iM« Nineveh taken by Cyaxarea and Nebudiadnezzar^ during 

the reign of his mother queen Nitocria; and the 
Scythixma now ex|jelled from Asia at the end of 
twenty-eight yeai-s of u^upatiun* (Herc^dotus*) 



254 Book of Either. 

582 Battle of Cai-clieiuish.^Death of Nediio,— Psammutliui 

Wgius to reigti in tlie 4th Jehoiakim. (Jerem* xjlv, 

I, xlvi, 2.) 

681 list year of Nebucliadiiijzziii', after the tleatb of his father, 

663 ..*. Destruction of Jerusalem, in the 19th year of Nebuchad- 

uezasar = llth Zedekiab. 
667, 19th May* Total solar eclipse at Lansaa^ or Niimiid, about the tinie 

of the conquest of the Medej* by the Peraiaiis, in B.C. 560. 

(Xeiiophon.) 
656, l8t Nov, Total solai' ecliinae at Talipauhea, or Baplmffi, iifiar Pelu- 

sium, hit. 'Mr 50', in the 26th year of Nebudiadneszar. 
666 Egypt given over into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar, 

in ilie 27th year of liis reign. (Ezekiel xxix, 17,) 

TLiB eclipse near the mouths of the Nile, atTahpanhes, in 
of extreme value towards the scttUjig of Egj^ptian chronology. 
For thus we find that P s amine til hus bejj;an to r<jigii iii B,a 
653j and that Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, wbo did not reigii 
more than twenty-eight years, according to the following 
epitaph, must have died only a year or two before that date, 

XXV1« Dynastie. 

Apis I — ne Van 20 de Tahraka : 

iutroniHC le IJ de Pharmoxitlii : 

mort Tan 20, le 20 de MfJsori, de Psammitichus 1 : 

enBeveli Tan 21, le 23 de Paophi. 

ELE^IENTS OF THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OF kc. 65$, 
OCT. 31^N0V. 1. 

ORi!E>wicn Mean Tmz of Conjunction is Right Ascekbioh, 
n.c, 556, Oct. Slst, at SO** 5(1"^ IC*. 



Right Aaeension 


210 


53 


6 


Moon's hourly motion in R.A. 




37 


m 


Siiu'a „ „ 




2 


27 


Moon*s DecEnatioQ 


12 


d 


42 S 


Suu'h „ 


12 


44 


31 S 


Moon- a hourly motion in Declination 




I) 


39S 


Siuaa ,j „ „ 







63 S 


Moon^a Horizontal Parallax 




60 


27 


Suirii „ „ ».. 







9 


Moon's Semi^iiametev 




16 


28 


Snu'^ 




16 


16 



Book of Esther. 



255 



following aie points iipou tlie centre line :— 



Longitude 2tf 57 E. 
42 46 E. 



Latitude 



28 
27 
23 



27 N. 

25 N. 
54 N, 



Assuming for Pelusium, Long, t^ \2}^ 4C)* E., Lat. 31° 15' N., a 
direct calcolation gives — 

d. h. tu. 

Beginning, Oct, 31 21 Z:>} 

Ending, Nov. 1 d (j j" Local Asti^jnomiad Mean Time. 

Greatest phase about %^ 51** (Nov. I** 10^ 51" a.m.) magnitude O-^e, 

III. The next atage iipwarde in the ascent of the edifice of 
aacred history needs no question, even from a child, who taken 
his Bible in hand, and placing the 11th year of Zedekiah, 
when Jernsalem was taken, in B.O. 563, count« np wards to the 
close of the 14th year <if Ilezekiah in Adar, B.C. 08D. Now 
Jehovah had said nnto thu king, through Isaiah* *'I will 
ndd nnto thy days fiftet?n years '' (Isaiah xxxviii, 5) : and 
80 Hezekiah reigned in all twenty-nine years. 



The I nth year of the reign of He2t?kiah 
55 years* reign of .... Manasseh 

2 „ ,, .». Amou 

32 „ „ .... Joaitdi 

(including 3 months of JeboaLaz). 
11 years' reign of .... Jehoiakim 
1 „ „ ..., Jechoniah 

JO 4ni. t» .". Zedekiah 







s.a 


began 


in Niaan 


680 


11 


» 


G74 


»» 


ji 


GIS 


7} 


»j 


617 


II 


j» 


585 


»> 


i» 


574 


j> 


u 


573 
to 



12G 
4- 562 



4m. 
5iii. 



Jeiaflalem taken, Temple burnt Aug. 503 



0.0. 688 ^VLu = Niisau 689. 

that is to say 126 years 6 months -f- B.a 563 years 5 months 
= Jan*, 089, the date of Hezekiah's recovery from sickneas, 
being the priniary date of this arrangement, in whieh the 
14th of Hezekiah begins in Nisan, B.C. 690, and ends in 
Nisan, ^i^^* 

IV, From Niean, B.C* G'JO, we next count just three huiadi'ed 
years to the laying of the foiindation of Solum on*8 temply, in 
the fourth year of liis reign, B,o. 990> thus : — 



iSii Book of Esther. 

If Solomon reigued 40 years, beginnbg Id n.a 993, the 
37 laat years of the reign of Solomon began in Nisan 990 



17 


years' 


reign of 


Rchoboajn 






953 


2 


tt 


» 


Abijah 






936 


41 


5> 


n 


Asa 






934 


25 


JT 


>i 


Jehoaophat 






B93 


6 


?♦ 


f» 


Jeboram 






868 


1 


»> 


*» "♦ 


* AhaziaJti 






862 


6 


5» 


ij ••• 


Atlialiah 






661 


40 


?l 


it 


Jebuaah 






86;^ 


29 


»» 


n 


Amiizlali 






815 


52 


T» 


n 


LTzziali 






im 


15 


»* 


11 


, Jotbtini 






734 


16 


t* 


n *♦• 


Ahaz 






719 


13 


»J 


»j •" 


Hezekiali 






703 



300 years to Utbof ,.,. Hezekmb Nisan 090 

This computation is veiy eimple and very exact. 

Some slight research is now required to prove that the 
historical date of tlie foundation of Solomon*ft teraple was 
originally fixed in the year B.C. 990, until displaced by later 
theories. 

First. The annals of Tyre exactly confirm this reekomiig. 
For JosephuH, in his controversy "with Apion, refers to the 
am mis of Tyre, whicli, as copied byMenander, appear to have 
been preserved with extreme exactness, and in the same form 
as those of the kings of Judaea, that is giving the age at the 
time of death of eaeh kin*^, and the number of the years 
of reign; and he sums up his observations thus: — ** So the 
whole time from the reign of Hirom till the building ol 
Carthage (that is to say, till the time when a colony of 
Plioc^nieians was led by the sister of Pygmalion to Africa) 
amounts to the sum of 155 years and 8 mouths. Since 
llien the temple was built at J em sal em in the 12 th year 
of the reign of Hirom, there were from the building of 
the temple to the building of Carthage, 143 years, and 
8 months" (Josephus cont Apion I, 18)» Now Carthage 
was dcKtroyed by Seipio Africanus in the year B*C. 14G, just 
700 years after tlii.' foundation of the colony by Pygmalion's 
sister, that is in the year B.C. 840,^ and if we add to this 

' According to Poljbiui, the epitoraieer of Liry, Suidae, Solinua, and Oro^iuB* 
See "Ue^mh the Prince," 2nd i?dit., p, 394. 




Book of Esihei\ 



257 



date 143 years, 8 mouths, we arrive at tlie Jate B.O. 989 year«, 
8 months, or B.C. 990 fur the huililiiig of SohimoH^s tt mplc. 

Secondly, This was the Jate of tlie huildiiig exjiressed in 
very early records preserved in Ai*meiiia, as appeai-s from the 
writings of the Arabian historian AbuljiharagiuB, in the thir- 
tee?ith century A.D,, who exarniiied tertain Syria e, Saracenic 
and Persian recordu then in existeiice in tlie city of Margan, in 
tile province of Azerbijan, on the south of the Caiie*iftUH. Thia 
histurian, speaking of Herod the Great, writes :—'* Tempore 
hujus Herudis natus est Redeniptor noster, fiiiita3que sunt 
hebdomadee septeni una eum hebdomadibus t>2 Daniehs, 
qii® conficiunt annos 483, eonsolidandoa ab anno Hcxto Darii 
Hystaepis*' (vol. i, p. 40) .*.... *'anno ejus (Darii fihi Hys- 
taaEpis) sexto perfeetiiin est teinphim, in mense Tjat- (Adar?)» 
altum sexagiiita cuhitorum, latum viginti. Colhguiitiir anni 
a eondito tentplo priino Solomoiiis U8que ad hime annuin^ quo 
Btructtira altera finita est, 508'* (vol. i, p. 31), making 
together, B.C. 4 + 482 ^- 508 = B.C. 994. Abulpharagius 
thus apparently computes four years in excess. This dis- 
ci'epancy is partly explained in his own words, thue:^ 
"Annum nativitatis Domini nostri, quern nos in annum 
Greeconim 309 {— B*C. 4), die secundo hebdomailia oadero 
invenimus, alii scriptores in alium transferunt" If, then, we 
place the Nativity in B.C. 2. 3°*, and the finishing of tlie weeond 
temple in March, B.C. 485» this latter date will fall in the oOGth 
year after the laying of the foundation of the fii'st temple in 
May, B.C. 990. Tlie difterenee therefore is two yeaiu 

Thirdly, and lastly, it was foretold by the prophet Amos 
that the death of Jeroboam II, king uf Samaria, sh^iuld he 
preceded by tremblings of the earth, or eai-thquakes, and by 
the awful sign of the goimf down of the sun at noon^ and the 
darkening of the earth in the clear day (Amos vii, 11, 
viii» 8, 9), that is to say by the total darkness of a total solar 
eclipse in the kingdom of Samaria at mid-day.^ Now 

' Tbe ©cHp^e, accowling to the wortia of Amos, would probtvbJj ImTC paased 
orer D»ti, to which place t]w people of Samaria went up to worsliip the goklcn 
calt (1 King* xii, 29, 30). For Amos seema to make epociul refcreui-'e to the 
destractiun of the idol at Dan (viii, it). TIid nhiKluw of totahly, thcTefore, 
might be placed one degree higher than I Imve before as&unved (Tranfl., toI. ii, 
p. 152), th&t 10 to fiuy, ae ooTering Dan, in the north of Samarm. 



Vol. T. 



11 



258 



fiook of Esther. 



Jeroboam died in the 55tli jear after the aeccBfiion of 
Araaziah (2 Kiugs xiv» 23), and Araaziab we have already 
seen carae to the throne in B.C. 815, So that the death of 
Jeroboam fell in the year B.C» 7024. 

One of the most valuable discoveries made by Sir H. 
Rawlinson from the records of Nineveh is, that a notable 
eclipse of the Bim in the month Sivan (June) was I'egistered 
in the Assyrian annals in the year when Bui-sagale (Oppert), 
or Edsusarabe (Smith), was archon eponymous at Nineveh, 
that 18, as all are agreed in the year B,c, 763; while Sir 
George Airy and Mr, Hind agree^ that on the 15th June, 
B.O. 763, a total solar echpse took place at Nineveh some- 
where about midday, the path of which niUBt have passed 
near to or over Dan, that is over the northern extremity of 
Samaria (Trans. voL ii, p. 152). 

This last proof is decisive of the question of the aotual 
date of the foundation of the temple by Solomon in B.C. 990, 
For Amos prophesied '* two years before the earthqimke in the 
days of Uzziah" (Amos i, 1), Jeroboam II was alive when 
Amos wi'ote, and his death was to be marked by the signs of 
earthquakes and darkness. Till reeent days no one could have 
shown that sucfi rare phenomena had actually oceuiTcd about 
the time of his death in BX. 7(>2-L But now, in these latter 
days of wavering faith, witnesses from the mounds of Nineveh 
spring up to prove that about a year before his death total 
darkness from an eclipse, about noon, i'Al upon Samaria, and 
that a series of earthquakes were recorded at Nineveh in 
the years B.0> 7G3, 7G2» 7(31, 7t>0, and 751^ that is to say in a 
country bordering upon Samaria, in the midst of which por- 
tentous signs Jeroboam died, and the kingdom of Israel for 
a time ceased to exist. Nothing can ever set aside tlie force 
of tliis remarkable proof.* The death of Jeroboam II cannot 
hencefoilh be placed earlier than B.C. 7t>3, 

It is satisfactory to observe that, as far as regards the 

^ Dr, Pus^j, rkft^r ftearoliiiig in Tain for a ti»iblis eclippe» proDounces that ** no 
ocHpBe of the smi, in wliie]i the mm. might se^ni bo be shrouded in darkm-ss tl 
mid-dsjp', baa been ettlculfttod which should hiiTe eugiy^estt'd thi» image to the 
prophet's mind," and that it '* is more Ukeltf that the worvle are an image of & 
fuddoti reTerse" (^* Amo§," pp. 216j 217). The Bpeaker'a Commentary takct lb« 
gAme f/^k\ The rockouiiig of both um&i therefore be incorrect. 





Book of Either. 



25^ 



I 



te of til© building of Solonioi/s teraplo, the conclusioLi here 
ived at cloeely coiacidee with the reckoning of Dr. LepBius, 
the greatest Egyptian chronologiBt in Europe, who places 
the date of the foundation ol Solomon's temple in B*C. 989.^ 

It aleo coiiieide« with the a^^a of the captivity of the ten 
tribes, in the reiga of Hoshea (^^jl'^/J ^) B.C. 69<>, preserved 
by Demetrius, and inscribed on certaui well-known Jewish 
grave-stones found in the Crimea, and now at St. Peters- 
burgh (Trans, vol. iii, p, 28). 

And again, it agi'ees %vith the reckoning of Ezekiel, who 
computes an interval of 190 years between the apostasy of 
the ten tribes in B.C. 953, and the dcstnictiou of Jerusalem 
in B.c- 563.* 

But by far the most interesting test and proof of the 
correctness of this modification of the sacred calendar, from 
the time of Solomon to the birth uf Christy is the exactness 
and simplicity with which the continuous series of sabbaths 
and jubilees fixed in the calendar falls in with the actual 
history uf the holy people : a result which many learned men 
have attempted in vain to produce m connection with tU© 
common reckoning. The sabbatical and jubihuc cycles set 
down for observance in the Levitical law, formed of course a 
perfect framework within which the events of sacred history 
Actually came to pass. These cyclical pent ids were mter- 
woven with tlie chief institutions and festivals of the holy 
people. They were also largely used in prophetic utterances 
from time to time concerning past or future events. Dr. Kalish 
rites : — '• The great chain, from the seventh day to the end 

the seven times seven years"— he might have added also, 
to the end of the seventy times seven yeaj^ — ** encompassed 
in itB widening circles the sanctification of the indivddual 
Uebrew and of the Hebrew nation, the protection of every 
citizen and the commonwealth, the relation of God to the 
holy land and holy people. It is the most perfect system of 

> SjnopLuiolie Tafeln der Aegjptiflcheu Pynaaticen, p. 7. Dr. Lepsiua, 
Iiow«Ter| ftiid Niebuhr, propoee to cut out twenty years from tlxe reigii of 
MaaasftidU, to meet the i^rroneouB rcckunLDg of Hcrodotue, who misidciitlfle« 
Nsbonidue wiUi Nebuchadnezzar »on of Nitocris. 

* Exekiel ir, 4. 



260 



Book of Eafher. 




theocracy which lias ever been deTisod, If we could prove 
that it wag originated in all its parts by one mind, or at one 
epoclx, it would be witlvout parallel or analogy in all history 
as a work of largely conceived legislation," (Comment on 
Leviticns xxv, 1, Part IT, p. t534.) 

Dr. Kalish, however, denies that any proof to this effect 
can be produced in ancient days. In modem days indeed 
wo know that the sabbatic chain lies l^roken and neglected 
beneath the feet both of Islam and of ChriBtendoni* The one 
keeps holy the sixth, the other the first day of the week. And 
yet the Decalogue sufficiently attests that the seventh %va8 
the day to be observed in unbroken series by the hohf p^opk 
from the beginnhig, "The seventh day is the Sabbath of 
the Lord thy God.'^ It is hard also to deny, in the foce of 
Gen, xxix, 27, the antiquity of the practice of counting by 
weeks of years. ^ And thtre can be no question concerning 
the command to keep the Jubilee (Levit, xxv, 8). Now when 
the records of the events of sacred histoiy are strictly ar- 
ranged in conformity -with the internal framework of scripture 
dates, the wondrous proof of unity rjf design becomes com- 
plete. The one mind which more than three thousand years 
ago laid down this wde scheme of legislation, marked by 
times and festivals, thenceforth to be evolved as the peculiar 
history of the select and h(dy race, and brought the same to 
pass within the exact bounds prescribed, is thereby manifested 
to be no other mind than that of the Great Ci'eator Himself* 

As regards sacred clironology, what I wish to express is 
tliis, that the Bible contains witliin itself its own distinct and 
perfect system of chronology, fixed as it were in tables of celes- 
tial time, that is to say^ marked by successive eclipses of sun 
and moon, which are recorded in its own pages in connexion 
with some of the leading events of which it speaks. Pro- 
vided that a sufficient nimiber of these combinations of time 
and event can be recovered, it is clear that such a method 
of reconstructing sacred history must be perfect and exact. 

» " Et £a«ti arant omnea diea -rita? 8ara?, centmn et Tigiiiti et septcm, id e»t 
Jubelftei dtio, ^i septimaniE qufltuor, et imiiB anttue/' — Book of the JuHJeet, 
p. 25, Dillmann. *' TJiitil 177 daya are completed {by the moon) : occonling 
to the mode of computation bj weel«, twentj'fire weekB and two dtky%*** 
ZawrtneiM Book qf Enoch, p. 101* 



I 




Book of Esther, 



261 



The five following instances of well-eBtabliBhed ecUpsee 
are, I submit, sufficient for the present to verify the truth of 
the outline of chronQlogy herein proposed, 

mSTORICAL ECLIPSE.S ILLUSTRATIVE OF 
SACRKD SCRIPTURE. 



Total Bolar eclipHe of 15th June, B.C. 7t>3.* 

Marking the death of Jeroboam II. 

The shadow of totahty pasBing over Dan and Niiurild. 

By means of this eclipse we leam that : — 
The de4ith of Jeroboam II wad aoraewHer© about the year b.c. 762, or 763 



The death of Joaah ,... 

The death of Jehoahaz 

Tlie death of Jehu .... 

Tlie anointiBg of Jehu atul Hazael 

The death of Ahi\b ., 



a4>2 
817 
833 

fi61 
874 



IL 



Partial eclipse of the sun at Jerusalem, 

11th January, B.O. 689. 

WTien the shadow of tlie sun went back ten steps on the 

steps of Ahaz» 

Marking the 14th year of Hezekiah, and the 
Sabbatical year 689-8. 

From this ecUpse we also infer that Sennacherib had 
threatened to destroy Jerusalem in B.C, 690, and lost his 
whole army by pestilence in that year, and also, tlii*ough 
Josephue, that Deioces began to reign in Media in 688, 
ill the same year that Babylon revolted from Assyria. 

IIL 

ECLIPSE OF THALES, 

28th May, B.C. 585. 

Marking the day and year of the battle in Asia Minor between 

Cyaxarts king of Media, and Alyattes king of Lydia, 

and the marriage of Astyages son of Cyaxares, and 

^ Amaa Tiii» 8, 9. 



862 



Book of F9fhf*r, 



grantlfRther of Cyrus, while A&tyagee was yet between 
30 and 40 years of age ; being the 29th year of Cyaxares, 
and two yearn before t!ie fall of Nineveh^ and of the 
expuleion of the Scythians from Aeia in B,c. 583- 

From thiB eclipse we infer with certainty that the first 
year of Nebnelmdnezzar, placed in command of the araiy of 
his father Nabopalaesar when yet alive, and counted from the 
fall of Nineveh, fell in the year B.C. 582, and that Cyrtie 
grandson of Astyages did not conquer his grandfather in 
B.O. 560, twenty-five years after his graiidfather*a marriage. 

IV. 

Total solar eclipse at Daphna:?, 
Ifit November, B.C. 556. 

** And it cfime to po^s in the twenty -seventh year (fliat i», in the 27lh 
jear of NebnclmdnozMrj B.o. 5S6) the word of the Lord came unto 

m« Beh<iy, I will giTo the land of Egypt to Nebuclia*ln©«»r." 

(EK?k. nil, 17, 18.) 
Concerning Pharaoli Hophra, or Apnea, Ezekiel writes: — 

" The iword of the kinj^ of Biibjlon shall come upon thee — — Wlien I put 

thee out ■ I will cover the sun with a cloud and act darkneaa 

upon thy land." (Ezt'k. xmii, 7j 8.) 

** At Tehaphnohes alao (or Tahpanhes, that i* Daphntp) tho day shall h© 
darkened/^ (Ezek. %%t, 18.) 

From this eclipse we learn that r — 
Hophra, or Apriea, reigued 25* years „„ 
PBammuihis „ 5 „ 

Necho „ 16 „ 

PiMiimetichiiH I „ 64' „ 

Bodeeardiy in Egypt „ 15 „ 

Beiga of AsBurbampal „ 



from 555 to 579 b*c. 
580 to 584 

584 to 599 

600 to 653 

653 to 668 

..» B.C. 668 



Total Innar eelipfie, 

10th January, B.C. 1. 

Marking the year of the deatli of Herod, and the 

Birth of Christ in Autumn, B.C. 3, 

in the Sabbatical year 3-2, about one year and fotir or 

five months before Herod's death. 

See JosephuB Ant, xvii, vi, 4. Trans, vol. i, p» 93. 



I 



' Herod, ii, 16L 




* AMimnua, Routh, toL ii, p, 260. 



Book of Eiitlu^r* 



36d 



Th© eclipse of B.C. 556 at Daplinse, marking the time of 
the fall of Pharaoh Hoplira, and the subjugation of Egypt by 
Nebuchadnezzar in the twenty-seventh year of his reign/ 
18 very valuable to chronology, as already obeerved, ag 
leading to the eetablishraent of the prL*ci^e date of the 
acceseion of Peammetiehus in the year B.C. 053. And it 
has elsewhere been pointed out how this date, 653, agrees to a 
single year with the testimony of Manetho, as copied by 
AJfric^nus, concerning the beginning of Peammetichus^s reign. 
And again, we observe liow the earne date is conKrraed by 
the liistory of Assnrbanipal king of Assyria, who either 
in B,c. 668 or G67, just fifUen year^ before the year 
B.C. 653, divided the goveniinent of Eg}'pt between 
twenty petty rulers, of whom twelve were Eg3'ptian8 
(called l>y Herodotus the dodecarehy) and eight Assyrians.' 
And lastly, how Diodorus* has, in two places, recorded 
that this period of dodecarehy, which immediately preceded 
the reign of pRarametielius, liad lasted exactly fifteen years 
{w^yreKaiSefca Irrj)^ when lie set aside the other eleven kings. 
Now from whence did Diodorus derive tliis precise figiu'e 
of " fifteen years " ? Assyrian tablets, such as we now put 
together in fragments, were no doubt Complete and common 
in all the libraries of the Greeks in Asia and Egypt in the 
ays of Diodorus, giving this exact rLM.^voning of years; for 
re know that cuneiform w^ritiug continued to bo used and 
underatood as late as the reigns of Seleiicu^ Philopater 
(B,C. 187) and Antiochus (B.C. 164), whose names are foimd 
written in these characters."* It can hardly be doubted, 
therefore, that the *' fifteen years '' of Diodorus are derived 
from some Assyriiin tablet in which the same number of 
yaars are mentioned ; as for instance, in the following 
passage in the liistory of Assiirbanipal/ where the king, 
some time after the death of Teumman king of Elam, in 

* Haapero denies the fiilftlmpiit of Ezekiel't prediclion, and thinke that 
Xobiichddtieuar was fcpuUod. Histoiro Aucieniic, p. 504. 

3 Smith's History of Aiaurbsmpal. Chronological B«mBrkA by J, W. B, 
pp. 842, 343, 

' Diodorus, Rhodom, pp. 59, 60. 

* LenorniADt** Lettres Ajfyriologi^ues, totn. i, p. 22S. 
^ Smith's Ajstirbuiipal, p« 261. 



264 Book of Esther. 

B.C. Bfil, clenmnrled of Umman-aldas his enccessor the retum of 
the Btiitue of the goddess Nana wliieh had been carried ofT 
to Elam by Kuduriianhundi, the Elamite, 

2 Ners ^ 1;200 years. 

7 Sosses - 420 ' „ 
15 Years 15 . 




1,635 years 

before the date uf her rettirn. But if these are thti same 
fifteen years as the years of dodecarchy spoken of by Diodorus, 
then are we enalJed, through the history of Assnrhanipjil, 
coupled with the date of the eehpse at the death of Hophni, 
to count up with accuracy even to the date of the Deluge 
in the time of XiButhruB. 

Psammetichus B»C* G53 
Dodecarchy „ 15 

7 Sosses, 2 Ners „ 1,620 



,, 2,288-2,287. 

and from thence to the time of the 

Deluge, 33,480 suns, or days = 92 yeai*s, 

B,c. 2,379 
Now B.C. 2,379 is also the date of the flood in the" 
time of Noah, as related by Ibises, (Trans, vol. iii^ p. 19.) 

And now let ns pause a moment to consider how far 
we have advanced in the reconstniction of the calendar 
of sacred history, and how fiir it is true, as I have said, 
that the history so reconstructed falls in with the con- 
tinuous series of Sabbatic and jubilaic cycles, "Darius 
the Mede," the earthly raa&^ter of Daniel, was, as we have 
seen, the same as he who niled in Persia in the days of 
Zenibbabel, IIaggai» Zechariah, and Ezra, and who coxild 
be no other than the son of Hystaspes ; and all therefore 
which i« written in the books of Daniel, Haggai, imA 
Zechariah in connection with Darius has properly become 
incorporated w^th the history of that Pei-sian king who 
married *Ato6sa, daughter, or rather daughter-in-law, of 
OjTUfl. A mighty stumUing block being thus removed from 



liook of Esther. 



un 



5e path of sacred liiBtory, we Lave boeii enabled to aRcend 
by easy yet unerring etups, siipportetl by records from 
time to time of celestial phenomena, till we have reached 
the days of Solomon ; and stand ae it were in vision with 
that king upon ""the Momitain of Jehovah's House'*; tliat 
moimtain of which we read, that '* It shall come to pans 
in the last days that the Mountain of the Lord^s Hnu8e 
shall be eetablished on the tup of the moun tains, and all 
natiofu shall flow unto it'* (Isa. ii, 2); that house concern- 
ing which it is more than once proclaimed, ** Mine hous^ 
shall be called a liouRe of prayer for all nations'"; and 
thus, from the time of laying the first stone of the building, 
if the principle of reckoning here adopted is correct, the 
history of tliis central house of prayer to be prepared for 
all the nations of the earth, sliouhl^ we rniglit expect, l>e found 
laid down in measured periods of septennial cycle. 

Now if there is anything clearly fixed and certain in the 
Hebrew Calendar, it is that the first stone of this first 
bouse of prayer was laid, as we are told, '*in the 480th 
year after the Children of Israel were come out of the 
land of Egypt, and in the foui-th year of Solomon's reign 
(1 Kings, y\j 1), that is to say, 

In the second month (May), B»0. 990, 
and the cunsecration of this temple took place, we reckon, 
in the twelfth year of Solomon (I Kings, vi, 38; viii, 2), 

In the seventh month (September or October), B.C. 482. 

So that the consecration of the temple, and the first 
e«tablishment of the city of Jeriisalem as "'^ the Holy City *' 
— '*the city of the Great King *' — fell in the 488th year after 
the coming out of Egypt, or, say, in the 490th year after the 
call of Mosee by Jehovah on Mount Horeb. 

And thus it appears that from the call of Moses to 
the consecration of the Holy City, was a period of 
Seventy weeks of years, or 490 y cat's . 

And that from the year of the consecration of the 
Holy CHty, in the days of Solomon, to the reconstrueli<jn 
of **the Holy City" in the second year of the reign of 
Darius, B,c. 492-1, was also a period of 

Seventy weeks of years, or 490 years. 



i66 



Book of Enther, 



And, as already seen, that from the laying of the fotmda- 
tiou stone of the second temple^ in December, B*C. 492^ 
(Haggai ii, 18), to the Birth of Christ in Autumn, B,C, 3, waa 
a period of 

Seventy weeks of years, or 490 years, 
being three succe&Bive periods of ten jubilees of 49 yeaiB 
eachy equal to 1,470 years, during which a continuoiiB com- 
putation— I will not say observance — of the Sabbatical 
yeai*8 had been kept up* 

Again, we read that the seventy last years of the second 
period of 490 years were ifears of rest or Sahlmth to the land^ 
to be fulfilled during the seventy yeai*s' desolations of 
Jerusalem (2 Chroru, xxxvi, 20, 21) — *' until the land had 
enjoyed her Sabbaths ; for as long as she lay desolate she 
kept Sabbath to fnliil tlu-ee score and ten yeai-s/' And tliias 
we gain a clue to the actual years of ** Sa//bat/is of the land.*'' 

And once more we read that in the last of these years, 
that is in tlio Sabbatical year B.c* 493-2, which was in the 
first year of Darius, eon, or representative, of Ahasuerus, 
^* Seventy Weeks are determined (that is are com- 
pleted) upon Thy people, and Thy holy city, to make an 
end of Bins;* &c. (Dan, ix, 24). So that the year B.C. 492-1 
which followed the 490th year of the septenmtJ cycle, ought 
to be found to represent a year of julnlee. Now it is to be 
remarked^ that such is the record of a Jewish writer, much 
esteemed, of the first centuiy AJ3», living about the time of 
St. John, Rabl)i Ehezer, in Pirke, c. 38, who affinns that the 
restonition of the temple was formerly impeded by the 
Samaritans, " neqne ad annum Jubila&mn," in the days of 
Zenibbaheh 

Thus by fixing the date of one single year of jubilee, 
in B.C. 492-1, we are enabled to compute the whole series 
of Sabbatical years and jubilees Ijoth upwanls to Solomon, 
and downwards from that date to the birth of Christ, as they 
were commanded to have been observed. 

The historical result is marvellous. Recorded eclipses^ 
buried monnmeBts, clay tablets from Assyria and Babylon, 
records of faitliful histoiians hitherto laid aside as misunder- 
stood, seem all to rise together to confirm one and the same 



liook of Ei^ther, 



2iU 



harmonious record of past events, foretolil indeed by holy 
prophets, and all combine to fomi the fuiidamental Calendar 
of Sacred Time. While Sowing naturally from tlmt Calendar 
we eeem to be enabled to unfold the meaning of the mystc- 
rions Covenant wliicli regulates the tenure of the Huly Land 
i connected with the Sabbaths of the land, and Jubilaic Cycle ;* 
le infraction of which covenant was to be, atid haa been 
twice pvniiflhed by expulsion of the o\vncrH from the land ; 
and by the obgervance of which the repoaatiafiiou may be 
claimed aa "an everlasting promise" by the sons of Abraham. 
No other system of Scrijjtm'e reckoning comprehends 
tJiiTiughout the Jnbilaic Cycle of forty-nioe years. Its 
recovery, I maintain, marks this Calendar with the stami* of 
truth. And as regards the matter now immediately in hand, 
we may look upon the folio whig dates, on which so much 
depends in reconciling Assyiian discoveries with sacred 
Scripture, as finally determined by its reckoning. 

Benbadad of Daiuascufi waa made prisoner hy Ahab in b.c. 877 

Ahiih was alain at Bamotlt Gilead iu 874 

Benhadad died in ..» * 862 

Jeliu and H.-izael were anointed kingH in „ 861 

And now for a moment let us follow the footsteps of our 
youthful guide. Behold, as it were in vision, he comniiinee 

Jwith the guardians of the holy mount " The watchmen 

Bt upon the walls of Jerusalem, who never hold tlieir 

"peace, day nor night/* but ciy~**Ye that make mention 
of Jehovah, keep not silence, and give Him no rest till He 
eetablish, and till He make Jerusalem a praise in the earth 
(Isaiah Ixii, l>). He seems, with reverence, to gay, Sii-s, I seek 
to \new the title deed which gives possession of this most 
holy land. Though but a cliihU I can perceive that it is 
trodden down and polUxted more than all other places on 

► the earth: how then shall I imderstaud that it shall become 

pa praise! To whom in these troublous days shall it belong"? 
Shall they who now occupy the places of the Sanctuary, 
destmed to become the *' house of prayer for all people/' 
continue in possession, heedless of the approach of the set 
term of alienation of this peculiar land — the year of Jubilee 

» Soe Bwald*8 Antiquities of ItracJ, Eng. Triwf* 1876, p. 38L 



266 



Book of E$tlm\ 



of Jubilees, when the tnimpet of the Jubilee shall eound ou the 
10th oftho 7th moutlji the Day of Reconciliation, or Atone^ 
ment ? (Lt^vit* xx\% 9.) Or ^hall thu wile-*?pread influence of 
Christendom enihrace this land, and swallow up the false 
reli|Q^ons which now pervade tlie East? ** How long shall 
the Sauctuaiy and the host be trodden under foot?'** My 
son, is the reply, thy thoughts are deep, and in the path of 
truth ; hut thou hast much to learn, and cannot bear it now* 
First make thyself certain of the past. Be sure that hitherto 
all has happened in order, as designed, and then shalt thou be 
prepared to read that ivhich u wmtfen and which concerns the 
future. But, be assured of this—** The Sanctuary shall be 
cleansed/' " There is hut one people on the earth who can 
claim of rifjht posscseion of this land. However devout and 
holy, however wide-spread the influence, however acceptable 
the great and pious work which it has performed, the claims 
of Christendom are no stronger than those of Brahminism to 
inheritance in tliis land.^ They wlio would possess it must 
keep the covenants written in the deed — the covenant made 
with Abraham, representing pm-ity of thought, and heart, 
and hody^ — the covenant of the Sabbath of the seventh day, 
and the covenant of the Sabbaths of the land; except in per- 
formance to the letter of these covenants it cannot be retained. 
But, see my son, you carry in your hand the key by which 
you may unlock some of the hidden mysteries of bye-gone 
time. Have you examined well the legends gi^aven on that 
master key ? See, here on one side it is written i — 

Given in the 14th year of Hezekiah as a sign, when 

the shadow of the sun returned ten steps on the 

steps of Ahaz. 
And on the other side is written as a sign : — 

'* Ye shall eat this year such as groweth of itself: and 

the second year that which sprmgetli of the 

I Dan, Tiii, 13* ^ Dbd. Tiii, 14. 

* Pope Piufl IX^ uddresBing Christendom in 1875, eiroDeonaly a»Bum«d to 
offer to the world ** tJioi*e benefits wliich amongst the Jewish people were 
promised by the Liiw, on the retmrn of ettertf fiftieth tf ear ^* ; eounling \m Jubilei? 
from 1825, on the pririciplo of two jiibQe^et to u century. Eiiojclietil Lt-Kor^ 
published m" Tlie Times/' 8th Jan., 1875. 

* Qen. x?ii| 10, 13 \ Roinanfi iii, 2d>dl. 



Book of Esther, 



2<i9 



same ; and in the third year eow ye and reap, 
and plant viiieyarda, ainl eat the fruit thereof.** 
(Igaiah xxxvi, 30 ; compare Levit. xxv, 4, 5), 

Tliis ifi the long-lost key by which to set the eeries of the 
Sabbaths and the Jnbilees. Three periodB of seventy weeks 
of years, or 490 years each, have already thiiH l>eeii traced from 
the biilh of Christ to the appearance of Jehuvali iu Mount 
Horeb : and again, another penod of seventy weeks nmy be 
counted from the giving of tlie law on Sinai to the appearance 
of Jehovah in Ur of the Chaldees,^ when the land was granted 
to Abraham *'a8 a possession, and to his seed" And now, 
behold, the holy child, oppressed with thought, sinks down 
in sleep, and as in th"eam the watchers pass away, touching 

[ their harps they seem to sing^ — *' The Redeemer shall come 
to Zion, and to them that turn from transgression in Jacob" 
— This is my covenant with tlieni, saith Jehovah." While 
other voices, clear and sweet, proceeding from the opposite 
tnomit take up the strain, and sing—" Hin feet shall staiui 
upon the Mount of Olives'* — '*And Jehovjdi my Elohini shall 
come, and all the just ones with Thee'* (Zech. xiv, 4, 5). 
" Every eye shall see Him, and they which pierced Him.*' 
** They shall mourn for Him, as one mourneth for his only 
son/' 

Having thus laid down the outline of aacred chronology 
on principles which do not admit of alteration, either 
upwards or downwards, of a single year, and having thereby 

I shown from the records of Scripture the exact period of time 
within which Shalmanezer II » king of Assyria, Benhadad 
and Hazael kings of Damascus, and Ahab and Jehn, kings 
of Samaria, must have lived and reigned, it now remains 
for me to show how Sir Demy Rawlinson's Assyrian Canon, 
or continuous list of annual epunymons archone, or prefects, 
at Nineveh, m connection with whose years of ofBt^e the 
history of Asspia is related, when set according to its o^\^i 
internal marks of arrangement comcides with the record of 
Scripture to a single year as regards the history of these 
several kings* 



1 AoiA ril, 9. 





Book of E»the%\ 



I have fi-eqijently stated that tJie alteration of the dates 
required throughout the Hebrew monareliy is to the extent 
exactly of twenty-five years down wards J And I may now 
briefly state that the cause of the anachronism which at 
prusunt elevates the reigns to that extent, and which has so 
long passed cun'ent, originates m an mitbrtunate and limda- 
mental error of Herodotus, wlio has mistaken Lal^ynetus U, 
the son of the great queen NitocriH, in whose reign Nineveh 
was destroyed and the Scythians expelled, for Nabo nidus, or 
Nabonadius, the last king of Babylon, who we know was 
merely a Babylonian nolJe with no claim whatever to the 
throne by royal descent ; and who was overthrown by Cj^rus 
son of Cambyses jmt timnty-fve years after the death of the 
son of Nitocris (B.C. 538). The last words of tlie dying 
prince foretold the coming of ** a Persian mule '* who should 
destroy the Babylonian empire; and Xenophon has truly 
related that Cyrus ** the mule^'* some nine years later, entered 
Babylon through the bed of the Euphrates, But Cambyses, 
he tells us, took the benefits of this conquest (in BX\ 529) ; 
and Cyrus his eon did not become entitled to the empire 
till sixteen years afterwards, in B.C. 513, when he conquered 
Kab unit his. 

I will now refer the reader to Mr. G. Smith's valuable 
w^ork entitled ** The Assyrian Eponyni Canon ^" p. 189, a 
work with which e\'ery one who wishes to enter into these 
questions should be provided. Referring first to Ahab of 
Zirhahi, called *^4hab the Israelite" by Dr. Oppert, but which 
should be more property read iVhab of Jczrecl, who together 
with Beuhadad was conquered by Shalmanezer during the 
year of ufliee of Dayan-assur, be observes, that '* it would be 
possible that this was not the iVhab of Scripture "; because^ 
*' it does not seem likely tliat the Biblical Ahab, who was the 
foe of the King of Damascus, sent troops to his aid"' (p. 190). 
The snnple reply to this is, that Ahab had three yeai-s before 
his death made prisoner of Beidmdad, and peace was made 
between them^ on condition that Ahab should " make streets 
in Damaseus,'* as the father of Beuhadad had ** made in 
Samaria" (1 Kings, xx, 34). The meaning of which passage is» 



I 

I 
I 



Book of Either. 



3271 



that Abab ehould have a gamson in Damaaeiis iti rerogiiitloii 
of his stizerainty over that kingdom, as Bcnhadatre father had 
garrisoned Samaria. So that in fact the conquest of theee 
tivofoes in confederaa/ in B.C. 875, 80 far from being adverse to 
the idea that Ahab c>f Jezreel, conquered by Shahuanezer, 

^wafi identical with the Ahab of S€ri[)tuve who whb Bkiiii at 
Ramoth-CTilead, iB a direct proof that Dayan-asgiir, the Tartan 
uf Shuhimnezer, defeated that same Ahab at Kamoth-Gilead 
in the year B.C. 874, who, in tluit year, died at that lity* Again, 
with regard to Jehu, who is styled in the AsByrian inscriptions 
** Jehu son of Omri/' Mr* Smith observes, *' I woidd urge 
that the identity uf the Jehu of the Bible with the Jehu of 
the inscriptions is not proved, and that these notices are not 
enough to force iis to alter all our Bihle dates " On the 
ether hand I would observe that, if the yeai' of office of 
Dayan-asstir is correctly placed in the year B.C* 874J then 
must the payment of tiibute by Jehu to Shaimanezer be 
placed in the year B.C. 8*>1, ab<iut wliich time, according to 
the fixed dates of Scripture, Jehu and Hazael wore anointed 
kings of Samaria and Damascus by order of Elisha the 
Prophet. Few, I think, will be inclined to fall into Mr. Smith's 
view of a duplicate Ahab, a duplicate Jehu, and probably a 
duphcate Benliadad, and a duplicate Itazae! (p. 192). 

Let lis now proceed to adjust the dates of the Sacred 
ijalendar with the dates of the Aanyrian (knon, arranging the 
Canon according to its own internal division into Cycles^ or 
SoBses, of sixty years, the periods of wliich are fixed by eclipses 

I of the sun, recorded in eouneetion with certain eponymous 

larchoiis. Here Dr. Haigh has the honour of lead iiig the way. 
There is not a question, in my own mind, that Dr. Haigh is 
connect, when he places the fii'st year of Assiu-nazirpal, the 
father of Shaimanezer II of the Black Obelisk, in the year 
B.C. 903» iu the year of tlie solar eclipse seen in Armenia on 
the 3rd July, during his first campaign. For in this king's 
annals* we read, '*In the beginning of my reign, during my 

I first campaign, when the Sun-God, ruler of the heavenly 

* See the following ulifonological tiible, 

* See Reoordfl of the Faat, toL iii, p. 43. Dr. Oppert, Kerue Arcli^ologique, 
Not., 1868, p. 314. 



272 



Hook of EHher, 



regions, cast liis propitious sliadow upon me, and in power 
(or glory) I seated riiy«elf on tlie throne, A sceptre, the ilread 
of man, I took in my handi^," ..,.** At that time an image 
of my person I made ; a history of my supremacy upon it I 
wrote ; ,,,,,, in the year of my taking the office of Limu, in 
the month Ab (July), on the 24th day/* That is to say, 
Assurnazirpal set up Idsbas-reHef as quickly as possible after 
the occurrence of tlie solar eclipse of 3rd July» B.C. 903, to 
wliich he poijits on the accompanying representation of the 
monument in the British Museum, But if Dr. Haigli is 
correct in placing the accession of Assnrnazirpal in B.C. 903^ 
he must also be right in placuig the accession of his son 
Shalmanezer in B.C. 878. 

It is tnio that there was also a solar eclipse partially 
visible at Nhie%'eli on the 13th July, B.C. 885, when, as Mr. 
Hind calculates, 08 3 parts of the sun's disk were eclipsed, 
just one SaroB of 18 years and 10 days later than the eclipse 
of the 3rd July, 903, And tluB eclipse nearly agrees vnth 
the dates of Mr. Smith's contiinious trnd imbroken series of 
eponymous archons, as falling only two years before 
Assuriiazirpal took that office according to his system. But 
I think we cannot refuse to foil in with the suggestion of 
Dr. Haigh and Dr. Oppert, that an interval, during which no 
archons or ffovemors tcere appointed^ following immediately 
after the 35th year of Shalmanezer, that is, in B.C. 843, must 
have occurred between that year and the accession of 
Shamas-Phul; so raising the dates of the reigns of Asaur- 
nazirpal and his son Siialmanezer to the extent of the 
interval witliin which Assnrdannipal, or Sardanapahis, 
usuf-ped the throne of his father in rebellion. This interval 
of usnipation, as generally agreed, lasted fia* 20 years. 

The record of this revolt is given in the annals of Shama»- 
Phid, who put down the rebellion in the year B,o. 825, and 
after a siege of Nineveli for two more yturs began his reign, in 
B,0. 823, as no doubt coiTcctly hiid down by Mr. Smith. I'he 
following translation of tht^ annals of Shamas-Phul, or Samai- 
Vul, by Mr. Boscawen, of tlie British Musexun, will, I think, 
sufficiently confirm the suggestion. The result of this 
aiTangement of the Assyiian Canon, is^ 



Book of Esther 



273 



L That Shalmanezor, iu the year B.C. 875, defeated Ahab, 
in confederacy with Benhadad. 

IL That Ahab was defeated and slain by Bcnhadad in 
B.C. 874. 

IIL That Jehii paid tribute, and Hazael was defeated, in 
B.C- 8GL 



EXTUACT FEOM AN INSCRIPTION OF SHAHAS-PHITL.' 

IVko conquered Sardanapalus in B.C. 82^ » and reigned in u.c. B23, 

COLUMX I* 

iC(>mmencement of BiHotkal JPortion.) 

26. D.P. &am - si - vul sar dan - un Bar kid - sat 

Samiitul potcer/td kin^ Intig of a mtdtituck 

27. la - mall - ri n - h - ii ws - ra - a - ti na - tia - pa 
iwt iurpai9€d shepherd of hof^ places ,,...,.,. 

88. n - ri - tt mur - ti * du - « ka- lia lua - ta- ti mu • ma - h - it 
of ihriruss the driver of ail lands th^ sender forth 

gim - ri . ru - u sa ul - tii ul - la - a. 

of all . . » . . . irho from old tme* 

ZiK Iti lb - bu mat ?^u - um - ii • t - u za - nin 

T/ii godn btf natm the restorer builder 

31. Bit - e - seri la maa - ku - kit mil - kil - tu Bit - kiir. 

of Bit Eh'c ,...,.. of the Muuse of the Lord. 

31. Sa iiua Bib - ri Bit Kar - sak Kiirra Bit - Sadi 

Who for th4 beaulij^ng of Bit Karsak Kunvt the Temple 

mat - an 
of ike mountains of his land 

3S. [aj * kin lib - ba - s« va ba - «a - a us - na - a - sii 

/SUjtfd his heart and set his ears (mind) 

31. ablu Slial - man * ener ear kip - rat arba • ti 

son of Shalrnaneser kh\g of the four races 

35. aa - kali mal - ki sa sa - la - te da - is matati 

of M kings the spoiler trampler of all lands 

« TfMuiluted bf Mr.' Boscawcn, nbo rottda Suasl-Vu), where SlrHemr B«w^£oa rcails 
ShAiuas-Fbut4 



274 



Book of Esther. 



36. abltt - abli sa D.P* Asstir - nazir • pal 
grandson of As&urjUizirpal 

37. ma - Mr bl - kt 

ftocivef of tribute 

33. VA i * gt - si < i fi4k kii * Us kip - ra - a - tl 

athd riches of all racu. 



4K u*6ap*IiB • va 
he ramd up 



matu us - jmi - kit - va 

and the land he mund to revolt 



HISTORY OF THE REVOLT OF ASSURED ANN IP AL^ OR 

SARDANAPALUS, 

In B,a 848, 8ixt^'9mm ^mrs before tkefirH Olyn^iad* 

39, E-nu-va D.P, Aaaur-dan-iii'iml lua-tar-zi D.P, Shal-num-eeer 

When Amtrdannipal rehdlion {in the time 0/ ) Shalmcmeeer 

40, abu - 8U e - pu - sa llm - ni - e * ti is - khup a - mat 
hii father he rnade wickedly he overthrew counsel 

Urn • nu - ti 
evU 

and prcpand 

42. ta - ha - zn. nisi mat Assuri elJa va spalls itti • bq. 

hattk. Th^ men of Assyria ttpper and lower mth him. 

43, u-Hifl-kui va u-dan-nt ta-aib-tii alu-ni u-sam • va 

ffe feathered and he fortified the abodes {hamee) of the cities he 

44. aiia - epia gablu va ta - ha - ad is - kn • na pa * ni - mi, 

to make battle aivd fighting he set Ms face, 

45, Alu Ni - sur - a D. P, A - di * a D.P. Si - ba - ni - ba DP. Imgiir Bel 
The cities Nisura AcHa ' .^ibaniba Imgur Bd 

D.P, la - sap * ri. 
Issapri, 

46. D.P, Bit Im-tlira D.P. St-mu D,P, Si-ib-hi-nia D.P. Par tiu-sur 

{The cities) Imdira Simu iSMinis Prinitsur 

D,P, Kip - flu - lit* 
Kipsuna 

47, D,P, Kur-ba*au D.P. Si-du D.P. Na-pu-lii D.P. l^a-pa D.P, Aaaur 

Kurban JSidu Sapula Kapa Aesw 

D.P, U - ra - ka 
Crala 




I 




Book of Esther. 



275 



8a 
tehteh 



48. D.P. Eak-kiir D.P. Hu zi-ri-Da D.P, Durbalat D,P. Da-ri-ga D.P. Zaab 

llakkur Ihuiiina Duhalat Dariga Zah 

40. D.P. Lu-ub'du JiP, Arpa-ha D.R Arba-il lidi D,P A-midi 
Lvbdit Arpaha AtMa w far as Amidia 

IXR Tel - Aim 

(and) Tdahni 

50. D.P. Hi - iii - da - iiu kaia XXVTI ma * Jm*ri mli bal • za - ui - su • ua 

Miiidauu, in ttU 27 ^^n'J^* (nth ihetr totcen 

istu 

51. Shal-maii-eeer sar kip-rat arba*ti abu - ya ik - ki • ru - ni 
JShaiman€9er king of the four raca m^/ather hadnparaUd thenudrcA 

&3. bin ABSur-dAn-tii-pal k'Sak-uu-ni ina 

{myd) Jhr Atturdannipftl had pl&ctd thctaidvu bi/ 

ili m - ba • ti bel ni - ya 

Gf the ffrmt ffods my lords 

53. aim sopi * ya u - sak - ids. Ina'- gar - ri * ya 
at ffiJ/fcet I niioth them hoip, hitnifjirst 

aa ana mat Na - li * ri, &c., &c 

(in) %phkh to the land of Nakri, 



ki-bit 
command 



toah - ri * e 
cxpt*dition 



It is qiiitfi clear from the above extract that there was a 
period, between the reigiifl of Shalraanezor IT and Shamas- 
Phul, dimug which the AsByrian empire was in a state of 
reYoliitioTu and during which Assurdannipal, or Sardanupahis, 
headed the revolt. And it i^ alwo clear that the name of this 
UHnrpeFj though found in the annals, and the names of any 
prefects which he may have appointed, are absent from the 
list of prefects in the Aeayiian Canon dm*ing the period of 
revolutiun* Now, if the fii^st year of Assm*naziipal is placed, 
in accordance ^ith the eclipse which occurred, and to which 
he points on his monument, on the 3rd July, 903, as 
beginning in that year, then will the first year of his son, 
the king of the Black Obelisk, Shahnanezer 11, hare fallen in 
the year b,0, 878, and his last year^ when unseated by Aesur- 
dannipul, have fallen in the year B»c. 813, or sLrttMeven years 
before the fir Ri Olympiad, It is not possible that the eclipse of 
the 13th Jidy, B,o, 8^5, as some suppose, should have marked 



27<5 



Book of Esther. 



the first campaign of Assurnazirpal, if any interval of revo- 
lution had occurred, even to the extent of a single year. 

AhyLleiiiiH had before him the work of Berosus, giving 
history from the time of the creation, that is from Alorus to 
tlie time of Alexander* preserved, we may assume, on baked 
tiles Q' coctilibxiB laterculis ''), as spoken of by Pliny' : and we 
cannot doubt that copies of the very tablet now mider con- 
sideration were ako before him, when he wrote thus : — 

Extract froji the Ar!hexian Copy of Eusebtus, 
AuciiER, p. 37* 

" Abydenufl concerning the kingdom of the Assy nans. 

** The Chaldeans reckon in this manner the kings of their 
country, from Alonis down to Alexander : Concerning Ninus 
and Semiramis they relate nothing worth notice. Having 
made this observation he (Abydeniis) deduces the beginning 
of hietory from thence. Nhius, he says, was (the son) of 
Arbelus, who was the son of Chaahis, wdro was the son of 
Arbelua, who was the son of Anebue, who was the son of 
Babius, who was the son of Belus king of the Assyrians." 

** Then he recounts one by one the kings from Ninus and 
Semframis down to Sardauapalus, who was the last of all ; 
fwm whom to the fir H Oli/mpitid dii'iy-s^ven years were camp leied^^ 
that is to say, were counted from the year B.c, 843, 

Eusebius goes on to say ^ — *^Abydenu8 thus, with 
much particularity, writes concerning the kingdom of the 
Assyrians. Castor also, in the fii^st hook of his Summaiy of 
Chronicles, relates the same tliings plainly, even to the letter, 
concerning the kingdom of the Assyrians.'' And Mr. Clinton, 
who refers to this passage of Abydenus» remarks (vol* i, 
p, 205), '* the list of Assyrian longs in the Excerpta Chrono- 
logica, apud ScaL Enseb., p. 74, also reckons, with Castor, 
Ninus II as the last king, and places the t^^rmination sixty- 
seven years before Olymp* 1.'' 

The figure 67 seems thus to be well attested,' and we 
may infer with safety that Sardanapalua began his usurpation 



» Hist. Kftt. Tii, &7. 

- I liiivo to witbdraw a »uggeition formerly made ttat 67 tliould Iw ro»d 167i 
and nUo to abandon the idea that Arbju^a conquered Ninerch in B.C. 583j in the 
iinw of SatocuSj as stigg^&tcd by ^kbuhr. 




Book of Esther, 



277 



the year B.C. 843, It is generally stated also that he 
reigned uineteen or twenty years, which thus leads to the 
year B,C. 823, as the year when he burnt himself iii his palace, 
two years after his defeat by Beleays and Arbaces, as related 
by Cteeias (see p. 229). 

Again, we have the testimony of MegastheneB^ no doubt 
taken from the same tablets, that Belochus and Arhacea 
divided the kingdom of Sardanapalus Ixjtweeii tliem 304 years 
before the time when Dariufl and CjTais, having reunited the 
empii*e, held it between them, that is on the death, or rather, 
madness, of Cambyfies in B,C. 521, (Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., 
vol, i, p. 2(i2 ) 

In conclusion. — The object of this first portion of the 
treatise has been limited, as regards Assyrian chrnnologj^ 
to the clearing away of one chief difficulty in the way of 
reconciling Aesyrian and Hebrew records, that is by fixing 
the true position of the reign of Shahnanezer II, which 
necessarily falls between the years n.C. 878 and 843. This 
result is deduced from two soh»r eclipses — the first on 
3rd July, 903 = 1st year of Aesurnazirpal, the second on 
15th June, 763, when Esduearalte was arclion, bc^th which 
fall in vdXh the tcBlimuny of Abydenus of his overthrow in 
B.C. 843, BLxty-seven years before the 1st Olympiad. 

Thus far aU is clear and in harmony between the Assyrian 
and Hebrew annals, extinguishing the first difficulty. 

If so, however, a second difficidty will be immediately 
raised in objection: Who, then, was Yahuhazi kiiigof Jndah, 
who, according to the annals of Tiglathpileser, paid tribute 
to that king in the year B,c. 731, and w^ho is identified by 
Schrader, and RawHiison, and Smith, with Jehoahaz, or 
Ahaz, to the great confusion of this portion of the history ? 
It has already been shown (p. 256) that Jotham, not Ahaz, 
w^as in this year king of Judah, and how is Jutham to be 
identified with TahiUiazi ? Tliis question, which involves a 
tlifliculty, which is now of long standing, must of com*se be 
discussed more fully hereafter. Meanwhile, the solution I 
would suggest seems reasonable and simple, that the two 
names are not intended to be identical, but that the one is a 
translation of the other, from Hebrew into Assyrian. 

Jotham, or ^Itaaffa/i, we kj]ow* signifies Jehovak \a 6a|x^ ot 



878 



Booh of E8ther. 



Tain. Compare Oaufia, a wonder, 0vfi6% epirit; and tb^ 

Bi^ification of Tara (01^) is that which ia perfect, or entire 
in itself; or taken aLtJohitely, it may eigiiify eelf-existent*, or 
spirit* On the other hand, Zi in Asejrian signifies epii'it^ 
For instance, there is a Zi of the earth, a Zi of the heavens, 
a Zi of the snn, a Zi of the air.^ 80 that it would appear 
that the Hebrew name Jothanj, = Jehovah is Tarn, is not 
improperly represented by Yahnha-zi == Jehovah is Zi. 

There is a third tliffioulty raised by Professor Schrader and 
Mr. Smith, wliich also creates mnch confiision, and which 
mil have to bo discussed again hereafter. A mutilated 
passage in the annals of Tiglathpilesei' has been so 
reconstructed by Prof, Schi'ader (Die Keilinsduriften, &o,, 
pp. 145, 299) as to make it appear that Tiglathpileser had 
placed Ifosija on the throne of Samaria in the room of 
Pekali, who is also represented to have been $htin by Ilosm^ 
as early as B.C. 730 ; and thus the capture of Samaria and 
the fall of Hosea are represented as occurring nine years 
later, that is in B,o, 72 1» the common date, instead of in the 
year B.O, 696, in which I believe that Demetrius has fixed 
the true time. The solution of this difficulty, again, is 
simple ; for the time spoken of in the Assjaian inscription 
is well defined as the time when Tiglathpileser took 
Abel-beth-maachah and Gilead, wliich again is defined in 
2 Kiugsxv, 29, as the time when Pekah/rst came to the throne^ 
in the 52nd year of Uzziah, having slaiu his predecessor 
Pekahiah in B.C. 735, So that the king now reigning in Judah 
was Uzziah, or Au-si-ah Q ^ Jf ^Tfl^ • "^Tf • '*^'"*"D' 
as written in the inscription * not Hosea (ytfinY as 
interpreted by Prof, Schrader, Again, in verse 25 we read 
that it was Pekah> not Hosea, who in B,c, 735 slew the 
king of Samariai and then reigned twenty years, ending in 
B,C, 716. It seems necessary to mention these points by 
anticipation, in order to show that there is no real difficulty 
arising out of them as regards our reckoning. In the mean- 
while we must hope for the discovery of firesh documents 
to set those questions entirely at rest. 



^ F. L^Dornuml's Etudes Accsdientiefij torn. 1, p&xi 1) p. SIS, 



I 

I 

I 





m Armowiihe seal =f «i^-ca%>«rr 




.1 

: 



'.SSUltNAZlRPAL 






>l 




Book of Esther, 



279 



ASTRONOMICAL CALEXDAR OF SACBED HISTORY 

lUTanged in coafonnity with Eclipses and Sabbatical yesLr», 

from B,c. 997 to 818. 

Comimred with 

RAWLINSON'S ASSTRLVN CANON 

during the same period, reckoned in Sodses, or Cycles of GO jeaxh, 

in the JEm of Beliis, B,c, 2287. 

Computed upwards from the 1st year of Assm^banipali 
B.O. 668, at the close of a period of seven Cycles—* 



H With the view of showing that the Annals of Shal- 

I manezer H, recorded on the Black Obelisk in the Britiflh 

Museimi, which speak of Benhadad, Ahab, Hazael and Jehn, 
coincide witli the hiatoiy of these kings contained in tho 
Hebrew Scriptures* 

/ERA OF BELUS. 

^Atravplmv irpwTOf i^ao-tKev^re B}]\o^ — 
TO 5 S^ Kodfiov 7iv ero^ y<n4* 
A.M. 3210 = B.0, 2287-6.— 

Synccdhis, vol. i, p* 18L 

Durat ibi (apud Babylon em) Jovis BeU templum. 
Inventor hie fiiit eideralis scientias, — Plin, Nat. Hist, vi, 36. 



Close of 


a Seventh 


Cycle in 


B.C 


688 


U ti 


Sixth 


if 


II 


728 


ft tf 


Fifth 


n 


t«M „ 


788 


»J ft 


Fouilh 


*» 


„ 


848 


n n 


Third 


it 


♦ -,. ♦.4, }f 


d08 


ff ** 


Second 


II 


tt 


968 


11 n 


Fii-st 


» 


-.,♦. .1.* 1) 


1028 


Counted from the beginning 


of the First in ,, 


1087 



2H() 



Book of EbUust, 



ASTEONOMICAL CALENDAE OF SACRED HISTORY ARRANGED ly COX- 
FORMITY WITH ECLIPSES AND SAJ3BATICAL TEARS. 



ii.cr. 




SVMhU. 


U%AML. 


TTms. 




WJ 


. , , . , 


David . . 






& Hirom 




906 


*. i» 




1} . . 








6 


ft 




095 


, , 




II • • 








7 


n 




99-1 


. . 




J) • ' 








8 


** 




993 


. . 


1 Salomon 








9 


tt 




993 


.. 


2 


If •* 








10 


II 1 




991 


* * * t 


3 


ti 








11 


If 




990 


e^bbftticalyr. 


4 


m ♦ * 








12 


M 


c FoitndAHoD ot the t«mpte Iftid Ea 
i %he I2th je«r of Hiitw, 


989 


. . 


5 


n * • 








13 


f» 




988 


. . 





It ♦ • 








14 


l» 




987 


• < 


7 


1* 








16^ 


tt 




986 


• t 


8 


%i * ♦ 








16 


»» 




985 


ii 


9 


M * • 








17 


»' 




984 


* * 


10 


t* " * 








18 


ti 




963 


Sabbaticiiljr. 


11 


» - 








19 


it 


( Building of Solomon's temple cooh 
X likUHlintlielUli jeiriiUiiiKratii. 


982 


Jubilee jear 


12 


»l * * 








20 


ti 


t 12th year Ten moatti. 


981 


« I 1 • 


13 


l» • • 








21 


M 




980 


« « * • 


14 


»» « • 








22 


*J 




979 


w 


15 


»» ' • 








23 


)f 




978 
977 
976 


Sabbatical jT- 


16 

17 
IS 










24 

25 
26 


11 
ft 


r'* Solomon ha^ nt »<« 4 oavT «f 
Tlinrshlth with the oftvy of Ifina 

^ brining poUl, Jind elfft, 

ivory, upcfi, and peacvdEi."^ 


975 


*. 


19 


?! * * 








27 


l» 




974 


.* . * 


20 


Yl 








28 


rt 




973 


.. 


21 


)t * * 








29 


}f 




972 


* • 


22 


♦j 








80 


*j 




971 


». 


23 


Jl • • 








31 


It 




970 


.* 


21 


»l » • 








32 


If 




969 


SBbbatical yr 


25 


it • « 








33 


»* 




vm 


.. 


26 


H ♦ ' 








34 


jt 






Brought from ihe EAft, up Uw EuphmUi, lo Xlpwh. 




Book of Esther. 



IiDTSON^S ASSYBIAK CANON RECKONED IN S0SSE3 OR CYCLES 
OF SIXTY YEARS. 



EsiCAlEf. 



Extract fbom Josipnud contba 
Apiok I, 18. 

'' Mfitutttder wrote the acts tlmt were done 
hy tbo GT^oks and barbarimid under 
everjf one of the Tjmn kings, and hod 
tAken much imine to learn Iho history out 
of their own records. Ko%v when !ie wan 
writiug about these kinps thut hud reigned 
at Tyro, he cume to lliniin, mid Hijit thnt- 
— Upoq \\iQ death of AbibaluP, his son 
nirom took the kingdom. 

*■ Hirom lived 53 tcotp, and re»ign<^d 3 A 
Uuder this king thcp? vim a 
younger ton of Abdotnon, who 
mnatcrod tlie problems whkh 
Solomon, king of JtTueak*m, 
recommended to be solTcd. 

"Now from this king to the 
building of CorthAge u tlvus 
ctdculati^d : — 

*' Bftloazanu lircd 43 yetin 
AbdMtArtiu 



Aaiajtas 

Astojrimus 

FhellcB 

Ithobfilua 

Baalzarufl 

Matgentis 

Pygmalion 



54 

5Q 

46 
32 

56 



reigned 17* 
12 



* Oitt oopiet of JoKiiliu^ re<ul 7, hut tiitopbilufi and S]ni<^tu tc^ 17. 
■ Our CDpici of Joiepttoa vmA 47, dearly tm error for 27. 




*' &o that the whole time from the 
reign of Hirom to the building 

of Carthage is ... , 

"Since then thet<^mplo wna bnilt i\t Jorn«ii^ 
lem in t}io 12fh ye«ir of the resign of 
, Hirom, there were from the building of 
the tern pi I) to the building of Carthag«| 
hm ycare and 8 nionthu." 
Carthago waa dejjtrojed by Scipio — 
In B.O. im i ^PI>''^"/LiTy, 8iiida», So- 
I Iiiiiis and Oroaiua. 
700 Mu^v the foundation. 

B.a. 846 Foundation of Carthaae. 
143 8m. 

Bc^89 8 / ^<^"'^*l'^*ion of Solomon'a 



^^^^^^^^M 


^^^^M 








^^^^^^^^^^^^M 




^^^^^^^H 






^^^^^^1 


^^^^H 






1^^^^^^^^^ 




282 


Book of EHher. 


1 




iSTEONOmCAL CALENUAB OF SACKED HTSTOKY-eonfiiMiJlH 




B.C. 


EOUFtlt A3CD 


JO]>AD. 


IlUIL. 


Tim. 




087 


i » 


27 SoIomoD 






I Baakanu 


■ 




966 


.. 


28 „ 






8 


■ 




065 


<« 


29 ,. 






3 ,. 


■ 




964 


• * 


30 „ 






* 


■ 




963 


.. 


31 „ 






6 „ 


■ 




962 


Sabbftticalyr. 


32 „ 






e „ 


■ 




961 




83 „ 






7 „ 


■ 




960 


.i 


81 ., 






8 ,. 


■ 


\ 


950 


« « ■ • 


85 „ 






9 ., 


■ 




968 


« • f • 


36 „ 






10 ,. 


■ 




967 


«. 


87 .. 






11 






956 


.» 


3S „ 






12 .. 






965 
95i 


SabbaUcaljT. 


39 „ 

40 




• • 


IS „ 
1* .. 


rithob&l, father of Jetebel 1 
I (Joscphtu O0D. Aploa I, lt4 




953 


• • ft 


1 Bohoboom 


1 J«roboun 


15 


S«ceMlaa of Ui» Ttei IMMi^ 




962 


«• * * 


3 .. 


3 .. 


16 ., 






961 
950 
949 


ft *• 

• • * * 


3 „ 
6 .. 


3 „ 

* " 1 
5 ,. 


IT ,. 
flAbdiiHar- 
1 tu« 
3 » 






946 


SabbaticftlTT. 


6 „ 


6 „ 


3 „ 






9^7 


.* 


7 „ 


7 .. 


* .. 






946 1 


* * •• 


8 „ 


8 „ ^ 


6 „ 






946 


* * t « 


9 „ 


.. * 


6 „ 






944 


« « * * 


W „ 


10 » 


7 ., 






948 


** 


11 ,, 


11 » 


8 ,. 






942 


.. 


12 „ 


12 ., 


9 „ 






941 


Subbftticnl jr. 


18 >, 


18 „ 


1 Aatartus 






040 


.• 


U „ 


1* ,, 


2 






969 


.t 


16 .. 


IB ., 


3 




( 


93S 


.. 


16 „ 


16 


4 




^m * The date of JeTOh(mm"» 


= W> VKtoTc llM >iVn\\ •A CbiU (MMt. 1, 17), endfoK la i.c. «. 



Book of Esihen 
BAWLXHBOK'B AflffTBIAV OAKOIT— uohMnmI. 



B«*T. 


Bdui^ 


IShMhonU 


OrSUdiak. | 


2 „ 




8 „ 




4 „ 




5 „ 




6 „ 




7 ., 


Jerol)atmfledto8Uiliik...."imtUtlMdwUiofSolomoii.'' (1 Klagt xl, 40.) 


a ,, 




9 ,. 




„ 




1 ., 




2 ,. 




8 „ 




6 „ 


f "It cuna to pui tlitt la the fifth jtM of king Behoboun, SbUbtk king of 
(. EgTpt came np tgaiiut Jenualem." (2 Chion. zii, 2.) 


6 „ 




7 „ 




8 „ 




9 „ 


» 


,, 




1 „ 




lOrorchonl 


Or Zenb, Ung of Bthlopla. 


2 „ 




8 „ 




* „ 







■ 


n 


EH 






^^^H 


^^^^^^^H ^^^^^^^^^H 








J 






^^ 281 


Book of Esther. ^H 




ASTRONOinOAL CALKNDAR OF SAOBED jnSTOnr-^niimtfd. f 




i*G. 


EoUtfM AKD 

Sabbatical Tw. 


Jtrtua. 


UBASt. 


Tnm. 




937 


** • « 


1 Abijab .. 


17 tTcroboatii 


6 Astartiu 


J 




906 


.* 


2 „ •. 


18 ,. 


6 „ 


■ 




935 


• * * 4 


3 „ ., 


19 ., 


7 „ 


■ 




934 
933 


Sabbatical jr. 
Jubilee yeiir 


1 \m 


20 ,. 

21 Nndiib . 




8 

9 „ 


; ProbBble dat« of the blnli3 
I aoQ-lti-Uw of IthoboJ. ■ 




932 


«• * f 


3 „ 


28 „ 




10 „ 


1 




981 


• » 1 . 


4 „ 


lB*Mlw, 




11 .. 


^ 




030 


• • « • 


5 ,, .* 


2 ,. 




la .. 


■ 




929 


• * 


6 „ 


3 ,. 




1 Aatiuiiuii* 


■ 




928 


.* 


7 ,» ,. 


* ,. 




2 „ 


■ 




027 


Sabb&licaljT. 


8 „ •- 


5 „ 




3 » 


■ 




926 

92& 


,. 


,. .. 

10 „ 


6 „ 

7 „ 




6 „ 


f ProbBblfi birth of Je«cbd, Abq 
\ of ItliobBl, when )i« wia 81 , 
I old. 




924 


■ « It 


11 n 


8 ,. 




8 ,, 




923 


* » • « 


12 „ 


a ., 




7 „ 


fl 




922 


,* 


13 » 


10 „ 




8 „ 


■ 




921 


• 4 « i 


14 ,, 


11 .. 




9 ,, 






920 


Sabbatical jT. 


15 „ 


13 „ 




PhcllC9 




CoTeuBQt renewed. (SGliraii.ii 




919 


• • • t 


16 „ 


13 „ 




1 Kbobs] 




Fflllier of Jc«bd now 3T jwi > 




918 


.* 


17 „ 


14 » 




2 „ 








917 


.. 


18 „ 


15 „ 




3 ., 




^ 




916 


.« 


Ifi ,, - 


16 „ 




4 ., 




■ 




015 


** 


20 „ 


1? „ 




s ,. 




■ 




914 


,4 


21 „ - 


18 „ 




6 ., 




■ 




913 


Sabbatical jr. 


22 „ 


19 ., 




7 M 




■ 




912 


.. 


23 „ 


20 „ 




8 „ 




■ 




911 


■ t * « 


24 ,, 


21 ,. 




9 .. 




■ 


1 


910 1 


i* 


25 „ 


22 „ 




10 „ 




V 


1 


900 


1 • * « 


26 ,, .. 


23 „ 




U ,. 




^ 


11 


908 


.. 


27 „ 


1 Elsh 




12 „ 




f Ahab. *iy tt tbc Bge offS^lB 
I .Iczebcl^ ji»j at Xl> 






Hook of Esthei\ 



BAWXIHSON'S ASSYRIAN CAlJiON^^onimMfd. 



i 



am. 


EFOsrYHocn AmcHDni. 


Ahtru. 


Eoirr. 


BAUkMRM. 


ai 








SOwtTCliata 




32 








6 „ 




33 








7 .. 




U 








8 „ 


* 


35 








9 .. 




36 
87 








10 i. 

11 „ 


w~ 


39 


--P» 








13 „ 
13 ., 


fZt'tnK the EUiiopiaD, tame w, 
' iirm J igalmt A» JtluK of 4 
^ {2 Chum, X 


io 


. , . . Mt^ . ... 








li .. 


VJ -. .. 


41 


« , • , mu , . , * 

• » . , iden . , . * 








15 ., 

; 1 Shofthonk 
1 11 


« * •• 


4A 


-••git 








* » 


.- 


u 


Muha .. .. tim 








3 ,. 


• • 


4S 


Afiur-dun ,, 








* » 


« * .1 


46 


Anordini . . 








C ,. 


- 


47 


Mm 








6 „ 


• • 


4S 


Abu-ilya 








7 « 


> 


49 


AMOr-Uggil , . 








8 „ 


- 


50 


Amur 








., 


«• •• 


51 


.. 






10 ,. 


.. 


as 


.. 






li „ 


• . 


5d 


.. 






12 ,. 


; 


54 
55 


, ... ear ... . 








13 „ 
11 « 


( AaaklnfT of Judah WTidn prtsenl* to 
J BcntwdadfcliigofSjrta. {1 Kingi 


5G 


Ninip-iir-ipus 








15 „ 




57 


Dabokw . . . , ya 








16 „ 




58 


A»UT-I»kin-ili 








17 ,. 


1 1 


59 


Tagulti-ttiiiip 




1 TugiiUi- 
uiuip 


19 ., 




60 


Taggil-ana-belija 




3 „ •■ 


10 „ 







■ 


ri 




f^ 


1 


^H 


^^^H 




^B^^H^^H 








■ ■ 




^^^^^1 












iJoo^ q/* Esther. ^M 




286 




ASTEOKOMICAL OAIENDAB OP SACRED HISTORY— confiZafl 




BX. 


Eglipbsb Aim 

SaBIUTICALYM 


3uj>ku, 


IMAIL. 


Tl»t, 




m 


Sabbatic&l jr. 


28 Asa 


. SElah 




UltUotwl.. 






906 


.. 


29 „ 


1 Zimri 




1* » .. 


'M 




905 


. . 


SO „ 


. 2 „ 




16 „ .. 


■ 




904 


4 , t ■ 


81 u 


. 3 „ 




16 „ . . 


■ 




903J 


yrdJidy t 


32 „ 


. 1 Omri 


__ 


17 „ .. 


■ 




£>02 


. . 


33 „ 


• 2 .. 




18 „ .. 


<■ 




901 


«, 


34 „ 


• 3 „ 




19 „ .. 


■ 




900 


1 < . »• 


35 „ 


■ * ., 




30 „ .. 


■ 




899 


Sftbbotiealjr. 


36 „ 


. 6 „ 




21 „ .. 


■ 


^^H 


m% 


*. 


37 „ 


. e „ 




22 „ .. 


•■ 




mi 


,. 


38 n 


. 7 „ 




23 „ .. 


■ 




mm 

8do 


., 


39 „ 

40 ,, 


. lAlmb 
. 2 „ 




2-t „ .. 
28 „ .. 


( There waa fnnune in th 
1 1 tht beginning of Ah 
I OK 




894 


. . 


il M 


. 8 ,. 




26 „ 




89a 

892 
891 


Sabbatical yr. 


iJoliosapb 

3 M 


at 4 „ 
6 ,, 




27 „ .. 

28 „ .. 

29 „ .. 


reign of Itbobal. 
t (JoMph. An 




980 


4« 


4 „ 


7 „ 




80 „ .. 






889 




6 » 


8 „ 




31 „ .. 


' 




8S8 

887 


.. 


6 ., 

7 „ 


]0 „ 




33 „ .. 


(lUiulval, kinff of Tyi 
■{ Ji^ebol, diM at tb 
( (JoAcphiu ton. Aplo 




886 


.. 


8 „ 


11 ,. 




2 » 






885 


Sabbatical yr. 


9 » 


X2 „ 




3 ,, 


■ 




88^ 


Jubilee year 


10 „ 


18 » 




* » 


■ 




88B 


1 i I • 


11 „ 


14 .. 




6 ,. 


m 




832 


*. 


12 „ 


15 „ 




6 „ 


■ 




681 


.. 


13 „ 


16 „ 




1 Mjtgenui 


■ 




S80 


<. 


u ., 


17 „ 




2 » 


■ 




879 


*. «• 


16 n 


18 „ 




8 „ 


■ 




878 


Sabbatical jr. 


16 „ 


19 ,. 


.. 4, „ 


■ 


W U2 

L ^"'' 


Note.— It amy he obscrreA that tb 
vr,-=The ami'^uppoTtS'ihe lord, or k 
mouaoed to he jnv^udQUi to tbekln 


Gi total Bolftr eclipse of m.c. &8& occurFed ia year 0f a^^^| 
ing . U iru ^ftx^iil 4t Kinereb, m^ of the fame character ■■ 01 

1 



J5i>o* of Esther. 



887 



£roittiiot7« Aacsojci, 



AifTUA. 



EOTPT, 



Abtt-ili-ja • • 

Yuri , . 
AiiUf^Boxib'diii 



AMur*iiiuir^piil 
AatOT'ldin . . 
SiiEmtti-akii . . 
* • t ■ uuna^amga 

Ninippija-usur 
Niiiip-bel*uziir 
Siiiigu*aMur-lilbur 
Sunaa-ablft ., 
Hib^-bel-ktuaua 
Qurdi-tt«5ur , . 
JL&ttiT-liha , , 
Afsiir-natgil . . 
BfLstim-damig 
Doyim-ninip. . 
I*tar-iddiia .. 
Sluntts-nun .. 
Maanu-daaD'ana-ili 
SttmiUkbdl-iuur 
Kmip-ilai , , 
Nuup-cdur-aimi 
Awiir^iki . * 
NibAtnska-daiii 
D&ba-bel , . 
Sdr-mfthcr-uisi 



8ftliiiuui*uiur II 



|3T%ailti- 



nimp 



4 

5 

6 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

B 



10 

11 

12 

13 

1\ 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

2% 

its 

24 

25 
1 



20SlteiWtikn 

21 ,. 

22 „ 

23 ,. 

24 „ 

25 „ 

I Osorelion \l 
3 » 

3 M 

'^ n 

5 » 

6 I, 

7 » 

8 n 

9 n 

10 „ 

II „ 

12 „ 

13 „ 

11 ,1 

15 ,. 

16 » 

17 ., 
ITuielloihijs 

9 

-^ jf 

3 „ 

5 ,. 

6 „ 

7 „ 



■^ Total iolar eclipse tliird Julj^ 
ptirtiallj vbible in Armenia, 
in the tLrst year of Asstir- 

^ naxirpaL 



!l 

^1 



61 



"S 5. 




'Total edjp«e thirteenth Jutj-, 

ningaitude^ 0-83, Nortli, I'i rwr* 
II daya beforu tbe ccUpM Oi 

^ D.o. ee7|» Titlbi© »& Nineveh. 



J in forrcctiou of ttic luai4f llicor)% 



' rs and I i iliiya Iwrore tho total cciftMc of b.c, ^,7 on 
I total «c2tjffii! of u.c, Iftth August 310» In tho tlrnff 
yean S3 dars. AH the*e »Up«et ttiiis veil UeHuod 



■ 


1 


F 




B 


^^1 


H 2SH 


Book of 


Esther, 


M 


k 


ASTEONOmCAL CALENDAR OF SACRED HI STORY- ranlAwi^^H 


f 


B.C. 


EOUFSM AXP 

SABSATfOALYka 


JtDAU, 


Uaaku 


Tt»s. 


BsitAiKa* ^^1 


877 
876 
875 


., 


17Jehogapliar 
10 


20 Ahab . . 

21 r, 

22 „ 


5 Myt genua 

6 

7 


f Ahflb takes B4inhaa«il |>HMiaRV 

t (1 Rings, XX, 34,) 

fTlirec yoitra of peace, ttli 

I xxlU.> W 


I 


874 


,. 


20 


1 Ahaxkl) 


8 


ID«*Ui of Ahab, it Raaiotti Gib 
1 &t tiu! age, sajr, gf 6»t ia »,e« S 


H 


673 


. , 


21 


1 Joram , . 


9 ,, 




■ 


872 


.. 


^ n 


o 


1 Pygmalion 


I klDg of Mofrb. (2Elaf9UL| 


H 


671 


SttbboticalTT. 


23 „ 


3 „ .. 


o 


«| 


H 


870 


.* i. 


24 „ 


4 ,. .. 


3 „ 


■ 


H 


869 


.. 


25 „ 


B ., .. 


4 ,. 


'■ 


H 


868 


* . 11 


1 JelioraiH 


6 „ .. 


6 


■ 


^^■^ 


S67 


*. 


2 M 


7 „ .. 


6 


■ 


^P 


666 


. . 


3 „ 


8 ,. ,. 


7 n 


^ 


^^H 


865 


.. 


4 .. 


9 .. .. 


8 


■ 


I 


864 


Sttbbatical jr. 


6 ., 


10 „ .. 





I 


H 


863 


t * 


6 „ .. 


n „ .. 


10 


1 


1 


662 


.. 


1 Aliuiuh. . 


12 „ .. 


11 


f Death of luebot. tA ttle tltvlNi 
(. HMaet anoinU'd king of Sjiia. 


V 


861 


All Millar 1 
EcUpee I 


1 AtUalinli 


1 John . , 


12 . 


i Jehu fttioint^Hl khig vt 1— 
I (2 KlDgs, ix, e.> ^^H 


1 . 


SCO 


.. 


3 .. 


3 „ .. 


13 


'^1 


B 


8uO 


. . 


3 


3 „ 


14 


fl 


1 


858 


. . 


* ,. 


i ,, 


15 


^ 


M 


857 


Sabbatical 3 r. 


6 


s ,. .. 


16 


H 


I 


856 


*» 


6 ., 


„ 


17 


fl 


H 


855 


, . 


IJi-hoBsh. . 


7 ., 


18 


fl 


■ 


854 


. . 


a M 




8 ,. .. 


19 


H 


r 


853 


. * 


3 .. 




9 .. .. 


20 


H 




852 


. . 


* ,. 




10 „ 


21 „ 


H 


j_ 


851 


. . 


5 „ 




11 „ .. 


22 


H 


k 


850 


Sttbbatioajr, 


fi ,. 




12 ,. 


23 


■ 


I 


849 


.. 


7 .. 




13 „ 


24 , „ 


H 


1 1 


848 


,, 


8 ,. . 




11 ., 


25 


V 




' After ihtf year »,€, 874, noticing mofo la said coowji 
'0 the year of hia dmUi, because llaiatA axA 3«\vu wn \i 
».^, SGI. 




• recKtTM thirteen year* atlffr, flfl 





^^^H Book of 


Esther. 


289 


a 


^^^^ BAWLINSOJTS ASSYRIAN CANON— coh/iimmh*. ^^ 


1 

r 


Kroimioui AacBom. 


Amzbia. 


EorvT. 


BSKASU. 




Aamr'bol-k&m 


(2 8halmaii-l 
\ ezet I 


STtkketlothu 




1 
1 


Abn'ma^ekul-lLlbur « 


3 

4 

5 






} confedemcy wiUi j(Aa6, who fur- 
) fijjii«d 10,000 mi-O towm-ds the 
L ftnay, in »,c. 87&, 






Samae-aHua .. ., 


6 


II 


u „ 








Sm&iiA-bcl-uzujr 


7 


f] 


13 








BeUbatiai « . 
Hode-tibuBu , . 


8 
9 


ti 


14 ,. 
IB „ 


r K«llp«Q of th« moon on 24tli Mesori, 
\ in IJ>th year of TjLkellotlLia s 
C 17ih Marth, u.l. 870. 






NibaUalik-pfttii 
EBdu'raman . . 


10 
11 


If 


16 „ 

17 „ 


Dcffftt of Denhiilnd in ».c, 860. 
1^' " In my ekrenth yuar, DetihAdAd uf 
•J DunftMiu. isd twelve kings of tbe 
C HlttftoivittWgllicowlihtmiMJves, * 






Kimp-mulLiii-niai . « 
Ninip-nodin-iua 


12 
13 




18 

( 1 Shrahonk 
\ HI 
2 .1 


( EdipM of mo, iaruible &t NincTch, 
-J 6S7 yen™ hefoMs ttie edipeo of 
( Agfttbodea, B.C. SIO. 






Aasur-bimai , . 


14 


tj 








Babu-uinip .. 


15 


ft 


8 .. 








Taggil-ana-Mui 


16 


1* 


4 ., 


D«Rth of Beobadad. 






Fhttl-utal-aiJtiJ 

Bel-abua 

SalubeMamur 


17 
18 
19 


II 
11 


7 .. 


/-"In mr IStii year (a.o, WIX fw 
) tbe lixth time, Vam Euphntn I 
1 ^^Ttiiftftd^ Dajuftd of OAmsictiJ lo 
K battle came," Jehu jwiys tribute. 






Hinip-Upsi- uxur 
Kimp-ilai , . 
Qordi-aMur « . 


20 
21 
22 


1) 
n 


9 „ 
10 „ 


r" In my twcnty-flrfet campalgii, to 
the cities of Uazael of rJiiinn4<;tui 

h{ 1 went; triliur* of tbo Tyriaoa, 
the Zidunlons, aad Gcbalit««, 1 

[^ rroeivcd." 






Kiri'sar 


23 


t* 


" ,. 


^1 

I! 

la- 


■ 


f 


Nib&t-auiD'dAmiq . . 


24 


ti 


12 ., 


^ 


1 


Yahala 


2S 


n 


13 ., 




f 


mulai 


20 


n 


I'i .. 




» 


Barpati^bel , . 


27 


M 


15 „ 




r 


Kergal-iki . . 


28 


tf 


16 „ 


'l 




1 


Hubai 


29 


i» 


17 .. 






r 


Hukin-uzuF . * 


30 


»* 


18 


f Totttl edipae, flfHi Auirust, morning, 




^ 


SaliiEiaii-uzur II 


31 


" 


w „ 


r*'ln iny thirty-flratyear, ttie wooad 
\ tliac the Cyclical FeaaL"" 




Maofiuur, chief of the pftlikce (?), ear ^ the ng 
^ BtuunaB-Phal, wy at tbe »«e of 84, shortly \ 
BkkDiberldn of ilie palace, then* h ijothlmf imjirc 
mh used to thhpassa^-e h ai-rur, from ITJ, " 
Mr AMjrrULn Gn^mmttr, p. 2L 

i r 


ft of 30, in thP y 
tcforf hl« dcaU), 
babjt^ in this. 
Lo move Ld a jclfd 


V.N 





21»U Book of Eatl^r. 

ASTRONOMICAL CALENDAB OF SACRED HISTORY— eonltiNwrf* 



1.0, 




JODAIl. 




Ttl». 


«-„ 




S47 




gJeboMk. 


15 Jehu . . 


26FjgiiialioD 






&46 


,. 


10 ,, .. 


16 „ .. 


27 „ 


fOvtluctt ooloolMd bfdu litlorof 




S46 


.. . ., 


n .. .. 


17 .. 


29 „ 






SU 


.. 


12 „ .. 


18 „ .. 


29 „ 






848 


eabbfttlcHiljr. 


13 „ ,. 


19 „ .. 


80 „ 






842 


« • #* 


w „ .. 


20 .. .. 


81 „ 






841 


.« 


15 „ .. 


21 „ .. 


32 „ 






840 




16 » .. 


22 „ .. 


S3 






839 


.1 


17 M .. 


83 „ .. 


84 „ 






838 


.. 


18 ,1 .. 


24 .. .. 


35 ., 






837 


,. 


19 », .. 


25 „ .. 






830 


Sabbatical jT. 


20 „ ., 


26 „ .. 






835 


Jubilee jear 


21 „ .. 


27 „ .. 






834 


1 .. 


22 „ .. 


28 „ 






833 


I ■ t • 


23 „ .. 


1 Johoahac 






832 


*• 


24 „ .. 


2 






831 


1 w « * 


25 „ .. 


3 „ 








830 


< * « * 


26 „ .. 


4 „ 








829 


Sabbttticiwljr. 


27 », .. 


5 „ 








828 


, . 


28 „ .. 


6 „ 








827 


.* 


29 „ *. 


7 „ 








826 


.* 


|80 „ ., 


8 „ 








82^ 


t < * * 


31 ,1 .. 


8 ., 








824 




32 „ .. 


10 „ 








823 




33 „ ., 


11 „ 








822 


Sabbatical jr. 


34 „ .. 


12 .. 








821 


.. . f 


35 „ .. 


18 „ 




% 




820 


« . 


36 „ .. 


u „ 








819 


• > •• 


37 „ ., 


15 „ 




1 


818 


.. 


38 „ ,. 


16 „ 




I 





' The coloDj of CirlhA^ wm foandej hj ih« ti4Un- of FjinnAllcm Id tlae twimtx-wifetitb je«r of Uis f^ | 
{JoKptus con. ApUm I, Igji, 700 yt%x% befoTt \i vu deetr^y^d hy Sdplo tii i.e. il6» and 144 /Mn «IWr IBfAama^^I 
the hitadntion or che temple of JcnitidQiu. 



■ 


^1 


^^^^^H 




^^^^l^l^^^^^l 


■ 


^^^^^B 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^■HH ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 




^^^^HH ^^^^^1 


■ 


■ 


iSw>* of Either. 291 


] 


^^^^ RAVVLINSON'S ASSYEIAN CA^ON-c*o«^/i.iM!d. 


1 


e. 


SOM. 


Eronnopf Aicrtoj^f . 


AtiniA. 


EffllfT. 




1 




1 


Bsyiin-aBBur. . 


3S SbcJjxiLSjj' 
ezer 


£0 Sheabonk 
UI 




■ % 


Aj§ur-bftni-u2ur 


. 33 „ 


21 .. 








3 


Yahalu 


34 . 


22 ,. 








4 


Bel-Umu .. 


, 35 


23 








5 


\ 


f 


m 


tt. 


6 
7 


o 




1 


1 


8 




BfiTolt of AjiBur-danm-pal, or Sardimapflluj 


1 


f 





1 ^ 


Ab7d«DU«, Arm. EuMb. Audi., p. S9.) 


1 


18 


10 


- B.C. 8-^. 






11 

IS 


1 1 
. 1.1 < 


- 




)6 


13 
14 
15 










IS 

11 


16 

17 
18 


1 a 


Pbul and Arbac^s, or Moeliufl and Arbaces conspire 




» 


19 


•S -2 


agoinat, and con(|neT SardaTxapalua. The Mcdes then 




16 


20 
21 


1 ^. 

S 3 


reigned 80-4 jears, till tbe time of Darius B.C. 621 

-B.a 825 




22 
23 


— MegoathencB (Trana*, vol. i, p. 262.) 
Annular eclifwe, 6tb October, i}.c\825, partinll/ rUibl©, 






S4 


; \ 


wbeu Sliamag-Pbtil defeated Sardanapalus at Nlncieh. 




IP 


SlumiM'Fhult 


/ 1 Shanijw- 
\ Pbul 


44 Shoahonk 
UI 






■^ 


Yahalu 


S M 


« .. 


.I^^H 


r 


27 


Bel-duui .« 


3 ,, 


« ,. 


^^1 


D 


28 


5uiip-ublft ., 


4 M 


47 „ 




^ 


9 


SB 


Sbamaa-ilai «, 


5 „ 


*8 „ 




1 


S 


30 


Kibat-ilni . . 


6 ,, 


*9 „ 




J 


I The original haido of Shamajn Phui 
t/t/kf bid eoafedeti&te Arbocea dc'strcd 


, may baT« been Bel-uzur, thAt la BeleayB, or Belocbu^, Alter repeated 
to tQuke peftc«« BelesjB tben coii«ult«il tbe itw^ and beUvBc Ckvo\lxti4in!0 
d October i.c, Wlb, took the tlUe SlumiB4'^^ii\]imUt QU£ut\A\:bkA^Eaqail 


1 



292 



Book of Esther, 



I 



Judging from the very frequent use of the word Shamas 
(Sun-Gofl) in the compound names of public officers during 
the period wo have been examining, it may be inferred that 
the worship of the eim waa pecuUarly prevalent at this 
period of the Assyrian empire, Assurnazirpal points to the 
*'Sim-Gud'* as casting his propitious shadow upon him, 
Shalmanezer n styles himBcIf ** Sun-God '* {Records of the 
Past, voL ill, p, 83), and his son Shamas-Phul styles himself 
ruler of the **Southt?rn Sun," w^iuse seat is at Calah (vol, i, 
p. 12). It will also be observed that, according to the 
foregoing un-angemeiit of dates, after insertion of the years 
of revolt under Sardnnapaliis, kings take their thrones, uud 
eponymous prefects tiike tiieir titles in years of total or 
annular eclipse of the sun, thus :^^ 



Total solar eclipse 3rd July, 903, 
jiartiiiily viMibltj at Niueveb, 

Small solar eelijise 4th Jul}% 895. 

Total Si.>lai' ecn\me 9th Feb., 887. 

Total aolar eclipae l^th-Julj, 886, 
imrtially viaible at Nineveh. 

TotiJ solar eclijme 1st Mitrch, 878, 
largo at Nineveh (if). 

Annular eclipse 22iid Apnl, 872. 

Total Bolar eclipse 4th August, 849. 

Annular ecli]>Be 2Gth Sept,, 843. 
Annuliir eclijjfie 6th Oct., 825. 

Total solar echpse 8th Jan., 819. 



I 



Assui'uazii'pal takea the throne. 

Sliamna-ubla prefect. 
Shama^nnrl „ 

Shama^bel-uzxtr », 

Shalmanezer takes the throne. 

Sham^is-beJ-uzur prefect 
Shalmanezer on the throne, inau^- 

ratea a Second Cjele, 848. 
Saixlanapalus revolts. 
Shaniaa-Phiil consults the stars, aiid 

restoi'ea the monarchy- 
Shanias-ilai prefect. 



All these eelipses apparently i?houId be found by com- 
putation to have been viBible at Nineveh. Astronomers, 
perhaps, may think them wurthy of theii' consideration in 
the reconstruction of the lunar theory. 





I 



J. 

'J* 



^ 



s 



■^.h- 



203 



INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS AT THE TEMPLE 
OF EL-KHAKGEH, 

By S. Biroft, LCD. 

Read Uh Janrnty, 1676. 

[Amongst the valuable collection of drawings, notee, 
"emoranda, and copies of inscriptioiig made by the late Mr. 
Robert Hay, of Linplura, dnring liiB journey and stay ill 
Egypt about the years 1828-1832» are Bome copies that he 
made of the iuscriptiona at tlie teiuple of Amnion at 
H-Khargeh, the ancient oasis of Ammon, lying to the west of 
Egypt, in the Libyan desert, in the 26** N. Lat, This site 
liad been repeatedly visited by travellers in the preeeut 
century, amongst them M. CailHaud/ who published an 
accoiuit of his journey antl some ot the cartouches or royal 
names found on the walls ; subsequently by Minutoli,^ both 
of wldeb travellers gave some of the principal repreaenta- 
tions and some details of the seulptm'es on the walls. The 
Journey of Sir Arebil>ald Edmouston to the oasis, published 
at the same time as Cailliaud'w,* gave only plans, views, and 
a map of the site and piineipal temples of the locality* 
Lately a scientitic expedition by M,M. Rolills and Reniele has 
penetrated again to the oasis, and brought back valuable 
copies of inscriptions on that site, amongst others of some 
proving the existence of the names of two monarchs of the 
Persian dynasty called Darius.'* 

As the present iuscri]ition has no prenomen of Darius, 
but the name only, it ia not possible to determine to which 
of the Persian dynasties it is to be referred, but possilily to 
the elder Darius or Hystaspes, who treated the Egyjitian 

Voynge k Toasis de Thebes. PariB, 1822. 

* Keiao zum Temple d. Jupiter Amiuon in der libjachen WQatc* Berlin, 1834. 
' A Journey to two of the Oases. London, 1822, 

• Prof. LepsiuB, Zeitschrifl fiir. fig) pt. Spn, 1874, s. 73* 



294 Inscnpfion of Dari^ts at the Temph of El^Khargeli* 



deities wth honour, and endeavoured to atttich the Egyptians 
to his sway by the reverence he showed for the principal 
deities of the Pantheon. That the Persians did not altogether 
abhor the Egyptian religion* may be instanced by theii* 
removal of statues to Persepolis and elsewhere, and the deri- 
vative introduction of Egyptian deities and other emblems 
into their art. Nor was the Egyptian religion altogether 
dissimilar, for it exhibited as the Persian the antagonistic 
powers of nature, the solar light contending vdth the shades 
of darkness, and the contest of good and evil, Egyptian 
mythology, too» had become more eclectic, or less reticent of 
its esoterism, and the present hjrmn, one of the most remark- 
able yet found, adikessed to the god at Thebes, the deity of 
the oasis, identifies Amen with nature itself and all the 
principal gods of the Egyptian Panthetjn, It is the most 
pantheistic of those yet found, and the nearust approach to 
the idea of the monotheism of tme deity manifested by 
different types in the chief cities of Egypt, the ultimate or 
leading fii*st manifestations being that of the god Amen. It 
is therefore no wonder that the Persians accepted his woi-ship 
and honoured his fane, the more so as the attempt to reach 
the oasis by their armies had signally failed under Cambyses. 
After Alexander the Great had subdued the East, the Ea«t 
conquered him j and fascinated with the splendour of Persian 
c<.mrts and Egyptian myths, he visited the Oasis, and adopted 
the title of the eon of Amen, that used by the ancient 
Pharaohs to indicate their direct descent fi*om the god of 
Thebes, subsequently converted uito the mystic narrative ot 
the serpent and Olympias, and the magical legend of the 
descent of the heroic monarch from Neotanebok It \» 
probable that an allusiou to the fountain occurs in this in- 
scription in luie \\ where *^ the young //aji," or celestial waters, 
and *'the old mau^^ or liquid element, are mentioned, as they 
are again at line 30. It will be remembered that Khnum, or 
Chnumis, was the deity of the water, the ram*lieaded and 
demiurgic type of Amen, and as such president over the 
element of water, represented in the lists of the foor elements 
by Han or Nut, fiirsome recent discoveries identify the two 
words as the same in the name of the god ol the celestial 



jpefer 



hi script wn of Daviujt at the Temple of El-KJiargeh, 295 

water or ether, Tlie old and young waters may ooneequently 
to the different temperatures of the celebrated fountain, 

Uuding to the mineral waters iliscovered on the spot. The 
oracle at the spot was said to have been often couHulted^ but 
!Llly lost its reputation 8u1jBoqnent to Alexander the Great, 

Jthough it must havi? fluurifthed at tlie time of Doriun, wlio 
invokes the protection of the god against his enemies. The 
oracular powers of Amen Ra occasionally are mentioned, aud 
the inscriptions testify to Ids according power, victory, 
dominion, long lif^a, and other advantages to his votaries and 
the monarch 8 who consulted him. 

The inscription, wliicli is inedited, was copied from the 

Outh-westem wall of the second chamber of the temple. 

Phe represeutatiims which occur after tlie first line are those 
of the four elements divided into the male and female 
principle, and described by M, Lopains in a paper written by 
him for the Berlin Academy.* They are represented snako- 
headod and frog-headed, holding their hands up in adoration. 
They are as follows : — 



ines 2 — 4 




Nu 


water, mah\ 


Nu t 


water, femnh. 


Hehu . . 


fire, nutk. 


Hehut .. 


Bre, female. 


Kaldu 


earthy male. 


• Kakiu t . . 


earth, female. 


Karh 


air, male. 


Karht .. 


air, female. 



In this series they follow the accustomed order, and 
have their usual names, the only exception being that 
of instead of the word T^ "^ naii, for * air,' the inscription 
of El-Khargeh gives ^, J *-j karh. This word has no philo- 
logical analogy with any of the Egyptian expressive of air. 
It has been supposed to mean *care*;* the word nearest to 



* Ueber die Q^dtter d. vier Elomenteti, in the Abhaiidlungen. d, K. Akftd. d. 
Wiflsofich. Beryu. 4to, 1850, 

' Plejt«, Eiudet Egjptieuur", p. 118« 



296 Tnseriptian of Darius at t/ie Temple of El-KJtanjt'L 



it in eoiiDil is karfu * the night/ The inscription confiistfl of 
forty-six lines, and contains the address of the Elements to 
the god Amen liii. It has been numbered in the copy 
invei-sely, the 4fith being the fij'St line. It is of the nature ot 
some of the hymns already published and relating to that 
god« It is as follows: — 
1. Said by the adorers in prapng to their father Araen 

Ra, lord of Hah/ great god, powerfiil with the scimetar, 
5* in his type of Ra* to » . , self-prodnced,^ his 

bones of silver, his skin of gold, his head of real lapis, 

his joints of tin-quoise, a perfect god, making his body, 

giving birth to 

6. it. He has not come out of a womb, he has come ont 

of cycles ; he has given tight to the world [and] the 
, circle of the gods is adoring before him ; they pro- 

claim him to the height of heaven, [they] adore the on^ 
giving birth to liis birtli. He has passed 

7. the secret places, they rejoice at him under their diving 

tj'pes, they are carefnl to make their adorations to 
the bull. We pray to him in [our abodes], we worship 
his words in their [places]. We adore him 

8. in the form of hands. They acknowledge his majesty as 

their lord, for the gi'eatness of his type is the greatest 
of all of them. He has had a title of .... [heaven] 
earth and waters Amen the firm in all things, that 
noble 

9. god, the earth came from his devices, regulating each for 

the gods, old age and youth, procession, age, mystical 

w^ere the causes,^ acute the extendtid his 

favours, his limbs in the air of heaven upon his yonthfnl 
head, the water under his 
10. head, a child the water under his feet,* the plumes of 
a hawk on his head, he confines the winds luider the 
boat of Manu" when he goes to the unknown region of 
the mornhig. The apes of Thoth^ adore, saying oh 



I 



I 
I 



' The Oaftis. - Thi 

* Gnj!)«ut, Hjnine ik Ammou, p. liii, * 
^ HeinU. '" UncertjiiD phra«e. 



Sun. 

&olf - 1 nin^f or m od . 




Inscription of Darius at the Temple of EUKhartjefu ^f)7 

11- the god in the disk conc*eaHng himself in his hody, 
the soul glearaing from his two symboUc mortal eyes, 
the tjTpe of types, the honoured, not falling to hiB 
enemies, giving light to his transformation, he supports 
them by the hght of his two mystical eyes, imkno\^ii is 

12. his Hail to thee in the bosom of the heaven, 

ordering thy divine births, the god Truth is united to 
thy mystical throne. Honoured has been thy image by 
thy loverSj thou hast shone, distributing the hght 

13. in the morning, thou hast circled the two lands in thy 
gleaming. Thou hast touch e<l at the hill of the land of 
Akar/ the types in it aflore, the light of the body 
producing thy beams, has been illumined* the bosom of 
the jackals hauling tliy l^oat in the hidden gap 

14. of the land of Sesen,^ and the Spirits of the West* adoiing 

thee, they tremble at thee at the light of thy disk. 
The spirits of the land of Pu* salute thee at the 
appearance of thy light. Thou shinest m their faces, 
thou traversest 

15. thy two heavens ; annihilated are thy opponents. They 
open the house of thy majesty ; tame are the crocodiles, 
qtliet are the herons in waters the of thy boat ; thou 

hast the fish. Horns has pierced Set, his 

arrow is in him. He has conf]uered heaven and earth 

16. in his destruction, and his pursuit. Prevaihng by over- 
throwing his opponent, he a sword 

, * Akar saves him, he makes Ids companion 

hidden he • him ; his eye 

17. gives them light from him, it feeds off flame of fire. 
Thou hast passed the turns of the river, thou navigatest 

with a lair wind the city of Mer at rest 

* . the , , * which 

they . * . Qacnna] . . « the . • . Qacuna] . , * those never 
at rest and incorruptible constellations, thou peram- 
bulatest the earth justified. Thou jutuest to a new 
skin, thy mother has been embraced 



A region ol Hades. 



• OrrefioLTed. 
4 Bttio or the North. 



Hermopolk. 



298 Tmcriptimx of Dariiti at the TernpU of El-Ktianjelu 

19. thy reception adored by all beings. Thou art at reet in 

the abode Tiiant' diinDg the hourg of darkness, thon 
awakest OsiriB by thy bean^, thou sbinest over the 
heads of those who are in their cells, thou hast 
traversed 

20. their bidden buildings on purpose. Thou hast been 

typified by thought-, thou hast made to be illnmined 

thy own disk, thou hast set up the in 

their places* Thou hast gone against the chambers 

21. m the darkness, thy left eye is in the disk at night, thou 

shinest in the moniing out of the east of the heaven, thou 
hast been woven in thy disk in Ansatp.' Thy right eye 
is in the essence, thou hast made the passage, tliy secret 

22. is the depths of thy secret waters and unknown. Thou 

hast come on the road, thou hast given light iu the 
path, thou hast prevailed over difficulties like the 
mysterious forms, thy tj'j>e than eveiy god 
'23. exalted and magnified by the divine circles. Each god 
has assumed thy skin» without shape is their type com* 
pared to thy form. Thou art the majesty ..•,•.,.. 
wliieh is, thon hast Riled, lord; heaven and earth, 
under tliy plumes, the gods 

24. under thy hands, men under thy legs ; where is a god 
like thee. Thou art the Sun over the goda^ crowned 

sweet and delightful, oh soul strong in . . » -by 

terrors 

25. of the disk, thy ureei are tall, thy horns are pointed, 

twisted are the horns, lamps are the light of the two 
symbolic eyes, gold and crystal are the decorations* 
turquoise the face, 

2G. gilded are the liralis. Thou hast placed thy throne 
wherever thou delightest to multiply thy name, places 
and districts carrying thy beauty. (Jorn has never 
failed to be tall under thy form. Thy place is arranged, 
in the time of a division 

27. of an hour thou traversest the earth fi*om the Manu.* 
Thou risest from the waters as the hidden egg, the 



* Momuig. 



'^ Or Ant^p, MendoB* 



> Oc«ftii. 



In9a*iption of Darim at the Temple of El-KJumfeh. iW 



Thon hast rested in 
tlmii hast been im- 



rising from its en- 
sound in the roots, 
to the district of 



female Amen is in thy company, 
the cow, thon eeizeet the horns, 
merged in 

28- the cow Mehiir. No germ grows, 
tirety to earth from the ether, 
Thou peramhulatest the earth 
Sutenkhen,* Thou hast gone there to its confines. 

29, Thj likeness is there as the one of terrible face. Thy 
great soul is in the norae of Lycopolis at rest among 
the ten thousands and thousands of gods which come 
out of it. Thy fluid is Su,* thy drop is Tefnut.^ Thou 
hast made to gi*ow 

80. the nine gods at the fu'st of typification. Thou ail the 
lion of the double lions, thou hast tied the hollies of 
the circle of the gods, thou hast extended the earth 
under their power. They make festivals to thee iu 
their temples. Thy soul* is in 

31. Tattu^ altogether, the four gods in Ansatp engendering, 
lord of the gods, bull of Win motlier^ rejoicijig in the 
cow, her huslmnd, engendering with his beautiful gene- 
ration, Thou passest to the place thou choosest to 
thy 
hall of the Saite norae. Thy form is at rest in the temple 
of Lower Egypt, in the nest of the lord^ of Suis. 
Thy mother Neith has been pleased by her son ten- 
derly beloved, binding him all the limbs in the region 
of the South and Nortli, thy 

33 on the arms of the crocodiles. Thou 

hast opened the nest, thou restest on the lower country. 
Thy heart rests in the roads of Hai/ making Buto 
to rejoice in a m omenta and Mehenu** 

34* to follow thee. Thou hast come iu the heart of 
Nausaas. Thy soul is at rest iu Hetep.^ Thou art 



' Heraklecipolift* 

* 8o7iir deity, one of tbe i?oT»itel!aiioiiB| Gemini. 

» Solar deity, sister of Sii, and the other person of the c<niat4?Iltttioii Gentini. 

* Or Bull. * Bysiris or Ahtisir. ^^ Or Lady ** Neith.*' 
' Or the pupyruii, th© Lower Cuantry. 

■ The urmUM on llip ♦iiinietn of the Siiti, • Place of pooh in Elyaitim. 



300 fnscriplion of Darius at the Temple of El-Khanjclu 



35 



36, 



37. 



38, 



39. 



40, 



41 



42. 



the youthful water and tlie old water hidden amongst 
those of the temple in the great house of An,^ Thou 
goest in [peace] 

the nrsBus on thy head ; in a moment thou hast united the 
two CO lu] tries under the sides of thy tlirone. Thou 
art the place of Sebennytus, thy pluee is pure in the 
town of the abode of the Sycamore,^ Thy abode is in 
Khent-ta-net, thy dominions in Memphis, gods and 
goddesses 

above in the rays of An^ to spie thy form in Menkat* 
Thou hast presented the peace of the hidden places. 
Thy births have gone roimd the gods who are 
demiurges 

the cycle of them thou hawk of the nome of HeHo- 
polis, thy temple sacred is in the city of Kar/ thy iirst 
birth ia cstablishud in the foce of the darknt^ss. 

Thy second bkth thou hast appointed there after thee 
to overthrow thy enemies at their rifeing, Thmi hast 
gone opposite to the court-yard to the South, a 
demiurge to elevate the youthful waters* 

in hie bed. Thou hast made tlie two countries in the 
town of the White Wall ^' as Ptah, chief essence to , , , , 
Thou hast placed thy throne in the life of the two 
couriti'ieH as Amen Ra. Thy soul is the ark and four 
pillars of the two heavens,. 

Thy form emanated at first while thou shinest as Amen 
Ra and Ptali. Thy heart is at rest in thy city of Uas/ 
Thy two urPBi, thy eyes, thy sceptre, thy whip open the 
doorn of the heaven in 

Thebes, Shii, Tefnu, Mut and Khone are thy form dwelling 
in thy shrine under the types of the god Khcm, raising 
his tall plumes, king of the gods, Hfting the hand, lord 
of the crown, 

powerful by it, all fejir emanates irom the fear of him the 
Kamiitf who resides in hie fields, horned in all his 
beauty, engendering the depths. Black and crystal 



* HeliopoILfi. * Arsinoc. ' Unknown mte. * Bftbjlon. 

* han ser. ** Memphis, ^ Tliebos. 



Inscription of Darim at the Temple of ElrKliargeh. 301 

the faces of tlioBo attached to klm, the two oiystical 
eyes, the decoratiuiis of 

43, floi'-ti* dwelling in the nome Pe* over his strong house. 

Turn the great lord of created beings He is the 
hawk® created at firbt, Mentii Ra in Dae/ The 
powerful hull, he is the arai etrikiog 

44, the cowards of Nahi, Ptah in Uas,'* the luminous body 
ever golden for an age and ever. Thou arfc 8ekar, thy 
tranefurmations are in to the Nile, the person greater 
than the other gods* Thou art youthful water and old 
water.'"* 

45, They repose in the merits of thee. Thou givest life to 

the earth by thy stream* Thou ai*t heaven, thou art 
earth, thou art fire, thiai art water, thou art air in the 
midst of them. Thou hast hailed at things to be done of 
him who is indefatigable, the order or of the visible and 
invisible.^ 

46* Thou givest life to them as thou increasest them, thy 
soul prepares them under thy type of Amen Ra, 
lord of all existences, thy heart is strong, thy body 
makes festive, thou increasest thy son who is on thy 
throne, thou makes t young hi a limbs up- 

47* on earth. Thou honourest him, thou crown est him 
with thy title, thy gracious form thou makest to shino 
as the Suu, thy son, the beautiftil face' doing all thy 
wishj thou findeet for him victory to his hands, the 
king of the Upper and Lower Country, the Son of the 
Sun. 

48. Ntariush^ the ever livhig, born of the Sun, the support of 

those who are in Uas,^ the Sou of the Sun Ntaruish* the 
assistant, his attached fourfold of Amen Ra, lord of the 
thrones of the world, resident in Thebes, powerful 
with the scunetar 

49. Son of the Sun Ntariush,^ Iloru% son of Isis, son of Osiris, 

beloved of Amen, save thou the Son of the Suu Ntariush* 



) Ooptitos nomo, * But^o, 

* Thcbuid, 
*' Bjtittent and non-exiatent. 



^ X^P*^, surjiie R9 the *' acAral>flBii9." 
* Or tlio Hiikimu or Ether, 
^ Title also of Ptali, « Dftriiw, 



3U2 Inscription of JJarius at ih /emple of M-KJtatye/u 

the ever living, from every Bword, every arrow ; maj 
the terror of huii, tho fear of hiui, the victorious power 
of him, b© in the hoarta of all men and every land^ like 
thy victory thy fears and thy terrors in the hearts of 
gods and men* 

[The notes and commentary on tliifl text will appear in 
the next part*] 




3U3 



THE LEGEND OF THE TOWEE OF BABEL, 



Bt W, St, Chjld Bosca^ten. 



Bead 4/JI Jaituary, 1876. 



This tablet, of wliieh I now give a translation, was first 
discovered by Mr. Georgu Smith, and wiiH translated by him 
in his work, ** Chaldean Account of Genesis/* pages 160-IG3. 

It appears to relate to the Imikhng of one of those great 
temple-towers or '' zi/ignrati,*' wliieh formed the principal 
feature of most of the cities and palaces in Western Asia. 
The Accadiana or early Bahyloniaufi were a people of moun- 
tain origin, coming down from the Kurdean ranges to dwell 
in the plains of Babylonia. They brought with them the 
tradition that the gods only vinited the high places of the 
earth, and so when they built their cities in Babylonia they 
always raised the temple-towers high above the plain as 
places to be visited by the gods. Such was the great tower 
at Boraippa^ the temples at Erech, Ur, and Cntlia. 

In this paper I iiave attempted no comparison with the 
Biblical legend of Babel, as the tablet is in so imperfect 
a condition that it would not be of use to build any theory 
on it. 

The legend appears to record the building of one of the 
great towers by order of the king, and the work appears to 
have oflended the gods, who first demonstrated tlieir anger 
by throwing down *' in the night all that was built in the 
day.*' The builders appear to have continued their work in 
spite of these interruptions, and at last they were punished 
by being scattered abroad and their speech confounded. The 
tower itself appears to have been destroyed by a storm. 





^^^^^■1 


^^H 


t 


The Legend of the Tower of BaheL ^^^| 




K, 3657* ^H 




Column 1. ^^M 


^^■^ 1. 




^^^L 2, 


. , « , Bu - nil abu ^^^H 


^.^.**. i/k?m <A<j father ^^^^| 


Q? V] ^T< I ^m --T I t^^]l *^T VTT -^T| 




[a -mat-] ti -bu lib - ba -su il - te - im - na 1 




hu thoughts of his heart were evil H 


^^^^ ^' 


i^mm^m^m '^ -^h -et h!<- 1 




, , ,,*..... a - bi ka - la ili ^| 


,,,,...,, iAe father of all the gods ^^^H 




«=£ -TT^ tm H 




zi - ru ^^^1 




A^ turfi^d from ^^^M 


^^^^M 4. 


U} V] ^T< I ^m--T I ti:^TT^TA-n^T 1 




[a -mat-] ti -su lib - ba -eu il -te- im - na H 




his thoughts of Ms heart were evil ^^ 


^^^r ^* 


i^^t^ M tt]] m }}< <^^ B^] 1 






• • Babiln ha -• mi - it ^| 




. . Hfihiilon rnnnifithi ^^1 








a* na il - ki - im ^^H 




to sin went and ^^^M 







m 


1 


305 ^fl 




3 


^^^^^P The L&jemi of fl 


if Tower of 


fhhel 




r^- [?? IK "M i^m^] 


<M£lI 


m^ V- 


^rn^ ^ 


^^^^1 [za • )ia - ni - u] 


va 


ra - hu ' 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^ 


and 


great 


^H 


^P tint -^T I.H ]Mj 


<f£T -ET 

till - la 




■ 


^^^^^^B he mhujled {on) 


the mound 




^1 


^^^B balilii ha - 1 


me - it 




^^^H Babylon 


corrnptli/ to 


^^^H 


^^^^^H • Id - 






I 


^ went (md 






^1 


^^^^ [za - ha - rii - n] 


va 


EcTT ^- 

ra - bu - 


11 ^^H 


^^H 


and 


(ft*€M 


^1 


H m^ --T ^i<! m 

^^^H II - ba - al - III 


<teT -eT 

till - \n 




I 


^^^^L|^ he mhipM oj 


i fh** mnnmh 


^1 


^^^^^m 


^rx IL 




^1 


^^^H 8;ir - till - vM 


< ^vm^^^:s^'']^^ ^ 


^^^H The Unf! of the nohle momid 


■ 


^H 


^H Ina ma- ah - ri ia - sn 
^H Tfi front did lift UP 




^^H 

^^^^H 


^^H 


^^H TOL. 


.' i 


5 


^^H 





^H m 


i The Lfifffind of fhfi Tnw/'y of JMhL ^^| 


^^m 


a - iia El - k!ii a - Li - 8U 1 


To Vie yood Lord hu failier ^^^1 


^^H 

^^E 


ki - i lub - Im * \xh Ru-va .,# ••*.. ^| 


Thtii his heart oho * , . . . ♦ * . • • ^| 


Ba na - a - si tie - e -ma • ^| 


irhirh t'arr}(uf a vommawl .,.*,., V 


^^H 

^^M 


I - iia y u - mi 8U * va .•#••.••...••.».«*•. H 


-i'li i/iai iime ulso • . . * ..,..• ^| 


^T -eIT <«^^ JT ^^ev ^ 

it - ttl - 111 - RU , , H 


he Itfied it up •^^^I 


^^v 


-1 ^^^£T m ^T ^ 

Day - ki - iia ^^H 
Davkina ^^^H 


r • 


si - na ka - la ytimi fl 

..,,•.• their all day . V 


■ 


im ^^^1 


1^ 


Ar fonndiul (nv vaifted tip) ^^^H 



The Lefft*}ifl of the Tower of fiabel. 



307 



UK 



[a] - na ta az zi - im - ti hi - iia 

fa their ftfrotiff hokl 

i - iia 111 a- ai - li 

in the uitfhi 



»'■ u...-^^mm- <^\^ ^w B j^m 



11 - 111 

enfirelff 



\\ - 811 - ta 
an emi 



Bi - it - ta 
Atf made. 

12. tt K^y t^ t||y^ ^T< JT £| c:^-t f- tfy^ ::^ 

I - iia tig - ga - ti Bii-va ui -lui- ga - av 
In hin anger aho the secret, counsel 

i - sa -pa • all 
tie poured out 



811 ba - al - lu ta-maH- li - e 
hts to scatter .*..*•.. 



• • S' « t • 



pa - 111 -Rii 18 - ku - un 

his face he set 





r 


^^^^B 


^H 


The Legend of the Totcer of Babel, ^^H 


^H 


^ f^an - ni tie -ma ut- tak * ki - ra 1 




. he gate a command he made strange m 




me - Ilk Bu - im ^^| 
^A«t> speech ^^M 


^^L 15. 


. , . . < , , . ra a - lak - ta ip - qui - ea 

..,,,,, , i/iij jyvoffvess hi impeded 


^^f iQ. 


zab - ta tia - ra - ak 


* • , • nmie an altar 




Column IIL ^^M 




[All upper poiiion lost.] ^^m 


^^H 


ma - ri 


- a a - ta . - • . » ^^H 


mu thf>H (orf) . , . . , • . • • ^^H 




mi - 
n 




f}U})dtep ...••.,..., ^^^1 


n ^H 


*ntireli/ . . . . • ^^^1 





^^^^H Tl^ Legmul of tfie Tower of BabeL 


soe ^1 


K u - da - ab » ^^^| 


^^^H hs fiuikes (food ^^H 


1 . 1 


^^^^ CoLu^m ^H 


1 ,. tH >^J^^^^mm 
^^^ I - na 


I 


^H 


■ 


L ^- tU V- -TI ET 

^Hi ip •• pii - till va 


1 


I ana za - a - ti sa - da - zi ^^H 
fc i^(>r future time ^^H 


^ D.P. Ku - nam - nir il - U - ik ^^1 
^^H Nu-nam-mir^ went ^^H 


^K ig - bi kima mme va irzitnv ^^| 
^^" //t' spake like heaven and earth ^^^^ 


^^^L^^ 1 Ibe god of kwlesaneasi or no goTornmcut. ^^^H 



310 The Legend of the Tvwer of BabcL 

«.iH<!iJi t^:^ -^^ m ^^iM^ 

lik ki -KH il -* li - ku - u 

hk waifs thet) went 

r. -B H ai -TI ^TU^ t] A-] MT<y I] i^ ^ 

*^S "S^^ ^"^ ' l^^ " ^ Tua- h - ri -sil 
violentlif they fronted against him 

i - niur - BU- ti - va qaq- qa * ra * 

he saw them {to) the earth 

»• fe I -n -H^ EclT -£T [=^1? ^^- ^.1 

as -su ei - ig - ra la - [e - pu - ti] 

rvhni a stop he did not make, 

Bft ili ab i « . . * . 

0/ f/<(? gods 

ili ip - pal ••*..••...... 

agahut the gods thet/ revolted 

12- ^m^ b:tt t^^^ 

ti - ra - 2u 
vloletwe 

13. Hfi 5.:Tn ^ ^£ -TI Ili »^]!^ T -^! :n: ^f^ 

kbu- mil -mil i -l>ak-kn ii ana Ba - bi ...• 
viohmtli^ they wept for Bahglon 



The Legend of t/w TufJ^rr of IkiheL 811 

t'SL ' tua- all ib - ku - ii 

tvr^ much they fjrkved . 

• ^m 5^ I -^ ^F' ■-— — ^^^ 

lib • us - sii - mi - va ..*...•....... , . . . • 

iu ilmr midst aUo . * . 



NOTES. 

COLITJN I. 

5. hamit mny be comparetl with Hub. TTOR join togetLer 

ail J rendered as *^ in consort/' or perhiips with TTdTl 
poieon ; hence com-iptly. 
t7 kifiu went, compare lleb. 

6, ufmUu^ mingled. Ileb, 772, confound, mix. This is tho 

verb used ia Genesis xi, 7 for the confueiou of speech. 
Tulla^ nioimd. Heh. 7ii, a bill, root 7711. 



Column II. 

^8u. Compare Ik-l). t>Nt!?. 
nasi^ carried, a word of very iretjueut occm'reaee. Com- 
pare Heb. tW:i' 
Bema, a decree. Compare Chahh Di*D, Ezra vi, 14. 
7* iitul-m^ ''he hfted up.*' Compare Heh. 7711 and 71D2, a 
word cognate with tiilla, of line G, col L 
10- tazzimtU stronghold. Compare Ileb, rootn QSHj D^V, 

and also Helv. niu!!l? bulwarkn. 
12. mipaJu he poured forth* Compare T[vh. T^^O* 
14. Kttak-ki-ra, he made strange, an iphtael form of naeiru, 
to be strange. 
Mdik, spee«:b^ counsel. Compare Chald. nD7^ " counsel," 
and also proper name, Mileah. 



SIS 



The Legend of the Tower of JJaM. 



Column IV, 

tp puli^ he blow. Compare Heb. nM» to blow. 
Nunnantruir. Thia god is the god of lawleesneas, the 

name being eoiiiposed of tho negative NU, the pai-ticle 
NxUJ, which forms abstracts, and Nm, which is explained 
by saintj a king, the whole being no cross-ruling or 
mi&-rule* 

UIU\ UHi, illfku, may all be uompai'ed with Heb- ]7n* 

iJ/iw, thuy fronted or arrayed. Heb. p 




313 



WHY IS FORTY-THREE A BASAL BIBLICAL 
NUMBER? 

Bv S. M. DuAcii. 

lUad Ut Februai'jf, 1876. 

I BEU to remark thtit wo find 430 yearB (Ex. xii, 40, 
Gen. xi, 17); 1)5, or f of 43 ((Ten. v, 15, 21) ; also 215 in 5 
timee 43 ; 129 i« thrice 43; 7 x 43 is 301 {t^^hur-bohu^ Geu. i,2, 
is 430). Tiie number 427 ia y* of 299 very nearly. 

Now 43 times 3G5^ 5^ 49°^ 12« gives 15,705^ 10^ 15°* 36% 
and 532 timen 29** 12'^ 44^ 2^'m gives 15,710^ 6^ 33^ 32% 
exceeding by 4'^ 20*^ 17'" 56% whilst one-sixtli of a month is 
4d 22*» 7"* 2U\ Now 532 is 19 times 28, still used to har* 
monise the epaets and dominical letter iu solar years. 
Perhaps this will lead to the astronomical reason for choosing 
43 solar yeai's or 44|- Iimar ones. This number of days is 
nearly that of tr to the diameter 5000. 

d h m 

The period 427 in wtHl closer, solar 155958 13 8| 
52811 liuiations. . . . 155958 10 8^ 

3 

which 180 miimtea gives 2^ seconds per lunation to aug- 
ment the period (Laplace's secular equation 11''; or Adams 
5i"). We thus see 61 solar years equal 02 J limar; or 
1708 = 21125 months, ?>., 3116 solar years = 10 x 05 x 65 
months to a day. Clinton's •' Fasti Ilellen," p. 304, makca :— 



Loss 121 14 



But even with 15* added for solar year, it brings the lunar 



235 Imiat. 


29 12 44 2-88 


6939 16 31 17 


19sobyrs. 


365 5 48 57-00 


6939 14 30 3 







^^^^g 




^^^^B 


^^H 


^^H 








^^^^^^^^1 


"..„,...... 1 


excoBS to 11C'» 29*; and an e^ceas is irreconnlahle vnth the ^ 


lunar theory. Perhaps thu Hebrew-ptitriarchal contcm- 1 


poreaiiitius of this taole may be nsefuL ^M 


A Son lM>m to 


At Age. 


After 


AfUr 
Life. 


TotAl 
Life. 


n«iii^. 


CotoDpormrr Age. ^fll 


Abm- 
68 , 


iMAC 


jM^h ^m 


JCotth 


600 





950 


960 


350 


Shera 


100 


2 


500 


600 


502 


.. 1 


110 


50 


ArpUaxdcl . . 


35 


37 


403 


138 


440 


148 


48 


- 


Solacli 


30 


07 


403 


433 


470 


- 


78 


16 


Jlvhvr 


3i 


101 


430 


464 


531 


,. 


139 


70 


VAeg 


80 


131 


aoo 


836 


340 


48 


• f 




Be u 


32 


163 


»)7 


239 


370 


78 


• • 




. sw 


30 


1^3 


200 


230 


393 


101 


1 




Nftoborl... 


2a 


22?. 


219 


218 


4U 


140 


40 




Tertok .. 


70 


202 


135 


205 1 


427 


136 


85 




AbmtD'i* call 


76 


(367) 


.. 


.. 


,. 


• • 


.. 




Abrum (Idnmi'l) , , 


86 


(m) 


., 


•• 




■• 


- 




Abmtmm (tiattc').. 


100 


392 


78 


176 


467 


.. 


75 


15 


Isiuic (Jacob) 


60 


453 


120 


160 , 


572 


• t 


.. 


120 


Jacob (Josepb)?.. 


m 


U2 


57 


147 


500 


Joftep 


bWM 


57 


Josepb, Vizier .. 


(30) 


572 


SO 


110 


652 ' 








Jacx)b, JKgypt 


130 


58St 


17 


147 


509 








Remark Isaacrs dying in Joseph's \nzier-ycar; Jncob'fi 


death ut end of a ()00 year. (Qneiy : Was Terach s fathei^ 


less age iucreased by 40 years for this ?) That Bhem died 


40 years before iloseph's bhih. The pro valence of the unit 


8 ilk the last eohimns. As Noali took his sons into tho ark 


before his wife and daiighterB-iu-]aw» the lUbbis state this 


iudicates tho eepar.-itifm of the sexes (hninan and i>nite) in 


the ark, so that no iocreane was to he apprehended; and 


hence Arjihaxad was ooly bom after }m paruntB were 



Why is Fortj/'three a Basal Biblical Number. 315 

comfortably eettled in their post-diluvian teatB. I tlunk tliat 
the tipey Noah etiinibled into the luu'cm, ilT'nM, not n^«7T^ 

for ^'^7^ (^^^^ ilaeoretic violent clKinge of affix) wliich 
would expliiin tbt? iuipropriety* 

I beg to BUggeBt a poHsible priestly idea in those archaic 
languages which, like the Hebrew ycriptures, oficred no 
connection between the letters of one word, or separativu 
marks l^tween adjoining words (except the five final forms) ; 
namely: Did the priestliood publicly read their sacred books 
as emanating from fiilse gods, yet secretly to the initiatcil^ 
bjf anoiJwv tombinaflon of th€ sijlktbles^ proclaimed the 
llouothLisJa tliey ihemselvefi had arrived at? It bemg 
the glorious mission and inspiratitui of Jloses, that he made 
the initiated or lloiiotheistic reading the popular one as 
the only true exptnjent of the sacred writings. What I 
mean is this : the lii'st verse of Genesis may be dissected 
thus philologieally— 



the f.a^h 



£anb 



EartLi 
(nuilicr) 



n nMi D'Tsrn 



' Utld \ 
<rw:cu- r 



sativ 



and 
thou 



there 
Cttmc 



fcbe lieaveiui 



the h(«TeiiA 



actti- Tj 
1 Ihc J 



th^ti 
an 



there 
f'jutm 



□■•n 


h^ 


Ibi; Sea, 


El 


the Youin 


(GoU) 



crtatctl 






vro. 



C]>euCor 



It is known that Brahma's creative word m Oum — 
thence the fire-water (D^?D"U?K). I thereforo ask if in 
Egyptology such priest-pnpular polytheistic reading occurred 
wliilst the true MonothciHtic one, which all now are faithful 

t(», is that Y^):i{rt n«i av2i2>n nN wrhn \m tr^^vai 

why is then n required if ]lt^ precedus it ? 

The ** without form and vtnd," as before remarked, 
numerically equals 430; and Klohim to 8ti^ or twice 43. 

Further, if (jod called the night-time Lail, why is the 
Youm (day) made up of l^V (the cvcniug) and ^pi (tlie 



316 IVhi/ is Forty^three a Baml Biblical Number f 



moiiiing?) 1 thiiik this really means iJie dark chaotic ndxtmm 
previous to the existt:*nce of light, and the seatrh-tiwe which 
wuH luiniuous. It is curious that whiltit 2^ ii sea, and DV a 
day, are distinct, as also the dual D^DV two days, that we 
have d^O*^ to express many seas and many days, and not 
D'*^*!^ used fur the latter. I make Uiese remarks not in any 
spirit of scepticism, but knowing the great similarity between 
the Pharaonic and Mosaic liturgies eMernatli/^ it ooonrred to 
me whetlier thia wan not one of the refined modes of blinding 
the coinnion people to their true spiritual dependence on One 
God? The super-pointed iilp^'^i (Gen xxxiii, 4) equals 427- 
The eleven (Dent, xxix 20), to f2)3i(J, the death-year of Moses 
fRabb). The rUvision of earth temp. Peleg might simply 
jncau an earthquake. Chap, xi says mankind fumid a cleft 
or delile in the land of 8hiuyr ; and does not the (verba 
singula.) of the first verse poiiit to a monosyllabic primitive 
language, rendered unintelligible by the introduction of 
affixes, particles, etc., at the Confusion* 

Though Drs* Jost and Znnz were brought up in the great 
modern Jewish Grammar Scliool of tieeseuj the predecessor 
of their tutor Ehrenberg so inoculated these youths with the 
mystic notion that thousands of angels, good and bad, 
floating about, caught up any sound emitted in their prayers, 
that it made Jost extremely sensitive^ and afraid (even in 
bis old age) of being alone in the dark* AVas this a Rabbiaical 
heritage of Assyrian Demonology? Ehrentheils biography 
(Pestb, 1867), and Zunz*s of Ehrenberg, are extremely 
interesting; both German 8vo. vols, are in the British 
Musemn CoUectiou. 

P,S, — I found since that thrice 43 + 427 or 556 years are 
203074'! 19*^ 55^ 12% and 687 G} 1mm t 203074^ 11*» 27*° 5% 
a Bolai' excess of 8"^ 28^ in 573^ lunar years. Hek Bey 
Egypt. Chr. xxxiii) found that 4004 x 365 less 7 x 70 days), 
or 1460970 days, are 4000 times 365^ 5^ 49 '^ 12^ M. Rydberg's 
deduetiun of 195-6 solar ur 201 to 202 lunar years (2424 
months) acts as 300 years on his 8 patriarchs -f 24. His 
G408 is 8 X a X 89: his 4800: 4947 is 1000; 1641», or 40s<j. 
f Tsq, The Hebrew after-lives to Lamecli^ 6569 (or ^ of 





Whi^ 14 Fiytttf-tliree a Bami liihlmd Nmnberi 317 



4927). and Noah, 7019 {\^ of 4913); total lives to Lameoh 
7625 (Gl XmwM 125, or 5 ctibccl) and Noah 8575 (25 times 343, 
or 7 cubed), may likewiee fiiniish dcductionB* The Samaritan 
makes Lamech's birth (654) bisect the deltige year (1307) 
i^'herein he and Methuselah expire ; Cainan*B bii'th-year (325) 
again nearly bisects 653, The patristic 105, 90, 70, 63, 53 
years are nearly in a harmonic ratio of 1, f, :J, J-, \. 




BABSISCir AND fOHB, PEUmOS » OEDWAmT TO BKK MAJSSTT, IT. MASTIM'f LAlTf. 





\ 



I 





<_ 




Assyrian Sheep, 





Hare (Kouyunjik), 






\ 



TRANSACTIONS 



UV Tlt» 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAU ARCHiEOLOGY- 



Vou T. 



JUNE, J 877. 



Part 2. 



ON THE MAMMALIA OF TflE ASSYRIAN 
SCULPTURES. 

Br Rev, William IlauoHTON, M.A.^ F,L»S. 

Smd 2nd January, 1877* 



Part II.— Wild Anim^vls, 

Lv treating of the wild aniraak of the Aseyiian montiment»^ 
whether repreHentt'd hi sculpture, or merely mentioned by 
name, we iind aB a rule much more difficulty in dett^rmiuiiig 
the Bpecies than in the case of the domesticated animals. 
This arisee partly from tiie fact thiit the sculptural repre- 
sentations of some of the wild animals are badly executed, 
hut chiefly from the absence in the records of any clue 
to identification beyond that afforded by the name itself, 
I proceed, without further preface, to notice the various 
animals, whether figured on the sculptin-es or mentioned in 
the records, I will begin with the order 

Qamirumana* On the black obelisk of Shahnaneeer three 
figures of monkeys occur, together with that of the Indian 
elephant. A man is leading a large kind of monkey ; another 
Vol, V. ^ 




320 On the ifummalia of the A$»yrian Sculptures, 

man follows leading a Bimilar speciee, while he has also a 
smaller monkey on Ms shouJdere. One of the figures ia 
represented without a tail, which has led Mr. Layard t« 
believe that the om-an outan is intended, Bnt none of 
the anthropoid monkeys, as the orangs, goriQas, chimpanzees, 
except the long-armed gibbons (Ili/lobates), occur in India, 
the country fi'ora which the monkeys on the obelisk no doubt 
came- the native habitat of the orang (Simia satifnis) is 
Borneo and Sumatra, while the other members of this section 
are confined to West Africa. The omission of the tail, 
therefore, must be regarded as aeeidental, or the tail supposed 
to be hidden from \4ew by the animars left leg. These 
monkeys, an epigraph informs us, were part of the tribute of 
Muzri of Armenia, a country which would be beyond the 
northern limit of any of the Quadrumana, wdioee geographictti 
range begins as a rule about 23*^ N, latitude. The people of 
Muzri,* therefore, must have procured these monkeys from 
India, whence alno they received the elephant. These figures 
are ridiculously hunian^ — the face is that of a man with a 
Mnge of whiskers around it — so are the feet and hands. On 
another monument, however, this same monkey is far better 
drawn ; the sculptor has been so tar successfal as to lead us 
to the identification of this species of monkey, which is most 
probably the Presbyter miellus or Hoonuman of India, or at 
any rate one of its alHed forms. The Hoonuman is a large 
monkey with a long tail; it is, and probably long has been 
held in rehgions veneration in India, becomes quite tame, 
frequenting the houses and shops of fniit-aellers, &c. The 
monkey sitting on the man's shoulders (black obehflk) I 
take to be merely a Bmaller incUvidual of the same species* 
This will explain the placid and contented look of the monkey 
on the man's shoulders, which was evidently a domesticated 
individual. Another species of monkey is figured on the 
obelisk from NimrM. The head and shouidei-s are covered 
with long waving hair. It is probable that this species lb the 
Wanderoo {Macacm sUerim}^ which is noAv pretty common in 
some parts of India, as in the Malabar pro\ince8, but not in 

^ It ii possible, as GutBchmid BuggesU, that tlierc was anotlier Muzn\ 
hmdes the Annemii ontJ, in Bttctria. [A. H* S.] 





On the Mammutia of the Assyrian Scitlpturea* 321 

Ceylon, as ib often aesertecl, WTiat other species of the 
raoukey tribe were known to the Assyrians must have been 
inhabitants of Nubia, AbyBsinm, and Southern Arabia, such as 
the gelada (G. Ruppdlii) of Abyssinia, a baboon vnih dense 
long hair covering the neck and shouUiers, the dog-headed 
Cynot:ephahts hmn(idrya.% tlie only species of quadnimanous 
animal figured on the Egyptian mouuraents, ae sacred to 
Thotli, the lord of letters* This baboon is not now found in 
Egyjit, bnt is a native of Arabia and Abyssinia, I ha%^e 
already refen-ed to the ridiculously human-like character of 
the monkeys of the nionuinents ; this same idea i^ embodied 
in the Assyrian word for a monkey u-du-^nu {^Jf\^ ^^ *^} ; 
for there can be no doubt that the word u-ilii^ml (tTTTt 
^^ ^^C T*"*"*")^ which occurs in the plural number amongst 
the tribute which the people of the Armenian Muzri brought 
to Shalmancser, denotes ** apes " or ** monkeys/* The 
Assyrian word would then be referred to the Hebrew ddnm 
(DIN) *Va man/' Of the order Ferw we will take first the 
cat family, 

Felidw. The species which are known to occur in Assyria 
and Babylonia are the following :■ — ^The Hon, leopard, 
cheetah, the chaus (Felw chamy Giildenst), the lynx {Lyncm 
pardinus)^ and the caracal (C. melanoth), or black-eared lynx. 
The tiger, though probably an inhabitant of Assyria in 
ancient times, is no longer to be seen there. ^ 

I do not think, however, that the tiger existed in any 
great numbers in Assyria and the neighbouring lands. Had 
the Assyrian montirchs Assur-natsir-pal and Assurbanipal 
Been much of tiger hunting, we should have had most 



' " The ©ommon DOtion with regard to tha tiger is that it b a tropieoJ animal 
whieli requires a warm climat4j t^j live in. The reiftpiinrhen of late eiplorera 
rereat a very different state of things. Begiuiiing at loftj Ararat and the frosty 
OaocaflUB on the west, and ending at the inland of Saghalieu on the ^asl, ita 
nogea Btretchee acro«8 tho whole of ABia, with Iheexeeptionof the high Thibet^in 
land of CenlraJ Asiia. Mr. 131 jth mentionfl that a few are annually kilkd in 
Turldnh Georgia. It is found in greattrr nuinberfl in the Eiburz Mountains, south 
of the Caspian Sea {the auck*ut Ityrcania). North of the Hindu Kosh, itoccura 
in Boklmra, and proved Iroublesame to the Russian Surveying Expedition on the 
shores of the Aral in mid winter/' (Murray's Qcograpb,, Distrib. Mammatia, 
p, 950.) 



322 



On the Mammnlia of the Aayrian SculptnreJt* 



probably either some definite allusion to the royal aniraal in 
the Ivifltorical and liunthig records, or its form represented in 
bas-relief on the eculptm-es. Moreover, the presence of a 
considerable nnmber of lions in Assyria, Bahylonia, &c,, in the 
time of the Assyrian kings juBt mentioned, is in itself evi- 
dence against tJie snppomtion that tigers were also numerous. 
According to the general law of nature, two large epeciea of 
the same family are seldom found to co-exitst io the same 
area, I tliink, therefore, that the tiger was only occasionally 
Been and killed in liunting expeditions. In the iiiRcription of 
the broken obelisk of Tiglath-Pileser I, which mentions the 
different animals killed by the Assyrian king in the land of 
the Hittites and other places, certain i^Hld caniivora 
are enumerated; these are nimri ''leopards,'* mi-^i-ui 
(/^^ ^TS^ »n~ I^**) "tigei-s'* (?) a-ii (?) and two strong 
" bears.'* There is no donht that the first word nimri means 
** leopards '* ; the fulluwing word jjiidlni occnmng just after- 
wards would appear to denote some fierce carnivore of an 
allied species. In the Izdubar legends, Heabani declares that 
he will come to Erech, bringing a tnidmmu with him in order 
to make trial of the strengtli of Izdubar, and to see if he 
could destroy it, 

1. ** I will bring to the midst of Erech a tiger,, 

2. And if he is able he will destroy it. 

3. In the desert it is begotten, it has great strength." 

(Chald. Ace. Gen,, Smith, p, 205.) 

**The midannu^^- says Mr. George Smith, "is mentioned 
in tlie Assyrian texts as a fierce carnivorous animal aUied to 
the lion and leopard ; it is called, midannu, mindLnu and 
fmindifiu'' (p. 206), On the whole, therefore, it ia quite 
probable that the tiger was known to, and occasionally 
mentioned by the ancient Assyiiane under one or other of 
the above names.^ 

The Lion. As regards this animal everything is perfectly 
clear. His foroi is drawn with great accuracy and spirit. 
Now he is represented as being on the point of springing at 

^ Since the nbore wfks wntton, Mr. Boscawen telU me tliAt a figuro of eorae 
Mtrlp§d feline ocx;urB on one of the ABSjrmn gems. 




On the Mammalia of ike Assyrian Scuiptures, 323 

a horseman ; now witli spread out feet and oxBerted claws 
he holds in hm mouth a portion of the body of a horse ; ni>w 
he is Rhrinking cautiouely out of a wooden box or cage in 
whieh he had been placed ; or he is in the agonies of death, 
pierced by many arrows, vomiting his life-blood, or vainly 
endeavouring to extract with his fore paws a shaft that has 
pierced hi8 eye-ball ; now lie appears ereet on his hind legs, 
turning his body round, mth out-spread paws and fierce 
aspect, as if indignantly remonstrating with kin gAssurbanipal^ 
who has seized the royal beast by the tail ! 

Lions are still found in the Euphrates and Tigris valleys. 
Mr, Ainaworth, who accompanied Colonel Chesney in the 
Euphrates Expedition as surgeon and geologist » and who 
published his Researches in Assyri^i, Babylonia, and Chahhiea 
in 1838, speaks of the lion as being met with in the lower 
part of the Euphrates and Tigris, Footprints were observed 
at the Khabour ; buttlie lion has been met with as far north as 
Balis, A more recent traveller, BIr, Layard, says that lions 
are sometimes found near Kalah Sherghat, and fi'equently on 
the banks of the Tigris below Baghdad, rarely above. *^ On 
the Euphrates," he adds, ** it has been seen, I btlieve, almost 
as high as Bir, where the steamers of the first Euphrates 
expedition, under Colonel Chesney, were launched. In the 
Sinjar, and on the banks of the Khal>our, they are frequently 
caught by the Arabs. They abound in Khuzistan, the ancient 
Susiana. 1 have frequently seen tlu'ee or four together, and 
have hunted tliem with the chiefs of the tribes inhabiting 
that province/* (Nineveh and its Remams, II, p. 48.) Lions 
abound ni the jungles near the rivers in Babylonia. Mr. 
Layard frequently saw traces of them while excavating at 
Niffer. The Maidan Arabs kill the lion m the followng 
maimer ; — '' A man having bound his right ami with strips 
of tamarisk, and holding in his hand a strong piece of tho 
same wood about a foot or more in length, hardened in the 
fire and shai'pened at both ends, wilt advance boldly into tlie 
animal's lair. When the lion springs upon him he forces 
the wood into the animal's extended jaws, which ^ill then be 
lield open whilst he can despatch the astonished beast at his 
leisure with the pistol that he holds in his left hand/* 
(Nineveh and Babylon^ p. i>fi7*) 



324 On tlie Mammalia of the Assi/rian Sculpturff, 



It was a common thing for the old Aflsyriau kings to 
attack a Hon eiogle-handed, as may be Been on Uie monu- 
ments. Thus AsBurbanipal says of himself, *♦ I, Assurhanipal, 
king of multitu(I<j8, king of Assyiia, by my might, on my 
two feet, a fierce Hon, which I Bcized behiiid by the ears, m 
the fiervice of Assur and Istar goddess of war, by spears of 
my two hande I pierced his body.*' Another epigraph Btates 
that the same king Beized a lion "by his tair' (ina siimbi 
^^ *^T^*"*^ffy).> ^1^*1 threw ropeH round him. Lions were 
himted by the kings in chariots or moimted on horses; they 
were shot with an'owg or pierced mth Btrong epears. At the 
end of the day*B Rport the king ordered his attendanta to 
place the bodies of the lions killed in the chase side by side. 
A wooden altar was set np before them, and then the king 
poured out of a bowl a lilmtion of w^ine on the fiices of the 
slain animals in honomr of Aseur, Nergal, Istar, or other deities, 
by whose aid he had been success ftil. If the Assyrian kings 
drew only the actual long bow, and not the metaphorical 
one, the number of lions slain by them must have been enor- 
mous. ** Under the auspices of my guardian deity Adar, 
two g08S of lions, ?>., 120 (]] ^] {]>- JJ^ '^tElI h**)* 

I slew," says Tiglath-PileBer. Jn the same paragraph 

(W.A.L, Vol, I, pi. xiv, Hue 80) the king .tells ue that these 
120 lions were slain by him (and, I suppose, his attendants) 
on foot, and that 800 more fell to his weapons as he and his 
men rode in their chariots. AHowing for much exaggeration, 
the numbers slain must have, no doubt, been great, and 
under the later Assyrian monarchs, in whom the love of the 
chase and bold adventure were equally atrong, the introduce 
tinn of trapped liouB took place, and these animals were 
sought out in remote jungles, caught in anarcB of some kind, 
and conveyed near home in order to afford sport to the " great 
king.'* The weapons employed in the capture of the lion 
were a bow and arrows, a strong straight sword for hand 
encounter, daggers and spears, Wien the king hmited in 
his chariot he was attended by his charioteer, equipped as 
for war, some horsemen, of course armed, and sometimes by 
a groom leading a spare horse* In the bas-reHef representing 
Assixrbanipal lion-hunting in his chariot — a photograph of 



On //*e Mammalia of t/te Assifrian Sculpturtn, 325 

which lies before me ae I wi-ite — two quivers fiill of arrows, 
each with a small hand axe, are seen siiepeiided transversely 
acTOBs the right side of the chariot* A eliield with very thick 
pointed teeth protected the hinder part of the chariot in case 
of an attack npon the chariot in the rear. The king is repre- 
sented in the act of drawing the bow to its fiilJe^t extent, 
a sword m itn sheath hangs fi-om his left f*ide, while a long 
and strong spear projects in an upward direction from the 
back* Sometimes the king, with a number of attendants 
would get into a ship, while l:>eater8 woidd start the game 
from the coverts on the other side of the river, Shonld the 
lion take to the water and try to escape, he was attacked 
and destroyed; his fore and hind lege were corded together, 
and the beast was suspended irora the hinder part of the 
boat. It is probable that the large mastiff of the Assyrian 
monuments was used in the chase of the lion, but it m 
somewhat curious to note that no such actual engagement 
between dog and liou is ibund on the sculptures. 

The Hon is generally represented on the monuments with 
great spirit and life-like truthfiilnesB. The figure of a lion in 
an attitude about to i^pring upon a horseman, who appears 
to be armed only with a whip, may even be compared with the 
best efforts of Landseer himself. The same almost may be 
said of the lion represented as l>eiug turned out of his cage. 

Mr, Layard has drawn attention to the fact that the claw 
or spine-like body at the end of the lion s tail has not escaped 
the notice of the sculptor. It certainly is represented in a few 
instances, tiiough tJie size of the claw is much exaggerated. 
Some of the ancient classical writers describe the lion as 
lashing himself witli his tail when angry, and it has been 
supposed that the claw at the end was the instrument which 
goaded hira to rage i the classical writers, however^ mention 
no such claw. DidjTnus Alexandrinus^ a commentator on 
the Iliad, I believe, was the first to notice this little claw, 
and drew the conclusion that it was a stimulating organ. 
BlUmenbacb corrobaratt^d the Homeric commentator's asser- 
tion as to the presence of the claw, but rejeeted at once his 
condmion. At one of the meetings of the Zoological Society, 
held in 1832, a specimen was exhibited of a claw obtained 



326 On the Mammalia of the Asi*f/rian Sculpiurcs. 



from the tip of a yottng lion's tail from Barbary, It waa 
noticed first by Mr. G. Bennett, and while handling the tail 
the claw came off According to Mr. Woods, who gave 
much attention to the sulijeet^ the claw "was formed of 
corneouH matter like an ordinary nail," sharp at the pointy 
flattened tliroiighout its length, which did not amount to 
more than f of an inch. It appears that this claw m only 
occaeionally present ia individuals. The idea of ita serving 
to lasb the lion to fury is quite out of the question. As the 
oc/[;nnence is only exceptional, it cannot b^^ supposed that 
the little claw in question has any functional char^acter. 
Still it is curious to find that the Apsyrian scnjptor took 
notice of the organ, and represented it on the monuments.* 
The Assyrian name of the lion was nesu^ but in the inscrip* 
tionfi the Accadian name Hk-makh (Jjy *"tElI)' * great 
beast or dog/' is nearly always ueod. Tlio lion is represented 
on the monuments as fighting with a wild bull. The lion of 
the sculptures is the Asiatic animal, T*hich differs in no 
essentia! points from its African relative. Three varieties of 
the Asiatic lion are mentioned, the Bengal, the Persian or 
Arabian, and the maneless lion of Guiserat. The Persian or 
Arabian variety is generally distingiiishable by the pale 
Isabella colour of its fur ; but Ainsworth tells us that a lion 
from the banks of the Tigris in the poaseaeion of Colonel 
Taylor of Baghdad, was as brown its the Bombay lion* 

The Leopard, — This feline is mentioned in the iuscnptionB, 
but never represented in bas-relief on the monuments, A 
very badly executed figure of a leopard attacldng the liind 
quaHers of a wild bull, on a clay tablet, was found by Mr. 
Layard at Nimrfid, and figured by him. The leopard wm 
seen by Ainsworth near Mar'asli, and Colonel Chesney enume- 
rates it as being found in the Amanus (Khamanu in Assyrian) 
and Taurus. It is called nimej* by the inhabitants, and this 
is its Assyrian name ni-im-ru (^ -^4f 'tlH)' ^^^' '1tt2> ^ 
occurring on the monuments. The leopard {FeHs leopardtis)^ 
has a wide geographical range, inhabiting Southern Asia, 
North, South, and West Africa. Tiglath-Pileser I especially 



I 




^ Thifl organ 10 occuiooiiiij found tn other Felid^f as in the Leopard. 




On the Mamimdia of the Ami/rian Sculptures, 327 



raentioiifl nimri as amongst the numoroiia aniDials killed or 
captm^ed alive by hiin in a hunting expedition (W.A.L, L 
p. 2S)* Leopards were brought, together wth other aniraals, 
by another AsByrian king, and placed alive in the city of 
Calah (Layard'e Insc. 44, I U*), The Felis cham is stated 
by Ainsworth to be the most common of the cat tribe in 
Assyria ; thm specieB, which has a veiy wide geographical 
range, occurs in many parts of Asia and Africa ; it is a 
savage animal, and was probably known to the ancient 
Assyrians, The Fells pardirm^ Temm., the lynx of Trnkey 
and Southern Europe, inhabits Amaiins and Taurus ; the 
caracal {Felh caracal, Schreb.), which occurs in South Asia 
and Afinoa, Persia, and Arabia, is said by Ainsworth to be an 
inhabitant of I'anrne and Aniamis, and tu have given a name 
to one of tbo villages in the latter named district. Some of 
the unknown names of animale which are foimd in the 
inscriptions very probably refer to these wild felidee, which 
were no doubt known to the ancient inhabitants of the 
Assjoian lands. 

The cheetah hnntmg leopard (Fell'* juhata^ Schrek) is 
found in Afiica and Asia, and doubtless was known to the 
Assyrians, fur in Persia, Palestine, &c., it still occurs : indeed 
Ainsworth tells us that a mane! ess variety of this leopard 
'* is not uncommon in the lower districts of Tigris and 
Euphrates," Dr. Delitzsch {Thiemamen) conjectures that the 
star of Bi-a-zi (C^|--*-y ^ ly •^If'^) ^^ *^^ Astronomical 
Tablets (W.A.L, II, 49, 45a) may possibly be the ** star of the 
cheetah." He compares the Assyrian word with tiie Arabic 
(l#j) /«'"^ ** ^ leopard.*^ Of the family Vimrruht^ Ainp^vorth 
mentions the genett ( Geuetia mdgm^s) as having been met 
with in Taurus and other mountain districts. Some species 
of ichneumon was also seen. The Asiatic ratel {Mdlivora 
Indica\ the sable {Martt^s zihdlinn)^ the pine-marten (MiiMeh 
marteif^ Lin.), the polecat (M, puioruif<^ Lin.), the Samartian 
weasel (M- Strrmaiica^ Pall.), of the family MuMeliiliP, are 
enumeirated amongst the wild animals of Mesopotamia, and 
were probably knowp to the ancient inhabitants^ though we 
may never be able to learn by what names they yiptp 



328 



i hi the Mamnudia of the ABtfj/rtan Sculpturfjf, 



k 



callecl. A epeciee of otter {Luira vulgaru ?), was eeen cm die 
Euphrates, Tigris, Karim, &c- 

Canidw* Tlie striped hyena (//. striata) is very commoa, 
(a white variety having been observed by Aine worth) ** in all 
kinds of countries, sheltering itself behind a wall orashmb/' 
Tlio wolf is moet fi-eqiient in Taunie. ThiR is the eommon 
Canis lupm^ Lin., the black variety of which was seen on the 
banks of the Sajur. The jackal (Cants aureus^ Lid.) is frequent. 
According to AinR worth, ** it appears to present aome 
differences in Syi'ia, in Euphrates, and in Persia, which have 
not yet been all determined/* Foxes are common ; near the 
Euphrates the species was always Vulpes corsaCf but in 
Taurus it was our common V1ffpe^'l vulgaris. 

The hyena is not represented on the sculptures, tliou^ 
it is mentioned in the records. In the Chaldean story of the 
deluge, Hea said to the warrior Elu (Bel), **iustead of thee 
maldng a deluge, may lions (][J*^y >-fcJJ nesu) increase, 
and men be reduced ; instead of thee making a deluge, may 
lig-bar-ra (ItJ Hh ^TP increase and men be reduced.** 
Mr, George Smith renders Ug-bar-ra by ** leopards '' ; but Mr. 
Sayce has pointed out that in the aBtrological tables lions 
and lig-bar^ are again asHociated, and that this latter 
Accadian word, Ug-bar^a^ is represented in the bilhigual list 
by the Assyrian word a-khu QJ *"t^I)* Now we may, with^ 
the greatest prol)ability, refer this Assyrian a-khu to a similar 
word which occurs in the Hebrew Bible, in the plural number, 
viz., okhim (Isaiah xiii, 21), These okhlm are associated with 
jackals by the Hebrew prophet, and are represented as in- 
habiting desolate Babylon, The authorised version renders 
the word " doleful creatures.'' The Hebrew word is to 
referred to a root meaning to ** howr' (PIK nHM, *' to cry' 
out all"), and notliing could answer better to the dismally^ 
howling hyena. The Accadian name Hg-har-ra may me 
*' beast (dog) striped," i.f,, ** the striped hyena." lluis we 
have an interestiiig instance of how the Aes^T-ian, the Hebrew, 
and the Accadian words reciprocally throw light on each 
other. The wolf is called numma (^f- fc^ff £|)» i-e.^ *'the 
animal from the high lands,'* t.e-, Elam, in Accadian, and 



On die Mammalia of the Assyrtaa Sculpiitre^, 



829 



(>^|yV^ 5:^ V^) zUu (Ileb. IHT) or a^i-lnv, ]} <]gf ^- 
in Assyrian, I am not aware of the existence of any definite 
ABByrian word for *' the fox" and '* the jackal." Probably 
the same word would express Iwth tliese kindred animalB, nn 
amongst the Hebrews by the word (T'^^ttJ] shuai ; I hazai'd 
the suggestion that foxes and jackals are denoted hy the 
I Assyrian word (TI "^-TT) a-^t. These a-6i are mentioned 
amongst wild animals that the Assyrian kings hunted, and 
which they occasionally brought to Nineveh or Calalu With 
doge and aSi it was a practice to chain up conquered enemies, 
Etymologically I would refer the word to the Hebrew aioA 
(nOH), an unused root, meaning to ** hurt/' to "injiure** 
(cf. the noun pplfj, ** mischief,*' "injury''). The name 
** hurtful'' or *' injm-ious aniraaW as applied to jackals and 
foxes — especially to the former — has reference to the damage 
these creatures cause to the vines. With this we may 
compare the simihir idea expressed in the Bible, as in 
Canticles ii, 15, ** Take for us the shtuiHm^ the little shmilim^ 
which spoil the vines." The fondness of foxes and jackals 
for grapes is well known, and as they were doubtless common 
in Assyria, they would often injure the vines, and thus merit 
the name of the injurious animals. 

UrmxLr, — The f ordinary Assyrian bear is the Ursu^ Si/riacui*^ 
the representative of the common brown bear of Europe 
( Ursus drctos) ; but farther north, as in the highlands of 
Armenia, tlie Syrian variety would be replaced by the com- 
Tuon brown bear. According to Ainsworth bears are not 
uncommon in Taurus and in the Persian Apennines. There* 
are many varieties of UrsitH arcfos ; Nilssoi^ describes six as 
being found in Sweden, varying from black and red-brown to 
the albino or variegated bear. Several varieties were prob- 
ably known to the Assyrians ; bears of different colours are 
mentioned on the bilingual tablefc, plate vi. No bear a}>pears 
in bas-relief on the monuments, but a very connect delineation 
of this am*mal may lie seen on a l>ronze dish from Nimrud, 
now in tlie British Museum, The bear is standing erect, 
feeding on the fruit of ^ome tree. It is frequently mentioned 
in the inscriptiops, and wae hunted by the AsajT-iaa monarchs; 



330 



On the Alammalia of (he A^synan Sculptures. 




it would be one of the most familiar of the wild animals 
known to the ancient inhabitantB of Elam* The usual 
Accadian name f<ir a bear is sakh^ represented by the 
charactt^r *-i^J^JYY][, with which the Assyrian da-btk 
(e^TT ^^ ^IIT^}' ^^^^' ^ ^^*'^*' ^^ compared in the bilingual 
tablets. The ideogram (*-^|^][y|Y) mkh also stands as a 
determinative prefix for any fierce carnivorous animal, and 
probably in some of the instances which occnr on Plate VI, ff»f 
W.A.L (voL ii, col. c, d, lines 2h to 40) the above character 
has that oflSce. Some of them, however, are extremely diffi- 
cult to make out, and Dr. Delitzsch has not been, I think, 
altogether successftil. The dam-mkh ('J^^f »^I^J^J|{y) 
and the gim'sakh (^ VJI *-^yJyf) of the Accadiaii cohinm 
are both equated with the Assyrian da-bu (^J ^»- ^yyt^), 
and denote *' the female adult bear"; the Accadian tsi-ikA 
(^^YY 4^»^»^T||) is the ordinary ideogram phonetically 
spelt, and tins word the Assyrians borrowed under the form 
sa*kku-u (^ *-y<| ^Iffs^). probably ** the male bear." The 
character i?aM (^^^^y!:Yyy|)* in line 25, apparently begiue to 
be used as a determinative prefix of some carnivorous or 
semi-caniivorous animaL Dr. F. Delitj^sch identifies the 
Assyrian kur-ci zaHin^iu (V' ^|[^| yy *^*-| ^) of the 23rd 
line with the Arabic karkaddtm ^\^^ or kurkadmi^ t.e», *• a 
rhinoceros," The Accadian column is here eflaced, but the 
word tiir (^^) "little," or "young/' appears. If this 
character were preceded by mhh^ then *' a young bear '* 
would proVjal>ly bo intended. The sakh magantm (*^^fcy|yy 
tYYY t^^ *"^D ^ ^^ Accadian column is correlated with 
the word nui-ak^ta-nu-u (gj i-Q »^EltlJ ^ ^l!T^) ^^ ^^^ 
Assyrian. Dr. F. Delitzsch thinks that the mamn or makan 
may refer to the country so called, that is Egyj^t, and that 
the animal intended is the hippopotamus. Lenormant inter* 
prets the word to mean *' the bear of the peninsula of Sinai** 
(Magan). The determinative prefix of sakh would lead me 
to suppose that a bear or bearJike animal is denoted rather 
thaa the hippopotamus. The sakfi ntaganna m followed in the 




On the Mammalia of the Aitfit/riati Scuiptures, 331 



biliagual liet by Sffkh inaifanna kuj^u (Accadian), for wliich the 
Asflyrian column has vm-ak-ka-niiru dmidii^ ue,^ the bear of 
"good omen*' or *' bleesed " boar, Tbig most likely refers 
not to any definite aiiimal, but to the constellation or ** star 
of the bear'* (^^y*^*^! ^-^^I^lfyy) cacalm dahi^ which, ac- 
cording to it« position in the heavens^ or its position relative 
to other constellations, might have been regarded as an omen 
of good or of misfortune. I can form nu conjecture as to 
the definite meaning of the mkh khm-a (^4^4^^^ ||), Accad. 
the khu-u9^m-u (»^y<| J^f ^f ^111^) ^^^^^ ^^^^ ru-m-su-u 
(^TT i^y j£f ^|T|^) ^'* ^^^ Assyrian colimins, but agree 
with Lenormant that some bear-like animal is signified. 
The words khusmi and ru^su may mean '* beaten out'* or 
" greyish-blue/' With the latter signification some variety 
of the bear may be meant. Dr, Delitzsch referring the 
names to the Arabic, supposes that a gazelle is the animal 
denoted ; but the deternnuative prefix of sakh is altogether 
opposed to such an intei*pretation. For the saih iik-a^ 
(*^3J[- yj) of the Accadian column, with which ha-nu-u 

(■"^1 ^ ^ITT^) ^*^'if^^ i^^ ^^^ Assyrian, Lenoroiant, inter- 
preting the wonls to mean ** the builder" or " conetructor/* 
doubtfully BUggeets "the beaver*" Delitzsch thinks an old 
or adult male gazelle is intended, from hanu *^ to beget/* The 
mention of the beaver leads me to say a few words on the 
existence of that animal in Mesopotamia, *^The order of 
Rodentia" writes Ainsworth (ANsyriaj p, 39), "presents us 
with the common beaver {Castor Fibei*)^ found by the expedi- 
tion (Colonel Chesney's) in Euphrates and Khabour/* But of 
the Khabour beavers Mr. Layard thus speaks: — 

'*The Jebours killed fuur beavers, and brought three of 
their yoimg to us alive. They had been driven fi-om their 
holes by the swollen stream. Moharamed Emin eagerly 
accepted the musk bags, which are much valued as majonn^ 
by the Turks, and consequently fetch a large price in the 
towns. The Arabs eat the flesh, and it was cooked for us, 
but proved coarse and tough. The young we kept for 

* Lenormimt ha« giren duh^ C^P^ fe~^ ) *°******1 of iik^a. 



333 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Seulptures, 



some days on milk, but they eventually died. Their cry 

resembled that of a new-born infant. The Khabonr beavers 
appeared to me to differ in several particulars fi'orn the 
American, The tail, instead of being large and bi'oad, was 
uhort and pointed. They do not build hute, but buiTOw in 
the banks, takin|^ care to make the entrance to their holes 
below the surface of the stream t-o avoid detection, and 
the chambers above out of reach of the ordijiai-y floods. 
Beavers were fonnerly found in large nmnhers on the 
Khabour, but in coneoqueuce of the value attiiched to the 
muek bag, they have been hunted almost to extermination 
by the Arabs. Mohammed Emin assm-ed me that for several 
years not more than one* or two had been seen, Sofiik, 
the great Sharamar Sheikh, used to consider the musk hag 
of a beaver the most acceptable present he could send to 
a Turldsh Pasha whose friendship he wished to secure." 
(Niu, and BaK, 296-7.) 

The animals described by Mr* Layard appear to iDelong 
rather to the musk rat (Fiber ziijethiciis) than to the beaver 
(Castor)i but so far as is generally known at present, there is 
only one species of musk rat (the Musquash or Ondutrd)^ and 
that animal is confined to North America. There is no other 
allied genus known to inhabit Western Asia, It is a pity tliat 
Mr, Layard did not bring home some skins of his animals, 
which I suspect are new and undescribed- The l>eaver, 
whether we regard the old-world species (Ca&tor fiber) 
distinct or not from the American animal {Ca»tor Canadensu)^ 
formerly was an inhabitant of the whole of Europe and 
Western Asia. It is said to be found in considerable numbers 
" in the streams of the Ural mountains and in those of the 
Caspian Sea, extending into Tartary " (MmTay's Geograph. 
Dist Mam,, p* 264), and very prokibly %vaB known to the 
Assyrians and neighbouring people ; though of coiu^se 
whether this animal is the (mkh) banu of the bilingual tablet is 
extremely doubtful. The sakk-mm-tHv Q-^^^^lfj^^ rf- i^^) 
Accad., and the ap-par-riir-u (t^^l ^| ^IT ^IIT^) ^^ *^^ 
Assyrian column, with which also the sakh ii-khar^a 
{^X^if^]]}] *>^^ J^^ BJ:yy) of the Accadian is identic-al, 




On the Mammalia of the AsAifvimt Sculptures, S33 

iterpreted by Lenormant to denote the wild l>oar; 
afHpa-ru being 8ui>i>nsfed to be the same ae the Arabic ^, 

Dr. Delitzsch refers the Assyrian word to the Hebrew 
opher 0?^)^ **^^ fawii" or •* gazelle," The objection to 
M* Lenommnt's and ScJirader's suggeBtiou is that the Arabic 
word is not truly pure Ambic, but a loan or bon-owed Latin 
word {'* aper'') in an Arabic dress, like the German el^er. 
The presence of the same determinative prefix sakh, precludc^« 
altogether the idea of a fawn or gazelle being intended. My 
own opinion is that these three words, apparru (Assyrian), 
Bokh-U-khar^mj and sakh-mas-luv (Accadian), have reference 
not to a living animal, bnt to the gonstellation of the Great 
Bear. The scribe who wrote this bilingual tablet was not 
attempting any zoological system properly so called, he only 
cared for corresponding words or sentexaces in the Accadiau 
and Assyrian languages* Now, one of the Accadian words, 
ifoih-mas-hw reminds one of the star Enimamadui\ i.e., the 
star of ** the tip of the tail,'* and is explained by the Assyrian 
^ir eUeu'tsiri (^^^^ MT^^ t^^^^0> memlfrum caudifi sum7f}a\ 
*Hip of the tail;' (See Sayces Astron, and AstroU Bib. 
Arch, Trans., Vol. Ill, p. 170.) The other Accadian word, 
mkh'§i-kha7*ra, means '* bear," -f- *■ horn/* + *' heaven,*' clearly 
having reference to the constellation of the Great Bear, and 
not to any living bear-like animaL 




The mkh-'mas'luv and the mkh'Si-khar-ra both denote the star tf 
m Ursa Major, the projecting tail being appropriately enough 
called '' horn of heaven," though I am unable to give any ex- 



On the Mammalia of the Asnyrian Sculptures, 



planation of the corresponding Assyrian word apparru.^ In tbA 
next column there followB in the Aecadian saili-naifv-en^ta-^ilMi 

(-:^j[-f][;|r -y<y> -n -^T ^fif Tf)* ^^'^^^ ^^icii the 

AsBjriaji bit-j-itr-u or e-ru-u is equated. The Aecadian 
expieBsioo means " bear '* -h *' royal cru wnship " + " making '* ; 
if the Assyrian word ^^]]^ ^JJl ^Tf f^ ^^ ^^^^ e-rtt^^^ it may 
denote *'an eagle," I believe the scribe*s mind is atill 
dwelling on the constellation Urm Mcijor, and that the 
Aceadian expression, ** the bear making its crownship/* liaa 
reference to the evolution of the Great Bear aroiuid the polar 




star. In the Assyrian word er4 or ** eagle," the same idea 
of *' crown-making '* may be seen in the successiijn of the 
spiral curves with which eagles mount up to a great altitude 
in the air, M, Lenormant appears to think that a captive 
bear in chains is intended by the gaih-fiam-ewnu'^aka. Dr. 
F, Delitzsch BuppoBCB that the wild ass is the animal denoted, 
the Assyrian name being read i~ru-Uy and referred to the 
Arabic " -, the Hebrew "1^1?* '*a wild ass^s colt," a "wild 
asB." But to this again, as it seems to me, the D.P. of the 
Aecadian word is opposed. 

' Arabic Dicbiouanes give jll£ aa " hj»im mas liirsutuB/* and J^ 
as '' ilatio qumdaKi iiuuD oonstanB ex exigiiis sideritiisj'* or *^ trei itelluitf in 
Libn,*' but I do not know on what ftuthoritj. [A. H. S J 




On thf Mammalia of the A^^i/rion Sculpturf/t. 1^35 

The word that ocfiipies the next place is mkh-talfii-ri-ga 
(-;rr::TTn ^ ^TM ^II^T ^]}\^y ^ ^^^ Accadmu, and 
€^irza-ai (j^J jj HTl) ^^ ^'^^ Assyriau column. This by 
Dr. F, DelitzBch ia conjectured to be the '* marteu-cat " 
(Marder), the AsRyrian naroe being referred to a Bimilar name 
in Syriac, which appears to denote a '* small jumping animal/^ 

* a marten " or '* ferret.'* Castell (Lex. S jTriacum, Ed. 
Michaelis, p, 783) adds, '* animal tjallnnif infestmn,'' *' lynx.'' 
SI. Lenormant gives no translation. The Atjcadian expression, 
which perhaps means '*bear '* + ** the prey " + ** seizing/* 
appears to refer to the bear forcibly taking food.^ The scribe 
next mentions mkh-niga (»^^|^y|yy "^J, to which morru-u 
(tj ^m ^TTT^) ^mswers in the Aes^Tian column. I see no 
reason against taking this as meaning *' a young male bear " 
in a literal sense. In the next line we have sakh-jwja-kuru-ffa 
(^"^^t^^]]} ^ KT'^^T ^yiT^) "^ ^'^^ Accadian, and mara 
itam-ku Ql t*~^T >^^) 1^ t^^ Assyrian column. The 
words mean ** the young '* or ** small bear of good omen," 
and I suspect are used in an astrological and astronomical 
sense. After this we come again to literal bears, as '* white," 
"'black," '* grey; ' and '* reddish-brown/' The tablet is then 
broken. 

Of the order Rodentia^ porcupines {Ifystria^ crigtata)^ 
mole-rats {Spala,v t^phlm), abundant in the plains of 
Kurdistan, are known to inhabit Assyria and the neighbouring 
land^ and no doubt were known to the ancient inhabitants^, 
though we are at present ignorant of the names by which 
they were called. Diflerent species of gerboa are fotmd in 
the plains, as the Dlpu^ gerboa^ I), jacuJus^ JX »agiUa^ 
D, pj/^iiFu^^ and other undetermined species, Spejmiopftitus 
citillu^, S. marmoiia, the marmot, mice numerous and various ; 
rats {Muif deeumanus) ; squirrels — abundant in the woods — 
are enumerated by Ainsworth as occurring in Assyria. But 
at present w© are ignorant of the Assyrian names of all 
these animals. The only rodent whose name is ascertained 



1 Sfe W.AXf II, 38, 11, where tlie AccadwD D.P. rita ri-ri-ffa » Aisjti^M 
lakidh kurhanni -= taking + tax -^ t<ii-giitlieppr. [A. H, S.] 

Vol. V. 22 



330 On the Mammalia of the Asfiyrtan Sculpturen, 



IB thu liarcs of wfjich two species are known to occur iu 
Afisyrian lands, *"the Turkoman hare,** which haunts the 
plains, and the hare of the* desert, thijs latter probably being 
the Lepm SinaUitrm, The Aesyiian name of the hare is 
an-Tia-bu (»-»^T ^^] '^*^) *^^® ameheiJi (rOT)^\ of the 
Hebrew Scriptures, the anub («^^ »\) of the modern Arabe* 
Ita Accadian name is expressive of its abode, ca^zin-fia 

(•"^IH ^^^T ""^D' ^'•^- ***^^^'^ '•*' ^^^^ deeeit;* In the 
bilingual tablet tlie hare is mentioned after the gazelle, 
appropriately enongli, as another swift animal of the desert. 
Other species of hare may probably occur in Aseyria ; 
the rabbits, which Ainswoith says are rare, must be a modem 
introduction, for the original home of these animals is Spain 
and the Balearic islands, and they were not known at all to 
the ancient Greeks as indigenous animals, nor to the Romans 
before the time of Varro, who brought specimens from Spain 
into Italy, where they were seen by Atheneus, A.D, 230, on 
hisjom-ney from Puteoh to Naples, The rabbit, therefore 
was not knowTi to the ancient inhabitants of Assyria ; where 
it does now occur in Westeni Asia, it must have been imported. 
Of the order 

Ungidaki, — Amongst the Bovidee or ox family we have the 
wild bull, figured on the moniunents, and very frequently 
mentioned in the historical and hunting records. This 
animal was kiiowu to the Assyrians by the name of rhnu 
C'^TT^T f:£ *^)y t^nd to the Accadians by that of am-H 
{t^^^ *^y|)» *'^'' ^* the homed bid V in allusion to the size of 
the horns of the aniniab The rimii is one of the most 
interestuig of the creatures represented on the mouuraents, 
and it helps to establish^ beyond a shadow of doubt, the 
opinion of those who maintain that the so-called *' unicorn '* 
of the Bible is a two-horned bovine auinial of great size and 
ferocity. The Hebrew name of this wild bull, so unfortti- 
nately translated '* unicorn " by the authorised version, is 
rt%i ( 0^*1 \ which is identical wdth the Ass^man limu. The 
unicorn of our English Bible owes its origin to the Septuagmt 
and Vulgate versionB {fj^ovoK^pm^ and unicornis), lu Deut. 
xxxiii, 17, which contains a portion of Joseph's blessing, it is 



I 





I 
I 
i 

I 



I 
I 



Oh the Mammalia of the Af^nifinan SatJpturen, ,H37 



said, *' hie bonis art' like the horns of a reenC' Our translators 
seeing the contradiction involved in the expression *' horns 
of the unieoTi^' have rendered the Hebrew singular noun as 
if it were a phn-al-form in the text, though they give the 
correct translation in the margin. The two horns of the 
remn are tlie ten thousand of Eiiln-aim and the thousands 
of Manasseh, and represent the two tribes whit:h sprang 
from one (viz., JiJseph), just as two horns spring from 
one head. The rem^ then, was two-horned 5 it is almost 
always mentioned with bovine animals; it is said to push 
with its horns. No wild ox at present exists iu Palestine, 
but there is no reason why, in biblical times, some great wild 
species, perhaps alhed to the Urm which Caesar saw in the 
Hercynian forest, should not have f existed in Palestine, It ia 
quite possible that iiiture investigations in that comitry may 
result in the diseovery of the remains of B08 primigemus. 
Bison prhcus^ or some other formidable wild ox. Words to 
this effect I WTote about fifteen years ago. Not long after 
this Dr. Tristram \'iBited Palestine and diseovered in bone 
breccia of the Lebanon five teeth* four of which were de- 
clared by Boyd Dawkins to belong to Bos prhnufmius, the 
other tooth prubnbly to a Bhon, 

The description of the untameable rt^tn in the Book of 
Job, " \Vill the rem (unicorn) be willing to serve thee,*' &c,, 
should be compared with Caesars account of the fierce ti^-tw, 
which I believe to be the very animal depicted on the sculp- 
tures, and which he saw in the Hercynian forest : " These vri 
are scarcely less than elephants in size, but in their natm-e, 
colour, and fonn, are bulls. Great is their strength and great 
their speed, nor do they spare man or beast when once they 
have caught eight of liim. The himters are most carelid to 
kill those which they take in pitfallsj while the young men 
exercise themselves by this sort of hunting, and grow 
hardened by the toil. Those of them who kill most receive 
great praise when they exliibit in public the horns as trophies 
of their success, These uri, however, even when they are 
young, cannot be habituated to man and made tractable. 
The size and shape of their horns are very ditltTent from 
those of our own oxen**' (Caesar, Bell, Gall, vi, 28*) 



;i3>< O.i ihf MtimmaUa of the Asmn'^'Mn Sculpt uree* 



Tlie Assyrian runu, which is genemlly represented by the 
Accadian am^U (^!^^ ^TT)> ^^^ been varionaly rendered 
by Assyriologints as '' elephant/' " wikl boar/' *' buffalo," 
'* rhinoctTos '' i tht; fii^st is Dr* Hincks translation, the second 
Dr. Oppert'a, and the third, wliieh, though not strictly 
correct, is a close approximation, iw that of our own eminent 
Sir Henry RiUvlijiHon. Mr* NorriB also generally translates 
the word by ** buffalo/' though from the expressioB, *' horned 
but!/' in one place, he doubtfiilly suggeste *Va rhinoceros.** 
Other Cuneitorni scholars, as Mr* Fox Talbot, Mr* (f. Smithy 
luiiformly render the word by a *' buifalo/' Sir. Sayce, 
correctly, ** a 'wald bull/' though in his translation of the 
inscription on the black obehsk, by an oversight^ he renders 
'* tusks *' of wild balls instead of '* horns*" 

It is very interesting to find the Ass^iian records 
confirming the accuracy of palaionlologists. Four of the 
teeth found by Dr. Tristram in bone breccia of Lebanon 
were, as I have said, identified by Boyd Dawkins as belonging 
to some gigantic wild ox, most probably the Bos prlfftigenius. 
Now of the king of the broken obelisk, it is expressly men- 
tioned that he hunted these rimi in the very district where 
their teeth have been found. 

'* Wild rhni wliich opposite the land of the Hittites, and 
at the foot of Lelmnon he killed/' 

In the time of Tiglath-Pileser I, who was probably 
king of the broken obelisk, these wild bulls must have been 
somewhat numeroiis in certain districts ; for not only were 
they often slain in hunting expeditions, but their calves were 
captured alive and brought to the Royal abode at Calah or 
Nineveh. In the time of the later Assyrian monarche these 
animals became scarce, for no representation of wild bull 
hunting occurs on the moimmcnts of Assur-bani-pal. The 
king hunted the wild bull in his chariot, attended by horse- 
men. Occasionally the wounded animal, with arrows fixed 
in the lx)dy, would make a rush at the chnriot, when the 
monarch would seize him by the horn, and with a short, 
strong sword pierce the rnarrowof the cervical vertebrse, which 
woidd — as m modem Spanish bull fights — instantly bring 
hui2 to the ground. The wild bull would sometimes fight 




I 



I 





On the Mammalia of the Asmi^uin Sculptures. 33 *> 



"With the lion, as may be seen on a sculpture from Nimrud* 
The long, strong horns were valued; frequent nieiitiun is 
made of them in the records, aa '* horns without number I 
received-'* We learn from Caesar and Pliny that the large 
horns of the urus were anxiously sought after for making 
into cups to be used at splendid entertainments, or for 
ornaments, the tips being bound -with silver. Some such use 
the Assyrians also no doubt made of them* Their skins also 
were much prized, tVeipient mention l>eing made of them. 
Whether the large and powerful mastiff was used in wild 
bull hunting does not appear from the monuments, which 
give no representation of the use of dogs in this chase. 

The species of wild cattle hunted by the ancient Assyrian 
kings is one e\4dently closely alhed to Bo^^ prtmi/^emm, the 
gigantic urus which the Roman armies saw when they pene- 
trated the forests of Belgium and Germany. The wild bull 
of the sculptures is not a bimn but a boa^ a genus differs 
from the genus bismt in certain characters, especially in the 
form and size of the horns ; in the bos^ the forehead, too, is 
flat, in the bison it is convex* The horns of the bison are short, 
tliose of the Assyrian bull are lung and ciu-ved. Remains of 
the Bos pnmi(jemt{S have been found in the alluvial beds of 
rivers and the newer tertiary deposits of this coimtiy ; in 
marl-pits of Scotland, in which coimtry Professor Owen 
thinks it raaintauied its ground longest. If the form and 
size of the horns of Bos primigeiiim m the British Mnseum be 
compared with the sculptured representations of those of the 
wild bull of the monuments, tliis similarity will l>u apparent. 
The Assyrian Tvild rinui then is not a bimn^ neither is it a 
buffalo. In this hitter animal ttie forehead is even more 
convex than in the bi^on^ while the horns are very different ; 
80, whether we look at the long-horned (Macrocerus) variety 
of the Mnld buffalo (Arne)^ or the curved-horned {Spiroeerus) 
variety, in neither case does this animal resemble the bull of 
the monuments. Again, the rhnu was him ted in forests and 
amongst the hills; the wild buffalo is a swamp-loving animal, 
and, like its domestic relation, loves to wallow in marshes, in 
whieh it sometimes lies buried up to the head. The original 
home of the Indian buffalo appears to have been India, in tins 



340 



On the Mammalia of tfis Assi/riaji Sculp fure^. 



Hwarapy jiingles of which country it found a congenial home. 
I do not think it occuiTed west of the InduB in the time of 
the Assyrians. According to C?uvier, the buffalo, now bo 
much used as a beast of burden in the East and West, was 
not introduced Uito Europe before the Middle Ages, though 
ita introduction into Western Asia w^aR probably anterior to 
that date. No bufTalo was known to the ancient Greeks and 
Romans. The ffov^aXos or bulnjlis of classical authors is 
clearly some species of antelope, the Alcephalm bubalU of 
modem zoolngists. Considering the weight of evidence, 
whether pictorial, historical, paleeontologiual, or etymological, 
I tliink there is not the slightest doubt that the rimu 
{^^<] t^£ *^) of the A8S)Tian language, the am-il {^^^^^ ^IT) 
of tlie Accadian, is the rem (DHl) of the Hebrew Bible, and 
that the particukr species of wild cattle indicated is the 
Boa primiijfimm of Boyanus and Cuvier. This animal is 
figured on the sculptures with much spirit ; the strong and 
thick^ long curved horns are well cli^awn ; it is generally, if 
not always, represented with a hump on the back, reminding 
one in this respect of the Indian zebu, but ihcre are no 
osteological differences between the zebu and the common 
Boa taunts^ with its numerous varieties j and even steps of 
transition, from the complete absence of the shoulder hump 
to the well-developed hump in the Indian zebu may be seen 
in some other breeds, as, for instance, in the thickened 
shoulder of the Italian breed, whicli also, in point of colour^ 
somewhat resembles the zebu. I have already mentioned 
(in Part I, p. 42) that the long-homed variety of the domestic 
cattle of the Assyrians, both in possessing the hump more or 
less developed, and in the foi-m of their horns, resemble the 
wild ox or tuhk. Was the Bos prlmigemus m any way the 
origin of the Assyiian domestic breed? I think it very 
prolmble^ 

The gigantic living wild ox of the primitive forests of 
India, the Bos gaur^ is a magnificent animal, wortiiy of being 
compared with the Bos primiaenius, now extinct, I think it 
could hardly have been known to the Assyrians, as it probably 
did not occur west of the Indus. 

Passing from the Bovidte to the Cajrvidce, or goat family, 




On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, Ml 

we know that the wild goat (Capra miatjrus^ Gm*) ie coniniou 
through \mi Jlinor aud Peraki, extending eaBtward as far aa 
SeiDde, It Diiwt have been a very well known specieSj and 
frequently hunted by the Assyrian kings. I am not aware, 
however, of any repreBentation of this wild goat on the 
raonuraent«. The epeeiea occasionally figured is doubtless 
the Asiatic ibex, vix., the Capra Sinaitica^ Ehrenb., whidi has 
a wide geographical range, being found in North Africa 
Arabifi Petra^iv, PaloBtine. Aineworth mentions the stembock 
(Capita ibea\ Lin.) as oceumng in the Taiinis. But this 
species is not found out of Europe. The C, Cauamca^ or 
Bouquetin dn Cancasey Cnv., though perhaps for the most part 
confined to tlve Caucasus* was probably not unkno^^i to the 
Assyrians, The species, however, best known would be 
the C. (Fgaijrns Rud the C. Siuaitica, There are several 
Assyrian words which evidently denote goats or wild goats ; 
these are /T»- *^IT<T T^ arme, in the plural number, a-hM:ht^ 
t^ap-pa-nt^ and m-e^lL As some of these words have been 
considered in the first part of my subject, I will merely refer 
Imck, and say that I think the arim refei's to henh of the 
Capita wgagrus^ that a-tii-da I take to be the ordinary word 
for the domestic he-goat ; the tsitp-pa-fnt, which in the 
Accadian is called " the strong horn-raiser,'* may be the wild 
he-goat, C. cegagrm, individually, and the i^a-eli herds of the 
Western Asiatic Ibex, C, Smaiiica. It was Dr. Hi neks who 
first suggested that arme meant *' wild goats/" the Assyrian 
word being referred to the Syriac arnOy ** Capra Bupkmla^'' 
'* Hlrcus S}jlv€stri%' ** a wild goat" The Assyrian ya-e-H 
(t^ff t|f *^£^jy) clearly must be referred to the Hebrew 
^3^ (yd^i)^ properly translated "wild goats" in our vei*sion. 
The Hebrew animal-name is from the root /S^, *' to ascend," 
ie*y ** tlie climbing anima!.'' The Vulgate renders the Hebrew 
word by "ibexes,** and probably this is the exact meaning of 
the word. Chamois are rock-clirabers, and go in herds like 
the ibex. But though they are found in the Caucasus in 
very large numbers, as a recent traveller has told ns, these 
caprine antelopes are not found elsewhere in Western Asia. 
Dr. i\ Delitzsch doubtfully suggests ''the chamois'' to be 



342 On the Mamnmlia of the Assyrian Sculptures* 

denoted by the Assyrian di-ta^nn {4^'^^ ^^ITT "S^)' ^^ 
<*^T? <!*- ideogi*aphically in the Accadian uolumB. He 
compares a somewhat similar Arabic word as the name of 
some kind of chamois. Perhaps the chamois was known to 
the ancient Assyinans, though it is not possible to say by 
what name. 

The beat known wild sheep in Assyria is the Capravis 
orientalise Armenian sheep. The true 0ms amvion (Lin.) of 
the Altai has its representative in the 0. Arkal of Blasius from 
the east of the Caspian ; it is, however, a much smaller 
animal. The rasa or roosh, Ovis polity a gigantic species of 
wild sheep with enormous horns, circularly twisted, which 
inhabits the plains of Pamer, east of Bokhara, 16,000 feet 
above the sea level, is called by Blythe the Ovis sculptorum^ 
as though the 0. polii \vere a domesticated variety of 
/>. aries. The rass, how^ever, is a vnld sheep ; it is 
mentioned by Marco Polo. Recently another gigantic wild 
sheep, Thien Shan Ovis^ has been obtained by Colonel 
Gordon's party, which may be distinct from 0. poUL If this 
species was ever known to the Accadians, one would expect 
a name describing its wonderftil horns* 

We now leave the goats and sheep and come to the deer 
family, or CervidiF. Two species of deer are represented on 
the monuments : a spotted deer, apparently with horns more 
or less palmated, and a species which resembles the common 
stag of Europe ( Cervus ehphts^ Lin.). Ainsworth says that the 
fallow deer {Cermts dama) is common in some parts of Taurus, 
and states a report that the stag (C. elaphus) occurs in the 
same districts; he also says that the roe-buck (Cervm 
capreohis) \a not uncommon. The spotted deer of the 
monuments is generally considered to be the fallow deer, 
which is known to occur in the south of Asia Minor, but it is 
a question whether the spotted deer of the sculptures may 
not also include the Cervus Mesopotandcus recently described 
by Sir Victor Brooke. The figure of a spotted deer without 
horns amidst reeds appears to represent a youag individual, 
in which case it woald be impossible to identify the species, 
l>ecau8e the young of all deer are spotted, with the exception 
of the typical Rusinc deer, reindeer and elk. There is 



On the Mammalia of thf A»ff^rtan SculjUureg^ 343 

another spotted adult deer, namely, the Cermts axia^ with 
non-palmate hornn, but this epeciee does not occur west of 
Hindostan, and wotild not have loeen known to the Assyrians* 
The figures on the monumentfi are not drawn with anfficient 
acciiracy for ns to d<^temiine the exact species of spotted 
deer. In Sir Victor Brooke's Cemu Mesopotamicm the horns 
are palmated not far from the base; from the posterior 
comer of this palm *'a strong cjlindrical beam** rises, 
tenninatiiig in three well-developed tines. In Cervim dania^ 
the fallow deer» the horns are at first («.<?., near the bnr) 
cylindrical, the tipper portion being broadly flattened and 
palmated. This new deer described by Sir Victor Brooke is 
closely allied to the Cei*vus datna^ but is clearly a distinct 
type. A figure of a spotted deer on a Babylonian cylinder, 
Bhowing horns pahiiated at the top, would seem to represent 
the fallow deer rather than the Cervm MeAopotamkus. There 
19 algo a baa-relief representing a deity holding a spotted 
deer in liis hands. The horns in tliis case too are palmated 
at the top ; but the large, oval» regularly arranged spotii 
would rather suggest the Cervus Mesiypota7mcus, Probably 
both t^T)es or species were known to the Assyrians. The 
C. Me^opatamicu^i is found in Khuzistan and Luristan, 
countries at the north of the Persian gulf.' 

The other non-spotted deer of the monuments is no 
doubt a species closely allied to the Cervm elaphm of 
Europe, which is known to occur in Asia Minor. Generally 
speaking, the sculptures show animals with very large horns ; 
a stag on a terraH^oUa fragment has the horns enonnously 
developed. A stag, which may be a variety of the Cet^us 



* " Thii new speciep of doer," Sir Tictor Brooke r^niarkB, *' presents a type 
of horn which atandi unique amongut eibting CmnHee." He udde — *' Not wit h- 
itanding the fact tlmt the iniiior groups into which tho eiisting C^rvida naturiilly 
fftU, U in «i certAiti ine-Mims itidicat-ed bj certain peculiarities in the exlerual 
oooflguration of th<* homo of the vftrious Bpeciei, lh« litrotig ivBemblancc between 
tlie ikulb and general appearance of the new epecies to eomiuon faMow deer, 
le»Tes no room for doubt m to their close affinit j, whilst in the form of the honm 
they differ widely. If this view be correct, it follows I hat, although of great 
g»»neTal utility to the «oologi»t^ the eiteroal configuration of the homa aU>H9 
cannot be wnsidert^l a« a crucial teel amongst the Cervidof*- (Proceedings Zool. 
Koc. for 1875, p. 265) 



844 



On the Mammalia of the A8»i/7*ian Scul/Uures, 



elaphiis, was seen by Lord Arthur Ilay in the mountains of 
Assyria, the honis of which are described as being larger 
than those of the wapiti, Then^ again, there ib the Cervus 

WalHchii^ Cnv*, the mdral^ or Persian deer, an aDied gpecieB^ 
which has ako very large horns. Of the RiiHJne section the 

Cervus Caspiciis (Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1874, p. 42), from 
Taliech, eonth-west of the Caspian, occiu*s, whose herns 
referable those of Cei'vus <?.r?V, These may all have been 
known to the ancient inhabitants of Mesopotijmia ; the deer 
figured on the monmnente wonld probably be the Cen^uti 
ehplms (Vera), or the C. Wallkhii, the general characters of 
which resemble the common stag of Europe. 

By what names were these two species of deer knov^Ti to 
the Assyrians and Accadians? In the bilingual tablet 
we find in the Aceadian eoliimn the sign dara (^llElI)' 
which in the Assjnian column is repreeetited by tu-ra-Uiu 
(*^EE| E^yi ^^y^D* ^ consider both these words to repre- 
sent "deer" in a general 8ense> perhaps even inclnding 
antelopes. The Assyrian word Dr, F. Delitzsch refers to the 

Arabic irdkh^ A\ ' or arhhony -X » which Freytag gives 
Bos Ma.% juvencm, anttlope, the letter t in tnrakhu being the 
formative of the noun. Next follow dara-bar (»^|IEIT >f-} 
and al-iu Qj J^ I&ff) ''^ ^^^ respective columns. Now 
bar (*!-), amongst a number of meanings, has that of 
** striped,'* "spotted," or '^mottled''; hence djira^bar in 
Aceadian is literally translated '* the spotted deer;* and 
when we see how plainly the Assyrian sculptor represented 
the spots on the deer he figured, and how conspicuons these 
spots are on the animals themselves, whetlier the species be 
the fidlow deer or Sir V. Brooke's new Mesopotamian specieSi 
we see how appropriate is the Aceadian name. The Assyrian 
a«7u is clearly the Hebrew <nryy<i/ (-JH), a "stag," or ''hart." 
The dara-bavkak (^-UEH >|- Jf^)» "^^^^h which the Assyrian 
na-ai'lu {^^\ Tt If ]^II)> ^^^^^her form of aiht^ is equated, 
is "the male spotted deer.'* Next in the tablet follows, in 
the Aceadian place, dara-khal^khal'la (^^JJtH *"*" *"*" *"^D* 




On the Majfumilia of the Asap-iun Sculptures* 345 



and T'» or '* ditto '* {naiitt)^ in tlie AssjTian, Now khal-khal^la 
denotes *' impetuosity/' '* violence,*' ** fury-making/* The 
name khal-klial (p-^ ^^), in Aeeyrian ga^rtim m nu^ *' violent 
rushing of waters/* is one of the names of the Tigris ; bo 
here in dara-khal-khal-la we have a large and dangerous deer, 
such as Cervus elapkm, or the mdral^ the males of which, 
especially at one period of the year, are often savage, and 
when wounded are furmidahle opponents. The idea embodied 
in the Aecadiau word has often been most admirably repre- 
sented by the late Sir E. Landseer in well-known pictures. 
The Assyrian monuments represent the capture of these largo 
deer; men siin'ounded portions of a forest with large and 
strong nets, into wfiieh the animals were driven, or they 
were shot with bow and arrow. The dog used in chasing 
the wild deer was the large mastiff used in hunting the wild 
asses. Ill the chase of the dara^khat'khai'ia^ whether of the 
large horned variety of the Cervus elaphus or the Persian 
Mdral stag, a powerfiil dog was ueeessary, for a stag at bay 
is a fonnidablo antagonist to any kind of dog. The habit of 
the stag's taking to water when hard pressed has been 
noticed by the Assyrian sculptor, and has been depicted on a 
slab from Koynujik* The nets used in deer-hiintiiig were of 
course of strong material, the meshes were large. A portion 
of forest was enclosed by a not, which was secured by 
poles and pegs, and men outside the not attended to any 
poles and pegs that might have been loosened by the nish of 
a terror-stricken stag t beaters inside, probably fonning a line 
as in modern cover shooting, would drive the animals into 
the nets, where they would be killed by aiTOWs or spears. 

The Aniflope€E or antelope-group is represented iii Assyria 
and neighbouring lands by several species; there is the white 
•antelope [Ori/x leucori/a:) of North Africa and Egypt, in the 
capture of which the ancient Egyptians used a particular 
breed of dog named jnahft^ which, with the determinative 
affix of an antelope, means *' dog of the white antelope.** 
(Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., Vol. IV, p. 1720 The Alcephalus 
buhalis, A ddax nasornaru/ati/s^ Sai(^a Tartarica^ Gozelia dorcag, 
G, suhtjitttnromj O* muscat emifi^ Ortf^r hratris^ also occur in 
Western Asia. The only sculptural representation that we 



846 



On the Mammalia of ike Assyrian Sculptiirts* 



find on the Assyrian monuments is the gazelle, whose lyrate 
horns proclaim the species, to bo either Gazella dorcas (Vera), 
or G, subgutlurosa. The former species occur in the deserts 
north of the Persian Gulf; the G, subguUurosa is found in 
the same localities, and 18 said to be comraonen The hunted 
gazelles of the sculptures, though drawn with a good deal of 
Bpirit, are too robust and goat-like^ tlio horns are too massive 
and too long* The animals no doubt are intended for 
gazelles, though the goat-like form has misled some writers 
to regard them as ibexes. Although the gazelle is generally 
considered as an animal of the deserts, it will also frequent 
rocks, Tristram noticed gazelles on the rocks of Engedi 
amongst "wild goat«, and pn^bably the Assyrians would also 
find the gazelle in similar situations. The favourite mode of 
hunting the gazelle in the East is by hawk and greyhound. 
Layard speaks i»f *'the pursuit of the gazelle with the fiilcon 
and hoimd over the boundless plains of Assyria and 
Babylonia as one of the moat exhilaratiug and gracefiil 
of sporti?, displaying equally the qualities of the horse, the 
dog» and the bird/' (Nin. and Bab., p. 482.) Such a combined 
method was probably unknown to the ancient inhabitants, 
who very likely set huntsmen to wait in ambush, and others 
to drive them within shot. Perhaps also the grt^yhound 
was employed in the chase of the gazelle. The bilingual 
list furnishes us with the Accatlian word, or rather 
ideogram, for a gazelle, which was >^ (bar). This character 
is known to possesia several meanings, and I do not know 
what pai^ticular one we ought to attach to the gazelle, but 
the fact that it is the representative of the Assyrian tmbi 
(ff ^)i which is identical with the Hebrew tsfbi (*??), 
seems to place beyond doubt that >|- (bar) is the Acca+lian for 
* the gazelle*" In the following column we have BAR-KAK 
(>^ Sfl), which we are told to read (^T ^^IfT) ni-ioy u^., 
"male'*; it is represented in the Assyrian column by the 
word ilara$'Bu (^^f ^ i^T)» ^^''*'^ which may be compared 
the Hebrew^ dhhon (Jiffi^), a species of Wuiding gazeDe 
or other antelope. Another Accadian word for an antelope 




ihi the Majiinudia of tJit" AsMi/i*ian Sculptm*es* 847 



\^_^ >{- ^j iimar (?) nita ; it is compared with the 
Issyrian itrza-luv (^y^y^ f |[ f^^)* 'W'hich is identical with 
the Arabic J()^' gazdl^ our own English word "gazelle." 
Though perhaps same of the larger aiitelopee mentioned 
above were known to the Assyrians in their hunting ex- 
peditions, or seen by them in their war marches, the small 
gazelles alone seem to be mentioned in the biUngual list, and 
were perhaps the species most familiar to the people. The 
large antelope-like beast represented on the black obelisk in 
pumpany with the one-horned rhinoceros^ which it equals, or 
^^veii surpasses, in height and strong build, resembles no 
•jggp^i]g antelope. Its decidedly lyrate horns remind one 
of the antelope {Procapra (futtnrom^ Gray) of Thibet and 
Mongolia. Probably this animal, and the rhinoceros and 
the bull with crescent horns, were all drawn from memory. 

The Etpvidw or horse-family are represented on the 
sculptures by the wild asses alone. The zebras and the 
quagga are not met with out of the continent of Africa, 
Three species at least of wild ass have been described. The 
Eijuus (Asinus) Ilemionus (the kiang, the wild ass of Thibet) 
is found in herds in the high table-lands of that country at 
an altitude of 15,000 feet or more above the sea level. The 
kiang now in the Regent's Park Zoological Gardens has been 
there since June, 1859, ha\'ing been brought there by Hajor 
Hay (see Proc. Zoolog, Soc, 1859, p. 353), The kiang neighs 
like a horse. These asses **herd in droves, fly at a trot, 
stop, and look back" (H. Smith, Equid&\ p. 280). Confining 
themselves to the high plateau of Thibet, these wild asses 
would not come within the cognizance of the Assyrian people. 
1 pass then to the Ef^um (Amnm) hemippus, the wild ass of 
Assyria, which is perhaps not really specifically distinct from 
the Eqmis {Asmtts) onaiffif\ also an inhabitant of the Asiatic 
deserts. The wild ass of the sculptures has, as I have before 
observed, p. 49, a more horee-hke appearance than the 
natural wild anunal really possesses. The large mastiff was 
used in the chase of these animals, which were hunted by 
men on hoi^selmek armed with bows and arro%vs. Stratagem 
was no doubt employed, for neither the Assyrian horses nor 



348 



On the Mammalia of the Anst^rian Scvlpturf^, 



doge woiild liavt* much chance in the open pluin of over- 
taking an animal eo excessively swift. The sculptures 
represent young ass-foals together with their dams ; it is not 
improbable that they were hunted at this time for the sake 
of the flesh of the young animals, witich the huntsman would 
find no diftieulty in capturing, whilst parental fonchiess 
woulil render the poor mothers a comparatively easy prey, 
Mr, Layard (Nineveh and its Remains, I, p* 324, note) thus 
epeake of these wHd asses : — 

**The reader will remember that Xenophon mentions 
these beautiful animals, which he must have seen during his 
march in these very plains. Ho faitlifully describes the 
country and the animals and birds which inhabit it, as they 
are to this day, except that the ostrich is not now to be 
foimd so far north, * The country," says he, ' was a plain 
throughout, as eveu as the sea, and full of wormwood j if 
any other kinds of shrubs or trees grew there, they had all 
an aromatic smell, but no trees appeared. Of wild creatures, 
the most numerous were wild asses, and not a few ostriches 
besides bust^irds aud roe-deer (gazelles), which our horsemen 
sometimes chased. The asses, when they were pm^ued. 
having gained ground of ihv. horses, stood still (for they 
exceeded them much iu speed), and when these came up 
with them, they did the same thing again^ so that om^ 
horsemen could take them by no other means but by 
dividing themselves into relays, and succeeding one another 
in the chase. The flesh of those that were taken was like 
that of red deer, but more tender,* (Anab, i, c. 5.) In fleets 
ness they equal the gazelle, but to overtake them is a feat 
which only one or two of the most celebrated mares hav^ 
been able to accomplish* The Arabs sometimes catch the" 
foals during the spring and bring them up with milk iu their 
tents. I endeavoured in vain to obtain a pair. They are of 
rich fawn-colour, almost pink. The Arabs still eat their 
flesh.'' 

The Elephantiada\ A figure of the Indian elephant 
(Elephas hid tens) (fairly enough executed, with the exception 
of the erect horse-like ears) is found on the black obelisk of 
Shalmaneser, The animal forms part of the tribute of the 




On the Mammalia of thr Ai<syriuH Sculpt are it. 



a49 



rouiitry of the A rnieiiiMU Muzn. The same epigraph meotions 
as the other tribute duuble-backed camels, an ox of the river 
'Saceya, borseB, mules, and apes. 

The epigraph is as follows i— 

ma - da - tii ga mat Mn - \\% - ri 

The trihuie of the countn/ of the Muzri, 



^T -^T Tf ]} 



I). P. gamali sa 8U - iia - ai 

cameh of which douhk {are) 



tt^-^<}<y-nm-] Vi a4s<iEj^fc£ii 



tai - ri 8i - na 
their hacks, 



al -ap D.P. nahr Sa- ci - e - ya 
a J] ox of the river *Saceya^ 



^w^^B^]]h- ^i-s:n-T< --^T-nyn^T< 



ap. 






pi - ni - ti 



ba - zi - a - ti 

elephants (attd) 



B u - du - mi am - khar 

^^^^ apes I re^eiced. 

H The elephant does not now occur in Western Asia, though 

H it may have been found there formerly, but as apes are 

mentioned together with elepliants, there can be no doubt, 1 

think, that the Armenian Muzri had themselvee received both 

kinds of animals from India. 

The word in the Assyrian language, which occurs only 
in the epigraph of the black obeliek, and which is sup- 
posed to denote ** elephants,'* is ha-zi-a-ti (•^*^| ^^H"^ If *^!^}- 
Mr. Norris writes, **the Ilcb. ttl would indicate some pre- 
daeeous animal, or this may be an animal Hving in muddy and 



350 On the Mammalia of i/ie A$9yrian Scnfpinre», 

marshy places, from ^V^ possibly the hippopotarauis," 

(Afleyr, Diet, i, p 79.) I think there is much reason to believe 
tliat elephants are intended, for the animal itself is figtjrndou 
the monument, and so strange a creature would sm^ely be 
mentioned by name. If we refer the Assyrian word to the 
Hebrew XV^ {bdzaz)^ " to take as spoil," " to seize," the idea 
of ** the seizing anijnal *' may well be applied to an elephant, 
with its prehensile trmik and its finger-like appendage, by 
means of which it can pick or take hold of the smallest 
substance* 

The Rhinoceros is most probably alluded to by the 
expression '* ox of the river 'Saeeya," alap nahr 'Sa-cp-e-ya^ 
(t=I<J ttf ]} fit 4^ <IiI tTf -HTf)- The figure of the 
one*homed aniraal, with its bull- like form, as depicted on the 
obelisk, and its one thick liom standing erect from its fore- 
head, can be intended for nothing else than a rhinoceros. 
Where the river 'Sacieya may be I know not. The geo- 
graphical range of existing Asiatic rhinoceroses corresponds 
nearlv with that of the Indian elephant ; and the country 
from which the latter came would probably be that from 
which the rhinoceros came, viz., India. It was not an un- 
common tiling for the ancients to call a large animal **an 
ox." When the Romans first saw the elephant in the army 
of Pyrrhue in Lucania, they gave it the name of Bos Lum^ 
'* the Lueanian ox," as Lucretius says : — 

** Inde boves Lucas turn to corpore tetro« 
AagtiimanoB, belli dwuerunt vulnera P(Bm 
Sufferre, et niagiiiirS Marti turbare catervaa." — 

(De Ren Nat. V. 1301). 

"Next the Poeni taught the horrible Lueanian oxen, with 
towered body and snake-like hand, to endure the wounds of 
war and to throw into confusion the mighty ranks of Mars " 
With the expression ** snake-like hand^' I will ask you to 
compare the idea implied in the Hebrew word tl2» '* to 
seize,** or " take hold of/' 

SuidiB.^O( this family the common wild boar (Stia scro/a) 
is the only known inhabitant of Assyrian lands, where it is 




On t/ie Mamn^lia of lite As&xfrian Sculptures, 351 



numeroue. It is rarely represented on the eciilptures, and 
nowhere as an animal of the chase* On a slab ia the British 
Museum, which contains a deer and two hinds in a thicket, 
may also be seen, amongst similar tall reeds, a wild sow 
accompanied by eight or nine little ones, one of which is 
di-awn in the act of sucking. AH the figures are executed with 
spirit and truth. Whether the ancient Aseyiian monarchs 
ever engaged in the exhilarating sport of pig-^ticking» 
as practised in modern India, one cannot say^ but no such 
reference or representation occurs on the naoxmraents, so far 
as I l>eUeve is known at present. The boar of Amu Minor, 
of which there is a skull in the British Museum, aud which 
Dr. Gray says is ** very distinct fi'om the skulls of the mid 
boars of Germany, is named by Gray, Sm Libycus (Proc* 
Zoolog, Soc, 18 G8, p. 31); he also thinks that the wild boar 
of Palestine may be refen*ed to this species. Perhaps they are 
both varieties of the common Sus scrofa^ which has a very 
wide geographical range. It is well known that the number 
of the vertebraa in the hog is subject to variation ; similarly 
the form of the skull may vary in different individuals. 

The Hebrew name of the wild boar is ('^'^^H} hliazir^ 
and khanzir in Arabic. No Assyrian word, I believe, is 
known as yet ; one would expect such a word as kka-zi-ru 

Of the order Cete, containing the whales and porpoises 
(the Baltenidtie Catodontidte aud DelpMjtidie)^ as known to 
the old Assyrians, there is very little to say. No figure 
of a cetaceous mammal occurs on the sculptures, but I 
think Mr* Fox Talbot is correct in rendering the ABsyrian 
word >-^| 4^ "^ (na-khi-ru} by " dolphin/' The late 
Mr. Norris conjecturally transJatee **a narwhal'^ {Mouodon 
monoBceros)^ an animal of the Polar Seas, which, though it has 
been rarely found as far south as the north of Scotland, would 
be quite out of its element in the Metliterranean Sea. 

The king of the broken obelisk is said to have sailed in 
ships of Arvad, and to have ** killed a nakhiru in tlie Great 
(or Mediterranean) Sea.** The same king received, amirngst 
other tribute from the conquered lands of Tyre, Sidon» 



352 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Scrdpturest ^M 

Phoenicia^ and ArvatU '* teeth of iiakhiri, the produce of the 
sea " (W.A.L, I, pK xxv, line 88.) 

Seni na -khi- ri bi-nu-ut tehamti 

Teeth of* nakhiri t/ie produce cf the wa, 

ET t^TT s£m I "s^ :^ A^ I 

ma- da - ta -bu-uu am - kli-ir H 

their trlhufe I received* ^| 

Some marine creatnre which posseftged teeth lavge enough 
to hsive heen vahied, either for the lYory or for ornaments, 
as nedikces, perhapB, is clearly denott^d, M* Oppert thought 
that eeal-ekins are meant. Seals, though occumng in some 
parts of the Jlediterraiieau and in the Caspian Seas, would 
hardly be found near the coast of Phoenieia. The Assyrian 
word is referred by Mr. Fox Talbot to a Syi-iac word for 
'* a noRtriV* and as this organ, or the blow-hole of cetaceans 
occupies a prominent situation on the upper part of the 
head, the name would be appropriate enough; the nakhir 
tehamti means the ** nostril animal of the sea/* Tlie 
porpoises and the dolphins generally have small teetli, hut 
in some species they are large enough to have been of value. 
In early times some species of sperm whale, as the Phi/getef* 
ftiacrocephaius^ might have heen found in the Mediterranean, 
The teeth of the Catodojitkhr are large and powerful, and of 
conimercial value. These whales and the dolphins are 
closely allied, and I do not think that the Assyrian name 
can be better rendered than by ** dolphin '"* or " grampus*" 
leavang the species, whether amongst the IMphinidcp or 
CatodotitUcE undecided* 



On tfie Mammalia of the Assi^rian Seulptui^s. 353 



Iecord of a Hunting Expedition op Tiglath-Pileser I. 
Cnio. B.C. 1120 TO 1100. 

From a Broken Obelisk in the British Musmiiu 

(WA.L I, Plate 28.) 

^- -r F£T hU <hm -T <I- ^T V ^JU -^TT 

D.P. Nin - ip va D.P, Si - du sa idluta 
JVinip and A^ergulj who brave^'i/ 

i - ra -mil bii - h - ir tseri 
lot^e the beasts of the pehf 

2. j^TTTt V ::£!-£]& ^ ^ ET - ^T -TITT^ V 

11 -ea-at- li - mu -eu-va iiia D*P. elappi sa 
have ent misted to him^ and in ships of 



D.P. 'Ar - va - da - a - ya 
A rvad 

ir - cab ua -klii- ra ina teharati rab-te 

he rode; n dolphin tu the ifreat ifea 

i - cbi - lie 
//« slew. 



354 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sctdpturea. 

rinii abati su - tu - ru - te iua 

Wild buUi deEti*uctivt {and) fine in 

D.P* A - ra * zi - ki 
the city af ArcuUd 

sa pa - an D.P. Idia- at - te 
which (is) opposite the land of the Hittites and at tfie foot of 

D.P. Lib - na - a - ni i - due 
Lebanon fte slew. 

6. ^ ^yy<| f«< ^i^y^ Illiy yy v :^ y<- 

mu - ri pal - dim - te sa rimi 

The young alive of tfie wild bulls 



u -tsa- ab - bi - ta 
he took; 



-^yy «iy -£y y? vy jy y- -y<y* c: 

fiu - gul - la - a - te - su - nu ik - zxir 

tA^ property of them he collected; 

;r^ -^lyi- - ty <^y jy 

rimi (am - ii) ina D.P. mitpani su 
the mid bulls with hra how 




On the Mammalia of the As^rian Scviptureg. 355 

11 - earn - kit rimi pal - dhu - te 

he killed; the wild bulls (which) alive 

11 -tsa- ab - bi - ta 
fte captured 

»■ Vj -^T -::!! JT -T If ^ «=^ -ET TT JT <T- 

a - na a!a bu A-sur ub - la aanie 8ii - si 

to his city of Asur fte brought; two soss {120) 

nesi ina lib - bi sii 

of lions with hia heart 

ic - di ina ki - it - ru -ub mi- id - lu - ti 
strong^ in the attack of his bravery^ 

BU ina ruqubi su pa - at - tu - te 
in his chariot open^ 



ina niri su ina D*P. pa -niv-kbi i -due 

on his feetf *^*^A a club he slew : 

m -^11 T^ 

nesi 

lions 



^^m 356 


On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Scidptureim ^^^H 


^^1 


- ^T t^^ ^--] :^ *^T ^m^ m^ j^ml 


^^^_ 


ilia D,P, nir - h - am - te \i - sam - kit H 


^^B 


fvith a apmr he killed, H 


^H 


A^ V r? 7^ V ::^ ^w -m J 


^^^B 


khar - ua - a - tin na - r|ii - u - tii ^^H 


^^m 


Forests thick ^^^^ 


^^m 


^1} *T- ^n V- A-T -TM JT -^^ 1 


^^^^ 


e - pi ' ie bu - h - ri su - nu H 


^H 


fo ma£e (/lunt) their ffame ^t 


^H 


^]<]^ t^ i.]]]^ i^ ^ >- ^Vr-^^B] H 


^^^^ 


ic - bi - u - ni - 3U iua yiimat ^^^| 


^1 


had called kim^ On days ^| 


^^H 


m ^-T<! ^m -- ^v tn m -TT<y ^v ■ 


^H 


cu - uta - tsi kLal- pi - e su - ri - pi ™ 


^1 


of Uorim varying (and) of heat ; J 


" 


- ^T !-::£! ^^h A-m J 




ina yumat ni - pi - ikli ^^H 




in the days of the rising ^^^H 


15. 


-?H i^ -pTT <y^ V <Ig[ ty ^^% 




cacabi kak- 6i - di sa ci -ma eru 




0/ the star Cacndi which is like brame ^^B 


W 


t=£ i>^^ !^ - \^ !.T? ^ ^^^yyy H 


^H 


i - tsii - dti ina D.P. E -be- ikh ^^H 


m 


he had hunted in the coimlry of Elnkh ^^^| 



16. V^ 



On the Mammalia of the Anstfrian Sculfttures, 357 

mat U - ra - 86 mat A - za - mi - ri mat 
the country of Urase, Azamiri 

H -Sr -^T ^^^ ^T- -llv^ ^T ^m 



An -kiir- iia 
Ancurna 



mat Pi 



zi ' it 
PUiiia 



X^ 



mat Pi \z mat Ca - si - ya - ri 

the cQuiUrif of Pi . , , » iz^ in the couninj of Cmii/an 

matani sa mat A-em* matKba-a-iia 

prmnces of the laiid of Amt/ria and Kltana, 



sid - di mat Lu - In - mi - e 
the borders of the land of Lulume^ 



va matani 

and the promncee 



\^ V 



'T ^B -]]<] 



V 

sa matati Na - i - ri 
of the lands of Nairi; 



ar ' me 
wild goaie 



tu - ra - a ~ kbi 
deer 



"f n -£^T T- 



na - a - li 

spotted Mjaqa 



358 On the Mammalia of the Assyrian SeiUptures. 



ya - e - li 

ibexes 



ina 6a - di - ra - a - te 
in herds 



u - te - im - mi - ikh 
he took ; 



I 



fiu - gill - la - a - te eu - nu ik - ztir 

the propm'ty of them he colUcted 

^w .V <z ^]y <y -.^n i- 

u - ea - lid mar - si - 6u - nu 

lie brought forth ; their young ones 

22. m £T ^]h <h ^t m ^£!T «^Tf ^ H 

ci -ma mar - si - it D,P. tsi - e - m 

lUie the young of sheep 



im - nu nim - ri 

he counted; leopards 



mi - di - ni a - fii sanie dabi 

%€r» jackals two bears 




On the Mammalia of the A$^r%an Sculptures, 359 

MAL-zm - KHUI i - due imiri ziii -iia(t8eri) 

he slew^ teild usses 



teabi 



va 



and gazelhsy 



LIG - BAR - RI (akhi) 
hymias 



iSi - im - kur- 



ri 



u - sam - kit biir-khi- is par-ra - te 



he killed ; 



antelopes 



wild cattle 



te -ee - ni D.P, dam - gari 

the huntsman 

is - pur il - qu - u - ni par- ra -a- te 

(whom) he sent they had taken ; the wild catth 



ik - 7MT u - sa - lid 

he eolkctedr lie brought together 



360 



On the Mammalia of t/ie Astyrian Seu^turte, 



6u - gill - la - a - te 8U - nu nisi mati aa 

tlte property of them ; the mm of his country 

u -ee - ib - n 
he caused to feed; 



29. 



s^ t^t ^HT £!- ^TTT -y<T^^ -^TT ff< 



pa 



-khiim - 
a black 



ta 



rab - ta 
great 



nam 



fill • 
crocodile 



kha 



^4- n ^TIT^ EI <- w n -T -^t 



karan nabri 



11 -nia- mi aa tiliamti 



scalt/ (beast) of the nr^r; (ajid) animals of the eea 



rab-te fiarmat Mu- uz 



- n 



11 -se-bi-U 



i 



(freat^ the king of Egypt caused to be h^ngkt ; 

nisi mati su u - ee - ib - ri 

the men of his country he caused to feed ; 

6i - te - it u -ma-a-me ma- h - di 

{ae to) the rest of the animals numerous^ 

<T-m -HT^ H^Tf -HA«=-n<I V 

va itstiiri same unit -tab- ri na 



and birds of the heaven 



ivinged which 



On the Mammalia of the ABnyriem Sculptures. 361 

ina bu - h - iir tfieri ip -se- it qa - ti bu 
among the beasts of the field (tcere) the work of his hands^ 

sumi Bti-mi it - ti ii -ma- me 

their nairies icith the unimals 

^' V^^ E! ^D TI -£! ^^^ mi <::c ^ B*^ 

[matima- da] -a la eadli- m mi -mi bu-iiu 
of the country for multitude were not vrritten ; their number 

^1^T< K--"?^^! MhvV^T 

it * ti mi «nu-te an - ni - te 

wiili those {former) numbers 



[lasadhj-m e - zib matati ci - Bit • ti 

were not written ; he left the countries the acguisiiion 

qa * ti - 8U kharrani naciri 
of his hand; roads strange 

dhaba ina mqubi bu va mar-tsa 

the good (places) in his chariot and the dijicult 

ina Diri hii 

on his feet 



363 (hi the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 

[at] tal - la - cu va tab - da - au - nu 
he had marched and their destruction 

is - cu - nu 

he had effected 

811 an - na - a - te la Ba - khi - ir 

. • . . * these not penetrating 

raatata 
countries 

«... ifi - tu alu Uuban sa * 

• . frotn the city Duban o/\ , , ^ . 

(Ac) ca - di - i 
Accad 

•*.... mat A- khar - ri 

•*••.. country of the West (Palestine) 





On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures^ 363 



Notes. 



inri 



1. Sidut Accadian, **he who marches in front" ; a name of 
Nergal associated with Ninip in hunting expeditions. 

^*^Tn <<<IT i^^^-^^^\ Accadian ** strength'* + "to 
increase '^ ^ idluta^ ** heroism,'* ** bravery '* : i-ra-mu^ 
from urn , »* to love/' 

Buhur, c£ Heb. ^^^5. ^'beaets." 

U'sa-at-UrmtirBU^ 3rd plm\ ehaphel, from talamu, to 
"entrust/* "confer/* vnth pronom. suffix; elappi 
(Accad, ma-mes)^ "ships"; cf, Chald. t4D7N, **a ship.** 

3. ircab^ 3rd sing, aorist kal from ra-ca-bu^ "to ride'*; of. 
Heb, 35*^, to ride, 3^"J, and the Assyrian ruqubu^ ** a 
chariot/* 

Nakhira^ "a grampus,*' "a whale/' or '* dolphin,** or other 
allied cetacean. Mr. Fox Talbot thus rightly, I think, 
translates the word, referring it to the Syi'iac (^^^jj^, 
nak/iira^ *'a nostril,*' in reference to the ammaFs 
** blow-hole.** 

A-ab-ba, Accad. = Assyrian tehamtu, " the sea '* ; cf Heb. 

Eubti^ cf. Heb, 3-1 , great, large* 

JduCf *' he slew/* 3rd sing, aorist fr. daeuj **to smite/* "to 
MU." Heb. ^Tl and nn^. 
4. ^^^ 1**^ rimi^ *' wild bulls,*' plur. of Jl^^ , in Accad* am^ 
"a bulV* often with the syll, ii ^|f , "a horn/' in allu- 
sion to the great size and strength of the aniraars home. 
Cf Heb. DHl rt^ejHj and 0*^1 rmn, from DN1 , " to be 
high/* 

^5?<"| ]p44< mon» = abahi^ "to destroy.*' See Sayce, Assy, 
(iram., No, 375. Cf. Heb. T3H, "to destroy/* 



364 On the Mammalia of tJie Assyrian Sctifptures, 

Suturute. Compare Heb. IHJ, ** to abomid/* '* to be 

superior*** 
l. Mur^i =^ maru ^ t^ "aeon.'* Paldhuti^ cf. HeK ^yEl^ 

**to slip away/' **to eecape/* Hence in war *'one who 

has escaped allveP 
U'Uarab-bi'laj **he took,** 3rd sing, pael from Ua-ba-tu 

(J] i-i=y ^tt]) *'t^ *^ke;* '*Beize,'* with a, the 

augment of motion. 

• n^TT <tXT ^ET Tt "^l ^^-<P^^-^^^-^'i^^ "property/' 
** poReeRsions*'; cf. Heb. Tly^D (.Hegullah), from ^3D, 
** to acquire,'* 

Ik-zur, " he collected," from ha-tsa-ru ; cf. Heb' "^SJ? ** to 
reap," ** gather." 
8* U-sam-kif, '' he caused to kill/* 3rd fling, aoiiat shaphel 
from tna-ka-tu (£y ^J »_g^|^^ ** tc^ destroy.'* 

10. t|£: *-£y u/t-la, "he brought" 3rd dng. aorist kal from 

yj *-j£=y J+^ fl^«/i4 '*to bring," with augment of motion. 

Ic-di, " strong/* perhaps borrowed from Accadian. 

Cirit-^mb, from kirib, ** the inside," ** middle"; cf. Heb, 
1*^7 j and the verb ^^JZ^ E^ff ^^ ca-ra-bu, and 
^"^i^? "to approach" (an ithpeal derivative), "to be near/' 

Mi-id^U'ti, a form of idlutu, as in line 1, with m forraative. 

FfU-tu-te, "open"; cf. nJlD, *no open.'* 

11. rf ^ >- 4^ Pafm(v)-khi or ^f ^-^ «-- ^ 

btt-^ni'khi **a chib"; cf, Heb. rP^JJ. 

12. Nh^-h-^m-te, perhaps alHed to the HeK HD*!, *' a javelin," 
Kfiarsmiu, Heb. OHH , '* a forest.*' 

Sa-qu-tu, Accadian saht^ " high," *^ deep." 

13. EpU^ construct of e-^pi-m '* to make." 
Ih-hi-tt-^ii-m^ 3rd plur. from kahu^ with conditional suffix nu 

14. Cu-utS'im^ gen, sing, of cu-uts-tsu (|^ ^>-y<y J*-^\j 
"a fitonn," *Hhunder*'; cf. Arab, ^^jL^* kusU. 

Khaipe, cf. Heb. ^1^^ "^'^ P^^*® through," "to change," 



On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures. 365. 

Sunjn, -* heat," from ^ E^Tf V"*" sa-ra-pii, " to bum," 
Heb, ^liP; Mr. Sayce, however, connects this word 
with urpatu ** rain," " mist," 

NipM nS5, "to dawn," "to rise." 

15. y^^f*-*"!, Accadian m«i= Assyrian cacabur Heb. 13^2, 
•*a star/- 
Kak-^idi, Le,, ** making prosperity"; see Sayce's Astron, 
and Astroh, TnLn8. Hoo. Bib, Arch., Vol. Ill, p* 170. 

^TrJ B] ^^f^'^^ " like " =^ Heb. TO5, The copy reads 
|£J ^y cu-ma ; the expression **Hke bronze" applied 
to Lot weather anewei*s Ui our *' glaring day." This 
inclines mt; tu translate snripi (above) by '* heat/' 

I-isurdu, 3rd sing, aorititkal from ^tTT ^£ ^T '^''^^"^ ***^ 

hunt"; cf.llfb. T?, ** game," from Tll\ *^ to take" or 

•* capture game/' 
!?• Matunif plural of matu [madtu — tmidatti) " coimtry " ; 

borrowed from Accadian ma + da ; cf Aram- Hllp , 

heus^ urbs, 
18. Sul-di ** territories,'' ** borders"; Heb. TT^, ** a field," 

**upen country," fn>m TTW ^ **tu spread out." 

20. Jna iadirdte, **in herds"; Cliald. ^1^, **to place in rows/* 

VtemmikK 3rd ning, pad from ta-nia^khu^ ** to take*'; 
Heb. 'HPJ? '' to take hold of/' 

21. UmlUt 3rd sing, shaphel from a-li-du YI »-t]Ry K?T = 

T?^, **tLi bring fortli." 

24, E^T *"^$^ *"T^T T"*^' bii-zir-khui Some unkno^vn 
animal, mentioued again in Laj'ard's Intjcriptions, 44, 
18, in company with '* lions." Norris suggests some 
animal that cries out in the neigliboiirhood of houses. 
r(%, "a house/' and rn^, **to cry out" Jackals (?), 
but tbe word may be Accadian. 

^Imiri ^tina (tseri)^ ** assea of the desej't/' ** wild asses/* 



»«i6 On the Mammalia cf the Assyrian Sculptures* 



cima sal imiri tseri 

like a she-ass of the desert* 

25. tyy 444f v^ i-yy<y y^ a-im^kur-n. 

26. E^ 4^ Jl^yy bur-khi'is, **antelopeB," from m^, **to 

flee away/* in allusion to their swiftnees. Compare 
the Arabic expression ibn barihin^ " eon of ewiftne 
**agaxelle»" Some large and handsome antelope 
probably intended, for the eanie king ordered etone 
figures of these burkhis to be made. See Broken 
Obelisk, W.A.L, II, 18, col. 2. 

^T t^lE ^^ ^^' ^f trtH "^^H '-y "«- huntsman," 

D-P. dam - gar D.P, dam - ca - ru* 

The ideogram which represents thia word k 
*-^|*Eir_T* ^^^ ontside character *-^JIJj perhaps 
denotes ** a mouth," *' an eiiclosme," ** field,*" &o^ ; the 
inside sign ^5J» cip^ cih^ is obscure. The Accadko 

word is ^£ ^ E^TT' ^"^^"^^^ ^^^^ Assyrian dumgar 
or damH^OHTu is probably also of Accadian origin, 
(See W.AJ., II, 7, 34, 35, reverse col. O.D.; t\ Sayce'e 
Assy. Gram., Syll. No. 50,) 

27. Is-pm\ "he sent," 3rd sing, aorist kal from ^ J^ -^TTt 

sa-'pa-ru^ ** to send." 
H-qu-nij "they had taken," 3rd plur. pluperfect from 
la-qu (P\h)y ** to take;* 

28. Usibri, *' caused to feed/* 3rd sing, shaphel from ba-ra-hu, 

-^] Bt.]] ^— I E^flfs^* ^^to feed." Heb. rrja, 

"■ to cut for food,'* ** to eat." 

29. Fa-kkum-ta, "black," Ileb. Dn|. 

Aam-iu-k/ta^ "a crocodile" undoubtedly, ae shown some 
years ago by Mr. Fox Talbot. Herodotus (ii, 69) tells 
UK that the Egyptian name for crocodile was ^dfjL^ai* 
The Egyptian word msah or emsufif '*a crocodile," 
appears in the Assyrian jium^iuriJia^ and the Arabic 
tpmsak* 




On the Mammalia of the Assi/riafi Seulpturei. 3iu 

Umarni *' aiiimale,** '* creatures," Dr* Delitzsch suggeste 
uv-av as the reading ; c£ Heb, TVtl. Lenorraant 
refers to the Arabic mnamu^ umam, subs, masc.^ *'bete 
aauvage, grand ammaF*j cf. Arab, i<U» '^vhich Freytag 
renders ** reptile terrse noxiiim, bestia/' 

3L Mut'tab-ri. ** winged," Cf. Heb. IIW, •* a wing/* from 

15M, ** to mount upwards," ** to soar/' 
33, Sadhru, ** written,'* from sa-dha-^m^ " to write." Heb. 
IDtf, 3rd plur. pennanaive kal. 

E'zib (^If ^\ 3rd sing, aorist kal from e-d-bu, "to 
forsake/* Heb. STi^. 

Ctsit-ti, ** possession/' " acquisition/* Co-^a-rfw, ** to 
obtain/' Arab. JmSU^* 

KharJ^afd, plur. from khar-tdn or Mar-ra-rtw, "a road," 
ideographieally written ^ ; equated in the syllaba- 
ries with wj^Mw, '* path," da-ra^u, *' a road," tne-tt^gu^ 
'* a passage/' 

iVa-<?i-n, ** strange;* '* hostile**; Heb* ^133, ** strange," 
" foreign/* »-^y ^JlJ^J 'tlH' ^«-^«-^^ '* to be 
strange "; Heb. 1D3, " to be strange/* 

35. Dhaba (Acoad. kM-^a), *'good" Heb. niD, **to be good/' 
Mar-tsu, ^^difficidt/* HeK flD- 

36. [ft'^tai'la'cu-va]^ **he had mai'ched,** 3rd sirig, ittaphal 

from halacu^ '* to go/* 
Is^vrnuy *' he had accomplished," 3rd sing, plupen aorist 
from ^ *^^tl V~' *«-^'^^'"w* *'to establish.** 



2A 



368 



On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures, 

A LIST OF ASSYRIAN AND ACCADIAJJ; 
WITH THEIR SEMITIC EQUTYALEXTSi 



Absthian Na^b with 



da - as - eu 

bur-khi- is 
u - du - mu 
'iiniru 
'imiru tseri 

da - bu - u 
al - ap 
ri - i - mu 
gam- ma - lu 




HstifiCW OR OTQIE 

SEnmc EgriVALEstT 

WITH 
TttANSLlTK RATION. 



dj^hoo 

rrnn 

bariakh 
DIM 

T T 

kliamdr 
'arod, pere 

11, in 

dob 
eleph 
re'em 

gdm&l 



ACCADIAK NAITE WITH 
TfiAKa LmtBATtOK. 



BAR KAK (ni - ta) 



tsi - ikh, Ba-khu- u 
gut, kliar 

am, am - 6i 
D.P. a- ab . ba 



Oh the Mammaiia of the Asg^rian SeulptureB* 



369 



ES OF DOMESTIC AND WILD ANIMALS, 
JRAPHS, AND TEANSLITEKATIONS. 



DSOOSAPH. 






AlfUiAL DfiNOTim. 



Antelope 
Antelope 

Ape 

Abb (domestic) 

Abs (wild) 

Bear 



Bull or domestic 
cattle 

Bull (wild) 



Camel 






Some springing antelope 

Orj/jc leucmyx^ or other large 
and swift species 

Prs^byter etitellm and Macacm 
silenus 

Amnm vulgarii 
An hemipptis 



Urnus Sijrincm^ or carnivorous 
animal generally 

Boa taurxis 



Bos primigenim 



Camelus Arabicu8 and C. 
Bactrianus 



I 



I 



870 



On the Mammalia of thi Asavrian Seuiptttres, 



A LIST OF ASSYRIAN AND ACCABIAN NJ 



AwTRiAs Name with 

T&AKB tlTKRATI OF. 



HeBHEW OB OTHEB 

Semitic Equitaioikt 

WITH 
TiLLirSLIT RBATTOK. 



TBAl^aLlTKRATIOV. 




tU - ta - nu 

^E£T £cTT ^!<T 

til - ra - khu 

na • khi- ru 
cal - bu 
ba - im - a - ti (pi.) 

n J? iMi 

ai - lu 

^! n ]} M 

na - ai « lu 
n -tsa- luv 
tsa- bi - i 
a - tu - du 



arkboii, irakh 



Arab, ^ ,^, 



Syr. l^ujJ 
nakhira 

celeb 

No Semitic eqmT»* 
lent, but poaaiblj 
it m&^ he referred 
to n?, b&iaz, to 

^« 

ayy&l 

ayyfti 
'azal 
tsebi 
atfid 




da - ra 



mm 

lik - cu 



-II^II >f 

dara BAR 

^IIEII Hh 

dara BAE-KAK 



4 



4-' Hf- ^ 

BAR, BAR-KAK 








■ 






■ 


1 On lite 


Mammalia of the As*i/rian Sculpturst, 371 ^M 


MESTIC AND WILD ANIMALS, itc— continued. 


1 


^H InaooBAFB. 


Axtltf AL DSNOTKD* 


Famixt. 






Chamois (?) 


Rnpicapra tragua 


<V^T?<T^ 


-IIEII 


Deer 


Cerddet^ the deer tribs 




♦ • • • 


Dolphin 


Beiphium or Catodon 




^^^^^^^^^^^f* * 


Dog 


Canu familiarii 


' 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^v * * 


Elephant 


Elephm Indictts 




|-IMI 


Fallow-deer 


Cervus dxima^ or C Muopo- 
tamicus 




1 ^^'^^^ 


FaEow-deer (male) 


* • • ■ • * 




^^^Hi^^_ • 


Grazelle 


Gazella dorcas 




^^^^^^^^^H * * 


Gazelle 


Gazella suhguitm*om 




■ v^fifs? 


Goat (he) 


Capra hircm (domestic) 








^ 



^^M 






^^^^^^^^^1 


^^^^M 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^f 




^^H 


372 On 


the Mammalia of tkg Assyrian Scttlpture^^ 1 




A ilST OF ASSYRIAN AND ACCADIAN NAMES (I 




A^fiYBiAir Namk with 

TEAXSLITEftATlOfT. 


Hebrew or other 

ijKMlTIcEQriYALKNT 

WrTH 

TuANSUTSRi^TlOir. 


AcciDiAH Nave with 

TEAKaUTKBATIOlff* 


^IdJsi^^JII 


TC2 

■ t 


►^-^] 




tsap - pa - Tu 


teaphii- 


mu- ns 




^]}}-t]^h*< 


^yi. t^'bT 


., 




na - a - li 


yftelj yeelim 






-T ^T ^- 


ftu-^H 


^rldf ^^^? -^T 




an - na • bii 


arneblieth 


ca - ziii - na 






DID 

BftS 


D.P. kiir- ra / 




a - khu 


oach 


lik -bar- ra 




a - Ai 


root nDH(?) 
to injure 


• • ■ • • « 




' . ^ A-n im 


■^93 


• • • ■ • * 




m - im - i-u 


namer 






' ^ «< Jl 

ne - es - su 


No Semitic eqaiTR- 
lenti but the 
meanrng is eer- 
tain 


lik - makh 


1 


^ tl >^ 


Arab. ij«j 


^ » • « * • 




du - ma - mu 


dimmat 




1 


pa - ri - 6 


Cf. NID 
pere, 

a wild ass 


^y££t::M 1 






Oh Uie Mammalia of the Assp^ian Sculptures 



kCESTIO AND WILD ANIMALS, &c.— continued. 




I 



Ii>SOQBAFH. 



ANIMAIi DlKOTlD. 



ZoOI^tJICAL SpBCIBS, GSNUfl, OB 

Family. 



l^^^^ 



Goat (he) 



Goat (Ibex) 



Hare 



Horae 



Hyena 



Jackal, or Fox 



Leopar4 



Lion 



Lynx, Tiger, or 
other feline car- 
nivore 

Mule 



6\ wgaffrus (the paeeng.) 



Capra SinaiHca (Ehrenb.) 



Lepus SinaticuSy L. caspius^ or 
other occurring species. 

Equns caballua 



H^cBua striata 



Canis aureus^ or Vufpen 



Leopardm varitis 



Felis leo 



Felia horealia and F^ caracal^ 
F, iigns 



I 



i 

4 



3T4 



Oh the Mammalia of the A$syrian Sculpturcf. 



A LIST OF ASSYBIAN AND ACCADIAX NAMEJ 



I 
I 
[ 



ASSTBIAN NaMB with 

Tbah^sutkbation. 



HRBRBW OB OTHEB 

Semitic Equitaleitt 

WXTU 
TRAIf SUTEBATI OS^ 



AcoiBUur Naics with 

T^AKSM TX&ATIOH. 



I 



In - li - mu 

If r? i^^ 

ai - hiv 
al - ap uahi' 
Saceya 



tsi - e 



m 



at - rtie 

-^1 If Tf m 

na - ai - lu 

<^^ <i^ '^ 

mi - di - nu 

« <f^ ^ 

man - di - nu 
zi - i - bu 

a - ci - luv 




ayil 



taoQ 

Syr. \§\ 
amo 

ayy^l 



zeeb 

root h'y^ 

aca!, 
fo devour 



lu - Um 



lu» lu -bai 



I 



-IMI — -- "B] 

darn - khal-khal - l^ 



nu- urn -ma 
Ilk - bi - cu 




d 




On the Mamnmfia of the Asst/rian Sculptures^ 



375 



TOMESTIC AND WILD ANIMALS, &c,— continued. 



Idbografh. 



AajKAi. DENOTED* 



Ram 



]&^.liil4Tf 



RLinoceros 



Sheep 



Sheep (wild), or 
wild Goats 



Stag 



Tiger 



Wolf 



ZOOLO&IOAL SpbCTKS, 0Einj&, OB 



Ovis aruM 



Rfdnocerm unicornis 



Ovis arieSf collectively a flock 
of sheep 

Caprovis Orientalis^ or Capra 
osffagrm 

Cervus elaphuSf or kiadi*ed 
species 



Felis tigris^ or other prqwling 
feline animal 



Cants lupus 



376 



On the Mammalia of the Asstfrian Sculptures. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES, 



Since my paper on the Wild Mammalia of the Aflvyrian 
MoEuraents has been at press, the two handsome volumes on 
** Eastern Persia" (with an introduction by Sir Frederick J, 
Goldsmid, C.B. : I^Iacmilkn and (Jo., 1876) have appeared. 
The second vohime coiitainis the zoolngy and geology of the 
country by ilr. W. T, Blanford, F.R.S. The fauna of Persia, 
bordering ae that coimtry does on Assyria and the great 
Euphrates Valley, may be expected more or lass to resemble 
the fauna of these lands* I will, therefore^ add a few 
remarks by way of supplement to my paper, selecting such 
points as appear to me to be of interest, as throwing light on 
the general subject. 

It appears that lions are still '^ very numerous in the 
reedy swamps bordering the Tigi-is and Euphrates ** ; they 
are found also in the mountains of Filrs, which are clothed, 
from the altitude of 4»0OU feet to 8,U0U feet with considerabb 
forests of a kind of oak {Querent teijilopi/olia) with very 
large acoms, which feed a number of wild pigs, whose 
presence tempts the lion into these oak-clad mountains. The 
moimtebiinks of Persia, Major Ht, John tells us, are often 
accompanied by a captive lion, trained to eat a joint of 
mutton off the chest of a boy, who throws himself down on 
his back. *' It is not a pleasant exhibition, the chOd being 
generally much alarmed, I once asked a Shiriz luti which 
took the most thi^eshing to learn his part* the lion or the 
boyj but a grin was the only answer he vouchsafed" 
(ii, p. 33)* The ancient Egyptians trained the lion to 
capture prey in the chase; there is no record of a similar 
employment by the Assyrians, who» however, caught these 
animals alive and caged them ready for turning out to be 
hunted. 

The tiger is found abundantly in the Caspian provinces 
of Persia, and in the Caucasus as lar as the mouth of the 
Araxes, These provinces are covered with dense forests, 
and in them '* the tiger ranges up to an elevation of at 



On the Mammalia of the Assi/tian Sculptures, 377 

leaet 5,000 or (>,{K>0 feet. To the westward it extends an 
far as the Caucasus and Mount Ararat, being found not 
far from Tiflis/* Leopards are common everywhere in the 
mountains of Persia^ and the ounce (K imcia^ Shreb*) is said 
to occur; the wild cat of Europe {F. mtm) in heheved by 
Major St, John to be found near Sliiriiz; the chetah ia cer- 
tainly found in Persia, but there are no particulars as to 
its distribution; it is said to inhabit the Caspian forests; 
it ia not used for spurtui^ purposes in Persia. The chaiiB 
is common, and ia probably found throughout the country; 
it is the same animal which is known to inhalat Mesopo- 
tamia ; the caracal is fountl in Persia and Mesopotamia, the 
Jyiix in the Caucasus; jackals and wolves are common in 
parts of Persia, The w^olf of Persia is of a large size, and 
perhaps is a variety of the Canu lupm. These animals 
are not common at tow elevations, but abound in the 
highlanrls; rightly, there foret, did the ancient inhabi tan ts of 
Mesopotamia call the wolf by the Accadian name namtmu 
** the animal from the higlilands.'^ 

There seems to be some doubt as to the species of foxes 
( Vulpes) occuniug in Pei'sia. The 11 Persims sp- no v. occurs 
nearSbiraz, kf^htin, etc. Mr. Blanford says, " we know very 
little of the Persian foxes/' and he is not satisfied tliat the 
V, corsae^ included in the list of Mesopotamian species by 
Schmarda, really occurs there. The ichneumon of Persia is 
identical with the small animal of Mesopotamia {Herpesiea 
Fernciis, Gray) ; civets and genets perhaps inhabit the 
wooded hills of South- Western Persia. The otter {Lutra 
vulijarU) is found iu Gliilan and Majandaran, also in a few 
rivers on the Pt^rsian plateau ; it is also found in MeBopotamia* 
according to Schrnarda. The Persian name Sai^-i-ab means 
** water-dug " ; this reminds one of the calab viee of the 
Bilingual Tablet (see Part I, Domestic Mammalia, p. 54), 
which, however, I take to be a true dog or catuH* Several of 
the mmtelidw are said to occur in the Caucasus, the 
Jii. sarmatica having a wide range throughout Central Asia. 

A new species of feidger {Meles canescens) is pretty 
common on the plateau, being generally '* ibund in walled 
gardens, and has the reputation, as the Persian name 



378 0/1 the Mammalia of the Ain*i/i%ttn SetdptHres* 

(Gui^kan) denotes, of digging up and devouring corpeeeJ 
The Syrian bear is pretty common near Shiraz, and in the 
hilk bordering ou Mesopotamia ; it is a great devastator 
of the vineyards, and will consume incredible quantities of 
unripe grapes. 

Seals — one species, which appears to be identical with 
the Phoca mtulina^ L., the common seal of Northern Europe 
— are found in large numbers throughout the Caspian ; they 
were probably known t^> the ancient Asf^yrians, but we are 
unable to say by what name. The word nakhint, " nostril 
animal,'' which I have identified with a ** grampus " or a 
** dolphin;' would certainly suit a seal, whose nostrils open 
wide for air as the animal emerges from the water, and shut 
closely again on its sinking ; but the evidence is decidedly 
more in favour of some dolphin. M. Oppert, without hesi- 
tation, renders kai iiakhiri by **peaux de veaux marins'' 
(Annals of Sardanapalus, W.A J. I, pi. xxv) ; whilst in his 
'*Les Faetes de Sargon'' (line 182), he renders ka am-4i 
by "pelles marinas," and zu am-ii by ""^ bdellium (ambre),** 
though these words mean, beyond a doubt, '* horns of wild 
bulls " and ** hides of wild bulls,*' respectively. So also in 
liis recent translation of the same Anuak (Records of the 
Past, vii, p, 52), we have ** bdellium*' and ** skins of sea- 
calves.*' If the Accadian *-^]^T ^iM kiii denote '* skins ■ ' as 
well as ** horns and teeth;* let us have the authority for this 
meaning. Of the Cetacea, whales and porpoises abound on 
the Makran coast; porpoises are equjilly common in the 
Persian Gulf, but whales are much more rare. 

The beaver ( Castor Jiher, L*), according to Eichwald, m 
common in the Araxes ; it is included by Hchmarda in his 
Mesr^potamian list, but Mr. Blanford doubtftdly inserts it in 
the Persian fauna. The common porcupine {Hystrijc crwtata) 
is found throughout Persia, especially in the Caspian 
provinces. Schmarda does not include it amongst the 
Mesopotamian fauna, but Dr. Heifer observed the hystrix at 
Bir, and says it is most common in shady rocky places, as at 
Selencia Pieria (Cheeney's Expedit., vol. i, Appendix, p* 725). 
The porcupine, therefore, was probably known to the ancient 
mhabitantfl of the Mesopotamian lands. It would be curious 



On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Si'itipiures, 379 

nnd interesting to aBcertain the name by which so remarkable 
an animal was known to the Accadians and Aeeyriai^* 

There h some uncertainty abont the species of hares of 
MeBOpotamia and Persia. Mr. Blanford figures and describes 
what he considers a new species (Lepm crattptxlotis) found in 
Baluchistan; it resembles L. Meiliterranemy but is lees i-ufous, 
and has much larger ears ; it comes nearer to some specimens 
brought by Canon Tristram from Palcstuie, w^hich were 
named by the late Dr, Gray, Eulagos Judete^ in w4iicb tlie ears 
are '* precisely the same as in L, craspedotiW The hare of 
the monuments has not large ears ; it is perhaps a variety 
of the cnminon hare (X. timkim) of this country. Lepm 
Ca9pim (from the Caucasus), wlu*ch in general character 
resembles X. (imida^, has smaller ears and longer legs com- 
paratively : and this will quite suite tbe sculptured hare of 
the monuments. Mr. Blanford tells us that hares are 
generally diflfused throughout Perwia, but veiy irregularly. 
*^ The cultivated country about Tebran and Isfahan w- ould 
swami wdth them were they not kept down by coursing at 
all seasons." That hares al>ounded also in the time of the 
Assyrian monarchs, is evident from the fact that a distiict 
was Bometmies called after them, thus there is '*mat Arnabu'* 
or "Aranabanu,*' **the hare country" (W.A.L, li (55, 24). 
Whatever may be the species^ there is a difference apparently 
in their haliits ; tht^re is the hare of the south, wliich seems 
to avoid cultivation, while that of the north has habits more 
like those of our own. Hares **are not rare in the hilly 
desert country to the north." Tbe desert locality is dis- 
tinctly imphed in the Accadian word ca^ziu-na^ *' face of the 
desert." The Persian name (kliar-gihh) of a hare sigjiifies 
'^ ass's ears." 

The question as to the various species or varieties of w^ild 
ass is a difficult one. The wild animal of Mesopotamia is 
the E, henuppus^ that of northern Persia the E, onugm\ *' It is 
impossible tosay, w^th any degree of certainty,** writes Major 
St. John, ** whether there are one or two wild asses in the 
Persian highlands ; or if tliere are tivo, whether they have 
distinct habits." All the specimens seen by Major St. John 
from Western Persia '^ were midoubtedly E, ouQijer.'^ The 



380 



On the Mammalm of the Assyrian Seulpt^treB, 



wild aRecB are so BWift that, as the Persians Bay, **they 
cannot i>e caught l)y a BiDgle horseman when approached in 
the open ; bnt if the spoHHman can manage to conceal 
himself and his horse in the vicinity of a Bpiing, and wait 
till the wild aBses have quenched their thirst, they can 
readily be come up Avith when full of water, by a short epiirt 
on a fast horse. At other times they are caught by relays 
of hnrHemen and greyhomids. The flesh is said in books on 
Persia to l^e prized aVmve all other venison, Imt Persiana 
have told me that it should only be eaten under absolute 
necessity, being equally disagreealtle to tlie conscience of a 
good Mussulman and to the palate of a gourmand" (p. 8*j), 
The inhabitants of Persia about 2ot> years ago were of 
another opinion, if we are to believe Olearius, who travelled 
in Persia in 1637, and who states that he saw no less than 
thhty-two wild asses killed in one day, by order of the Shah^ 
for the use of the royal kitchens at Ispahan, The Romans, it 
is well known, held the flesh in estimation, especially that of 
the young foal. I have already alluded to the habit of 
stopping short and luolnng back, which travellers haVB 
observed in the hunted wild ass. It is interesting to note 
that this has not escaped the attention of the Assyrian 
sculptor (see Plate I, Part I, p. 33). 

The wild hog of Persia and Mesopotamia appears to be 
the Sits scrofa of Europe, It abovnids in suitable localities 
throughout Persia ; " in the oak forests of Fars and the reedy 
swamps ctf Khuzistan it furnishes food for the lion, and in 
the Caspian provinces for the tiger/' The monuments depict 
a wild sow, with a Utter of yomig pigs, in one of these reedy 
fiwampa, ** Shooting pigs from horseback is a favonrite 
diversion ^ith Persians, and though the city people let the 
game lie where it falls, the IJyAts are by no means so par- 
ticular, and do not always permit the precepts of the Korin 
to prevent their indulgence in a rasher» Young pigs are 
often kept in the stables of great men, nnder the idea that 
their presence wnll divert glances of the evil eye "' (pp, 86-87). 

The wild sheep of Persia belong to two spt'ciee, the 
Omf ctfcioverotr^ Button (0, vignei, Blyth), which is found in 
the warm regions of the south, and the 0, Gmelmij Blyth 



I 



On the Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculpt if res. 381 



I 



I 



{O, o^imtalU, Gmelio), the Aniienian slieep, or eaprovu, 
which 18 found in Northern Persia. Bath kiiiLk, it ia probable, 
were known to, and banted bj% the ancient Asg^Tians. 

The wild goat of Persia ib the Capra iFf^afjrus of Pallas, 
'* the Pa-sang/' or *' rock-footed '' ; it ir called *' an ibex*' by- 
Mr. Blanl'ord and Major St. John. In ray nse of the terra 
**ibex" I have restricted it to the Bti>in!>ock of Egypt 
and Arabia, viz., the Capra Stuaifica of Ehrenberg, tijo 
bedett of the Arabs, Thi« epecies is not inchnled in the 
Persian f.inna by Blanft>rd, nor in the Mesopotaniinn list of 
Sehmanla., hut having a wide geographical range it probably 
does occur in these lands. The Capra Caticti»ica^ Oil Id., of 
the Caucasus, and the chamois {Rapicapra tra^us)^ abundant 
in tlie same locahty, have not hitherto been noticed in the 
Persian mountains. 

The g^azelle of the Persian higlilands, found in almost all 
valleys and plains from al)Out 3,(X)0 to about 7/X)0 feet above 
the sea, is the (Ja^ella sub^atiuroHa, iTiildenst, According to 
Bl an ford, this species is unknown in tbe plains of Mesopo- 
tamia, and in the lower ground along the Persian Gulf and 
the Arabian Sea, The species of gazelles come very close 
to each other. Tlie G, dorcas and 0, ituhipttlumHa would 
probably be the species met with by the ancient AsayrianB 
in their hunting expeditions. The species actually figured 
on the monuiuents I should take to he the G. suhguttuf^sa^ 
because the males are depicted with lyrate horns, and the 
females without any horns at all, winch is true of this species ; 
the A88}Tians would meet with it in Northern Persia and 
Armenia, &c. Of the Cervidc^^ the mardl is the only true 
elaphine deer found in Persia. It is pecidiar to the Persian 
provinces. The Cervits Casphis, Brookes, an axiue deer 
allied to the C. a^is of Incha, is found near the Caspian, in 
the Talish rnountainSt 

Of the range of the fallow deer (C dama) in Persia tliero 
ifi not much ascertained. The species must have been 
lown to the Assyrians, as the spotted deer of the monu- 
ments has palmate horns. Thefoe (CaprtFolus caprtFa^ Gray) 
is common in the Caucasus, and occurs in Northern Persia 
generally ; it is said to be found in Mesopotamia. ** The 



382 On (he Mammalia of the Asttyrian Sculptures, 

red deer {C, elaphus) m said to be found in the Caucasian 
and Transcaticasian provinces, and the elk, Aeles machlU, 
inhabits the foreBts of the Caucasus, but neither is kno^Ti to 
exist in Petsian territory/* The red deer, as I liave stated 
before, ie figured on the monuments ; but we have no repre- 
sentation of the elk, whose broad massive horus would at 
once dietinguish it. 

The AsBjrians often collected ihe young of wild animals 
in considerable numbers, brought them home and placed 
them in menageries \ thus one king says, ** Fifty young 
lions I brought into (.^alali and the palaces of my Ian d« and in 
confined houses I placed them'' (Layards luscriptionSt 
xHv, 17). The young of Bos primigenhm were often thus 
brought together. Also some young of animals called 
PaMtd'te (^ ^TTT^ It ^T !"***) ^^^^ introduced by the 
same king into Calah, but what these pagate were I have not 
the faintest idea. The hides and horns of the wild cattle 
were much prized, and are very frequently mentioned ; ihe 
large horns of the Bos primigetmiB were often erected as 
ornaments above the gates of the palaces ; figures of ante- 
lopes, wUd sheep, &c., were carved out of stone and set up 
as ornaments about the palaces. 

The Umkuni of the hnotmg record (mentioned above, 
p. 359) I can give no explanation of. Mr. Sayce compares 
the Aramean "^IpOD *' very red " ; the word is somewhere 
equated with tmeni or ieseni, which in the hunting record 
are mentioned as different animals, but I cannot find my 
reference. 

With the expression, "star of the tip of the bear's tail/* 
may be compared the Arabic anf al amd^ ** nose of the lion,'* 
apphed to two stars so called. 

In concluding this essay on the Mammalia of the Assyrian 
Sculptures, I have again to thank Professor Sayce for 
valuable suggestions and help. To Dr. Sclater, the eminent 
Secretary of the Zoological Society, always ready to impart 
information and to answer questions, and to Sir Victor 
Brooke^ Bart., I also desire thankfully to express mj sincere 
obligations* The illustrations, which have been taken from 
photogrhfhB of the animals of the British Museum sculp- 




On the Mammalia of the As^i/rian SculptunB. 383 

hires, and wliicli accorjipany ray papers, are ver^^ faitliful 
reproductions indeed, and 1 am gi-atefiil to Mr. Clark, 
the artist, for the care beetoAved upon them. I also thank 
Mr. W. R. Cooper for the trouble he has taken, and the 
interest he has shown in my subject. 



Note,— *^ The hunting scenes from the palace of Ashui^ 
bani-pal (Sardanapalus of the Greeks) are the most perfect 
specimens of Assyrian glyptic art. They are to be seen in 
the basetneut room devoted to Assyrian art in the British 
Museum. Sir E. Landseer was wont to admire the truth- 
fiihiess and spirit of these rehefs, more especially of one 
where hoimds are pulling down a wild ass, (Ancient Mon- 
archies, vy], i, p. 517.) Profesyor Roll est on has expressed to 
me his admiration of a woxinded lioness in the same series, 
where the paralysis of the lower limbs, consequent upon an 
arrow piercing the fipine, is finely rendered (ibid., p. 512)/* 
(Early Civilization, vi, by the Rev, Canon Rawlinson. 
Leifiure Hour, June, 1B7(>») 




Vol. V. 



%^ 



384 



A SKETCH OF SAB^EAN GRAMMAR: 

WITH 

EXAMPLES OP TRANSLATION. 

Bv LrEDT.-CoL, W. F. Pride aux, F.RG.S.. Fellow of 
(lie Umveraity of Bombay, 



Mmd 4^A Jattuar^, 1876. 



[Continued fkom Page 224.] 

XVII, 
(B.M, 16; Os. 27.) 

s 

L |] O f p, n, pr. masc, = Arab, w h-j* quiek^ speedy, 

h ? h ^ ^'* "^"' ff^^' ^^^^ S ^ ^' ^ coiintiy of South 
Arabia. (Trans, Soc. Bib. Arch.^ VoL 11, p, 8.) 

3, S ft n ' conjunction, when. 

^•©H*ifhV~H*»(fHV> Hal^^ Hkens this to the" 
Hebrew idiotUj HIIW n|LirT, muUiptieaiido mtikipltcaho; 

and takeB h ? Ml A' ^**^'» ^^ ^^ ^^^ subject of the 
verb. Unless this view be taken, the passage becomes 
one of great difficulty. The first H V fh V therefore 
ie the inf of IL of H '^ h = Arab, j^l, to gain the 
masteri/j to ovetrome^ perhaps here, simply to attack 
(see Lane, suh voce) ; ^ H V ^1 V ^^ P^rf. 3rd pers. 
plnr, masc. of the same verb. 



^ The final J in l^JJW ©tc, is tho demoBstmtive enclitic, which ana were to the 
Qr^elr A in 6 Mtvatos^ 6 la^los^ etc. 





A Sketch of Sahcwan Grammar^ ^-c. 



385 



4. O V Q] ^1 1 ^ ^-^' ^^^'^^' ^^^t' ^^^"^^ J^» ^^^'^^ colkfftt, 

referring especially to <fram *-oJf*rfed and stored in 
the house. The prep. *! here signifies iu ikp direction 
of, imth a view to* 

5. S <I> ^ "' Pr^ of the father of ]) O ) fl^ 

f>^7. H > A o I X a> V ^ n ; n^'<^^^' ^^^^ X ® V ^ ^^8 '^ 

plnr. of Jf U = II eb. TVfl, "^^HE, ^^^^ dtnlresn^ mis- 
fortune. J ft O may perhaps == Arab. ^^^ hW; or 
possibly the phrase may have reference to the 
protection or refuge afforcled by the god = Arali. ^^ , 
Perhaps X ® f ^ H ^^ *^'^" X <^ V IS ^ f^^^^ ^^^^ • ' • 

^ n 8 V» P<^i'f' 3rd perH. emg. W. of fl <1> 8 =^ Arab. 
5 i \ j > to return, e.g., /f> return from out* fttate of mind 
to another, 

1 7 h;, n. Bubet. ^ Heb. hr\i Arab, J^ ; ^Eth. -^^A r 

7*1.?, robur^ potentio. 

f] L 11 JL X , 11* Biibst.^ derived from ^ Tl X =^ Arab. 
.j^U ^ti /t'^/ eonjident or secure. 

9* 6 ^ ft , 11- stibflt. iu Btat. couetr, = Arab, j ju? , irw^/i, 
but in Sabiean Av^th the Hebrew raeaning of 
riffh teo u» nefii^, j u^'i t ffca t jo n> 



TramhtimK 

Sari'"*" the Min^an has endowed Il-Makah of Hirran 
with this tablet* wliich he offered him when the kSabeean and 
the tribe of Aead began to make an attack npon his property 
collected in the house of Bin SauiS.n, and he demanded liT>m 
him the fidfilTnent (of bis wiahes) in that time {or in the 
misfortune of the time) ; and he (i.j?., the god) kept him safe 
according to the prayer addressed to him ; and he («>,, 
the votaiy) returned to his confidence in the power of 



380 



A Shtch of Sabmtn Gmmmm% 



Il-Makah ; and may II-Makah continue to jtistify his servant 
Sari*^ in the fulfilment [of that] which he may demand 
from him. 



XVIIL 
(B.M. 12; Os. 130 

L ^ ^ J , n. pr, diptote {v, XV, L) 

^ S ? ^ ^ ' ^- p^' ^^' ^f ^ S J ^ — ^/ ' ''^'*"* 

Probably here the epomfmus of a tril:>e. 
3. T rS 1*1 X ' P^*^* ^^^ pere. sing, masc, V* of ^ f^i (^ 
^' Hofl. prep. = IL, after. 

X 8 H V I X8 N 4* J *1^^ first of these words is a not 

Bubet. fern. = Arab* jSjL*., « mufortune^ calamity; 

the second, petf, 3rd pers. sing. fern. I. of § b| 1|1 =: 

Arab. ^.^j^;*. % to happen^ come to pass^ 

-5. hX8N4'IX?VISn; HH i« the prep, n -th 

the enclitic \. X ? V * pron. dem* fem. agreeing 

withhXSKiH. 

6-7. X ^ ^ 1 V ^ m h <^ = the Arabic locution ^ _^U* j, 
and as for — he, 

^' 3 X ? J ft » 11. siibst. fem., ace. case, from the verb 
f ^ ft = x^ab. ^^ , to protect, defffuL 

fem, pha\ fract. from ^ ^ l|t ^ Arab. ^ ^ free^ fret- 
s' t. ■% -* 
horn ; pL J\^\* 

boariufj tract of count n/^ thence, provinces^ diMncts* 
In status conBtrnctuSj before the prep. 9 ^ O . 

1 Oe the grammatical formation of thia aud similar expit^Ationei see Miiller, 
Def Status contiructnt im Hlmjaritchen (ZeitBchrift d, D. M. G-., xxx, 120), 



tcitk £.vainple^ of IratiJilatwtu 



387 



^^* *^ 1 iH H I h J ^ H > ^"-'^ epithet of the place ^ ^ ^ ^ 
which nlsu ociairs in No, XXXII, 4. I otter no 
conjeetiu'e ^v^th respect to the meaning of the 
words, but it is odd that they should bear so cloee 
a resemblance to the Hebrew and Assyiian terms for 
citi/, 

*** ^ ^ ^ 8 > '^^^^^^'^ here and in No. XIX, 2, has apparently 
the same meaning as the Heb* n^^ffi^JH, oblutiot 
donum, 

' 9-10. $ 1 A ^ , probably for ^ 1! fi (P ^ (me No. XIX, 6)- 

But there is a piineipal idea of pej'feetmn m the 
word; cf Heb, ^m n^7pp, aitruni optimmii^ from 
n73 and also hh"^ 

TT T - T * 

10. S n n ' eonj,, here means an thou^fL 

m ^ ? » inipeif. Bubjunct. 3rd [mrs. sing, from 

1^^> ^*1I' Jiij' ^^11^1 "^^'i*^* the signification, to put 
finih or produce greeti herbs, 

? ^ n ^ h » cardinal nuraberj forty, 

D H ^ fH ^ n. subst. plur. fract. of B H ^ = ^^^b. 

1 1. V S n = ^™^- *L. ■ 1 o 11 = Heb. rjh:ph, ««^ 

gum ; ttftipluts, 
12, "1 h ^ ^ <I> } II- pi'- composed of ^ ^ CD, A<* loved ; and 

1^. 

13* A *1 11 V ^ ? > 1^' P^* composed of V ^ ?^ imper£ of 
y ^ <D , and ft *! ^ > au epithet of the deity. 

) fl A > i>"^u^ adj, = Arab. ^, ^r^a^* ^ 1 '^ 5 noun 
adj* = Arab, Jji.ri.' '''"''» ^f^f^ere* Cf, Hal, 51, 19. 



' Acoopdiog to Ibri KbHllikan^Dhfl: KibArwas one of tlie princes of El-Yemen 
( Trad, de McQuckin da Slane^ torn, ii, p, 4) , On Dhil Khalil, boo Miillcr, 
HimiarUche Ituckri/ten in ZeitBchrift d. D, M. G.^ ixix, 61S>. 



388 



A Sketch of Sahofan Grammar^ 
Translation* 



Shiimmar, Bin-Kiirain*'", has endowed II-Makah of 
with this tablet, becauBe 11-Makali lord of Awwfim h€ 
him according to the prayer addressed to him when Sha 
besought of him, after the misfortune which occurredjn the 
house of Bill Knraiu*" ; and because he delivered his servant 
Shammar iu that uiisfortune; and as to Il-Makah, Shanimar 
has given, in accordance with his prayer for protection to 
their^ free-lion i men, and women, and the districts adjacent to 
Awwan I>hil 'Iran Dhfl Alii, an oflering of the best kind, ae 
though the green herbs were produced forty-fold, and 
over and al>ove that; and this jirayer and this protectioir 
liappeued m the year of Wadada-Il sou of Yekah-malik, 
Kabir Klialil. 



XIX. 

(B,M. la; Ob. 10.) 

O - PL,* 

*" D A ^ ^ H n ^ » "■ 1^*^* ~ Anib, ^j,^j^ jbji, 9€rvant of 

Shamn^ a deity of the Sabeeans. 
^ s? ? f > u. pr. of unoertain derivation, 

2. ^ ^ <I^ I perf, 3i'd pere. sing. masc. = Arab, y_ J} y ^^ 

egttthluk^ and in the religious sense» to give or etidmv. 

s 
^4. 1^ <I> O , n. Bulist., perhaps = Arab. ^^ ^ > dijfficulttf^ 

distress^ want; but cf. Praelorius, Neue Bettrdge^ 1873, 

p, 8-9 ; perhaps from root ^ ^i r? drt/ness^ drought 

5, ^ f B ^ » n. pr. of uncertain derivation. 

5-11. <P ^ V h V^ P^*''^' 3^^ pers. plur. IV. The Arabic doee 

not possess this verb in L In Sabtean it appears to 
have an intransitive sense : to meet tvitft delo^* 

(v, SYO^V' ^- «ulJBt. from IV, of ?0®» ^th the 

enclitic ^ . 

^ Le., of the lrib« of t lie rottirT. 



vntfi Exiimphs of T7^nslatioru 389 

S 1 A ® ^ » ^' *^4l*i agreeing with the preceding 
word = Arab. J^ i^ , prosperous^ fortunate. 

J A S J P^^^* ^^^ pers. mafic, eing. = Arab. J^ t io deny^ 
refuse, but here with the iEthiopic aeiiBe of 'f^Vl^ £ 
alienaii, 

6-7. ®lIV?1on*= Arab, ^^' ^^^ (Slullen Himjarische 
Inschriften^ Zeitschrift d. D. M. G., xxix, p. 603,) 

7. H V X ^ ? H ' imperf. subjunct. 3rd pers. sing. maBO. 
= Arab. Jj» to opmt^ liberate; here with the techni- 
cal signification of to judge (c£ ^th. ^'X*(\\i\ 

7. <>* 3 V X ? n J ^^ noun here ifi probablj in the plural 

s f r 

= Arab. c^*»^ • 

V-' 

H 1 1 H ¥ ? J imp^^rf, Bubjunct. 3rd pers. eing* ma«t% 
IL of "l/l H ^ Arab, J ;T» *^ afflict with drouf/ht, or 
v>ant of fW?i.* 

8. 0) ^ V Y S ^ * ^' subst. from the verb f ^ } > to possess t 
nxeauing ihi^vefove possessions^ pmpertjj. 

H ft f ^^ > n, enbBt. with enclitic \ , formed by 
metathesis from the rt^ot ^ J 4^ = Aiab. uXi-^ ^ 
ahmudmit rain^ a heavy fall of rain. The verb L| ^ 

seemja to be understood. 

h ^ h ift J ^- subst. with enclitic ^ - This word must 
be referred to the root t^C-^^ » narrowness^ strditness, 
hardship^ cognate with "^J , Or it is perhaps the 
name of a place, cf. Hal. 208, 2. 



' Comp. the Arabic eiprcaeiou JJ) ^'A t l^o* toI- »i P- 53. 



390 



A Sketch of Stibican (h*amnuir^ 
Tt*amlutiofu 



'Abd-Shams^ son of Hiyarjh*"* has endowed II-Makah of 
Hirrim with this tablet, wliicli he offered him» and dedicated 
to hira ae a gift, when he preserved them (i.e?., the tribe) 
from the ih-onght which was in this hmd in the year of 
8ainaha-karib son of Tohba^i Karib son of Fadhih^™ ; 

And tliey met with delay in obtamlmj prosperous health ; 
for he who might pass jnd^raeut upon them and affliet their 
possessions with scarcity of watt^r was alienated from them ; 

And after (hat there wai^ this heavy fall of rain in the mid^t 
of this necefisity : and ' Ahd-Skanis*'' returned to his confidence 
n Il-Makah. 

And aim l>e€anHe he liuis prospered thera in their fniits 
and in their male children ; and with the Batisfaction of 
their lords> the Beni Mai'thad*"". 



XX. 

{Ba\L 10; Os, tn) 

1- ^*1?rH' "' ^^\l"> f^iiniame of Anm&r^» of nncertain 

meaning, but perhaps BigiiifjTng dui^k in cotnph\tion «= 
Heb. ]TO^?. 

1-2' X 8 ^ ^ ® V ^ n- Pi*- (composed of V <^ V ^^^ 
J X 8 ^ (I^^^)» ^Athtar has kept in mfoty; as a com- 
pound, it is diptote, 

2- h 1*1 4* h H * n. pr. of a tribe of El-Yemen. 

^^- "l^V^liyV^ *^* eiibet., which previous commenta- 
tors have coneidered cognate to the Heb. ^H, to kill; 
but I agi'ee with Miiller in refemng the word to the 
jEth, ^\}iXi ; pra'dam ugere^ hello cape^e. The re- 
duplicated fomi giv«.'8 the idea of number or 
quantity. 



With K^campU^ of TranslalioH, 



391 



^'*- ^ ¥ N n » ^^' **i^l^st. =^ Amb. jj^, used adjectivuly as 
attributing tlie seime of goodni'Hs to anything, see 
Lane, vob iv, p. ItJOfcJ, and Miiller, Z. d. M. G,, 
xxix, 599. 



"^^ 6 ^ n H » ^* BiibBt. pku'. = Arab. ^Cj ' « spoiler of 
the dead (Hab). More probably a proper name. 

8. J J ll ; a favourable omtm, or sanction of the deiiy^ cf. 
Arab, ^-j ' Heb. TV^^^ etc, 

8-9. ^ ^, ^ ^ ® 1 ^ h H fH ^ ^^^ attributes or posBegsiouB of 
the god, are used for the god himself. ^ h H fH ^ ^^ 
the place in tlie ternjjle from which the people were 
eallud to wtutihip ; $ ^ ^ ^ » the i^hiue where tlie 
image of the god was Bet up. X H ^ ^***' X H 1 ^ " 



Translation* 

AumSr'''° Azhlam boh of Ilawaf-'Atht, Dhu-Nahe{in, has 
endowed 11-Mukah of Hirmn with this tablet, because he 
assisted him in oldalmmf plentifnl and valuable booty from 
the tribe of Nabsh**" ; and in that Il-Makah has continued to 
prosper Anmar*™ with tlie favourable sanction of the calling- 
place and station of Jl-Makah, and In^cause there has been 
favour in tiwes paAt^ and may there be favour in times to 
come to the Beni Dhfi-NaheEn. 



XXI. 

(B.M. 8 ; Os. 12.) 

^- nfi?» ^' P^'*> sio-iiame of Shanmmr, of uncertain 
derivation. 

^h^^> n. pr. 
*"5, H ? ® V I S h X ? ' hnpcrf. subjunct. 3rd pers. eing. 



masc. 



31*52 



A 6tet4.*h of Sabaaan Gratmnarf 



5-iy. H I h X iH ? » iinpt'tf. Hubjuiiat. 3rd pers. mng* 
VIII. of -|h A. 

10, ^ O 8 ? > n- pr* participle from a verb — Heb. ytf^* 

save (in Ilipbi)). 

Trans iutioii. 

Shammar Yabiib 80ii of Wanbk**" bas endowed Il-Makali 
of Hirriln witb tbis tablet, because be bas kept him safely 
according to tbe prayer atMreMeii to bim, and in order that he 
may continne to keep bin) safely according to the prayer 
which he may kercaftev make before bim, and because he 
aeeisted bim in obtaining valuable booty from the tribe of 
Nabsh*™; and in tbat be bas gifted bim with the favourable 
sauL'tion of tbe ciilling-place and of tbe station of Il-Makah ; 
and with tbe satisfaction of bie chief Yatbi'"™, Bin Marthad**", 



XXIL 
(B3I. 11; 0«. 8.) 

1' n n n J > li' W' = c-^j > « '<^^- 

D X h ? ' ^^* V^'^ surname of Eab&b"™, of uncertmn 

derivation. 

^ y h IS n * ^ tribal name. 

2. XHiinn,«"'iHiin*i=XHn^"<iHn. 

3. ^1 IH 1^ » P^*"^- ^^^^ V^^^^* *^i^S- ^* maec. II. of ^ ^ |H » 
to anstcer. 

Tmi^, 11. BiibBt. plur. uf "IIH*' ^;«g"«*t« "^vith 
Arab, ^( ^ > a vestineid (Sliiller), 




with £.rafnpl€8 of JWtuslatiotu 



303 



? n fS ?r » "* ^^iibst. plur. of f n A * cognate with 
Heb. niO, Arab, ^^i captivum fecit} 

^' 8 } n 1*1 ' ^^' subet* plur, of 8 ^ fl ^ Arab. ^,, , a plain, 

0<S>f, 11. aclj\ plui\ of 5 O > = Arab, ti - ,-*? » ^ /o/- 
lower ^ 01 partizan* 

7-8. O J Y , II. pr. of the eliief of the Marthadite clan of 
Beni Akhraf, from o\(^y to elevate. 

8. ^ J > perf. 3rd pers. sing, masc*, identical witt 

Chaldajan pHS, redeimU liberamU 

9- I!oniI]H*II!H*Xn- DH*X. nammverlm, 
lioni J ^ ^ , here employed in the Arabic sense of 
olwiam venii^ occur rit ahcui, OBp. hostili mo do. On 
the conetruction, cf Miiller, der status cmistructits ijn 
Jiimjafnscften^ Z. d, M. G., XXX. 

1)-10. SOr^* nomt*n geutiie ; the Aralnht, probably the 
Arahanttm of Ptolemy, aa Halcvy points out; or, the 
Wesiems^ from the root [| ) O ^ S^' ^^' ^"^SJ* 
pereffrini. 

10. H X V S B ' ^" ^^ubwL, apparently the name of a town ; 
cump. III. 3-4. UaK'A'y identifies it with the present 
Hizmet Abu Thaur, a ruin in the Upper Jauf in 
El-Yt^men, in which place he discovered an inscription 
(No. 596) wiXh the words ^ X ? H H I S M V ^^^ ^^- 

Traiisluiion, 

Rabiib'^'" Ylizam, Bin Akhra£ has endowed H-Makah of 
Hirran with thiti tablet, because Il-Makah has answered the 
prayer addressed to him, and becanae he has kept him whole 
in his district of Mals&n, and because Tl-!Makah has assisted 
him in ohitunimj vahialjle ispoils, and vestments, and captives 
in all the plains of the followers of their chiefs Yafra\ Bin 

* Coiupnre 9^"^^ ^5^', ^rt«/«/ captive (Isiiiah ilix, 24) > 



394 



A Sketch of iScil^if'an Grammar, 



Martliad*'*^, iuul because he delivered Im servant RabAb*" in 
the attack which wae encountered fi'oni the 'Araban (or, the 
Btrangera from the West) in the neighbourhood of MaELhat*", 
aud becauee he has prospered him with the satiBfaction of 
his chief, Yafra'; and wqth the favourable sanction of the 
calling-place, and of the station of Il-Makah ; and because 
it has been favourable in times past^ and may it be favour- 
able in times to come with the Beni Akhraf. 



XXIIL 
(B,M. '22; Os. 26,) 

!• B A ® ?| > 1*- P*"- ^ Arab, ^^.i> the act of f^mnff. 

TliiB inscription is very fi'agmentary, tlie termination 
of several of the lines Ijeing lost. 

4. ^ n H ^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ word occurs in a broken line, it is 
dillienlt to judge of its meaning from the context, I 
take it to be an adjective qualifying S H S X ^ ' ^^^ 
to mean valuahh (c£ Arab, j^\, 

7. <I> V J n ^ T imperf. subj. 3rd pers. sing, maec.^ Ai-ab, 
^.^1, VIIL of ^^ to hold in estimation or respect; 
cf. alBO Heb.Tn^n, Hiph. of "15:i\ to ofer (a sacri- 
fice), to eongeeralf» 

9, 5 ^ f ^ , perhaps infinitive from a verb = Arab. 1^5,, 
to Mi on the head ; and hence hurt or injure* 

10. *1 f^i DO n *1^ ^* P^* composed of [J] p 1^, to see, regard 
(HeVi. t^lj), and 1 f^i , the god II: Deus adspeMt, 
euravit, 

y ^ r*l 6 ^ J n, pr, composed of ^ O , ^o comprehmd, 

or include^ tlie universe, and J^ ^ , an epithet of the 
deity, tlie soyer or commandet*. 




I^^^^^^J 


^^H 


T-- 


m 


"^^^B 


1 


^^H HHth Ejcarnples of Tramhtioth W5 ^^^M 


1 


^H^ Translaiion. ^^^M 


^T 


1, AWB**" 


has praised ^^^| 


H 


2. sons of Kar .*..,...*... 


1 


3- Lave endowed ll-Maknh 

4. with tliis valuable tablet 

5. Il-Makah lord of Aw^mm and 
ii. hie eervaBt Awe**" 

7. in that he haa held liirn in estimation, and 

8. the power and station of Il-Makab when 

9. he preHerved him from injmy in the year of 
10, Nabata-il son of 'Amma-amir. 

I 


1 


^M ^H 


1 


^f (B.M. 1 ; Ofl. 3.) ^H 


[ 


This inscription is merely a fragment. ^^^| 


1 


1- • ■ • B 1 *! H "I'ly ^^ restored ^ ^ ^ Q , and perhaps ^^H 

= Arab. ^, Aesyrian fiparru^ Tnran^ caiwr, brans, ^^H 


1 


2, CD^ V ^ ^ , 11. snb8t. — Arab. Jj, the Sabfeaii name ^^H 
for a chief. ^^^| 


w 


Tramlation, ^^^M 


V 


L Il-Makah of Hirran tluB bronze ^^^| 

2. and their cliief and their tribe • , . . • ^^H 


1 


^B^ ^H 


1 


IP (BJL 3; Os. 5.) ^H 


r 


This inecription is also considerably mutilated. ^^H 


1 


l.After...rtI]nHal6vy8«ppUe8mhX?l>|<I>V1f^- ^| 

■ a good conjecture. ^^H 



immar. 



A Sketch a/ Sal 
2. In this line he euggests f B^(I>, perhaps better oQ^^. 
3 iy 11; M. HaMvy proposee O fl V A 1 "^ = 



Aral*. II. ^.^1 or HeK Piel y^H, to deli 



lYr. 



4. O ^ V ? I ? h fl ' ^^- P^- of a tribe, O J ^ V ? ^« 

fonned like the 3rd pers. sing. maBC. imperfect tense 
of IV. of O ^ ^ , to mrpa»9 or Ite eminenU 

TVufulution, 
,..••• Beni Yeha/ra have endowal ll-Makah of 

JTirrtm with fhiM tal>let because E-Makah hris granted the 
prayer adtlreesed to him. And may Il-Makuh continue 
their justification (i.e., to jiiRtify them), and their safety, 
and the sati^faetion of their lorde, the Benu Marthad*™, both 
because Il-Afakyih fius delivej^ed ihem^ and because there has 
been favom- in timea pust^ and may there be favour in time$ 
to come to the Beni YehafraV 



XXVL 

(B3I, 26 J Os. 25,) 

This inscription is also mutilated, but the text can be 
restored witliout difficulty* 

7. V S ^ f^ I ^' snbst, plnr. fract. of ^ H ^ » ^ poseession. 

8. S S ? h ^ ?i iraperf, subjunctive 3rd pers* plur, masc, 

of ^ ^ ^, to gain^ or aty]uire» 

Tran»lation, 
Wbd^Shams*^ has endowed Il^Makah of Hirran with this 
tablet because he has granted the prayer of Abd-Shhms^ 
addressed to him ; and in that he has kept them safe, and has 
kept safe their possesBions which they have acquired* and 
which they may acquire,* 



Tbftt ia, mftj he keep pafe Ihoee wh'wh thej maja^iuT^ here^ter! 




with E.r(tmpft\i of Ti^ffnuldtion, 



31*7 



XXVII. 

(B.M. 27; Os, 18.) 

The inherent difliculties of this inscription are enhanced 
by the Iors of tlio tAvo or three iinee at the beginning, 

^-I^J^hXHIHI* Hlh1 appears here to hav© the 
meaning of ichen = L|^f]; "lo^X^^ P^***^* ^^^^ 
pers. sing. V, of ^ ® jl| = Arab, to return. 

1-2. ^ O <I> ^ J , inf. = Arab. ^U— i the puhlication^ disper^ 
nan, and thence distribution (vide Lane's Lexicon, 

2. O y X 8 }^ ' ^'^"^ inhmtanee, 

)( fj J ^ , n. pr. feni., an attentive person* 

^ P , inf, = here Arab. ^ljV> ^o ff^^^^ separately, 

3- h X ? S ^ h * n* subftt. feni. from f S ^ , ^vith the 
enclitic 1^ . 

J V h 1 — ^^ ^'^^^' r^^ fr*^™ r^ 1 ' another, 

?lX® — fSX®* ^^ continue, bja phonetic degradation 
analogous to XIX ^^*^ 8 *1 8 (Hal«5Fy), 

4. } ^ *«? > cf. the Anib.^«^l, which is said to be a pltraae 
common in El-Yemen, and to signify, he gave him the 
thing, or put him tn possession of it. In this place, 
as Hal^^'^^ points out, it standa for the more usual 
^ O 1^ , to prosper or assist. In conjunction with 
f ^ further on» it means to give healthy or safety. 

^ ^ ^ ^ , n. pr. = Arab, ^^j,^ helmed. 
n M , n. mibst. pUir. of X (1 M (^'- ^^> '^h 



A Sketch of Sabfrct^^Tommar^ 



5. y^ If, 11. siibst.^ Arab, J^, good fartwie, p^irmmatl 



h 



appin€$s^ 



5, 3 J (>| , 11. subst, pliir. of 8 r *I^ > ^'* ^**'' OT p09»eMQr. 

^' € h A n • *^^^® word 18 generally understood to signify 
the tribe of JJ^ , at the present day (in conjunctiou 
with the j^U) one of the largest in El- Yemen; 
cf. Miiller. himjuriHch^. fH,vhri/ten, Z* d. M, G,, xxix, 
p. 593. llRt THbt* of UuKhid m named in Prid., iv, 6 
(Trans, Soc. Bil>. Arch^ Vc»l II, p, 2(i)* 

^ O fl J , participle from O [] J = Arab. -, ^* fte re- 
mmtied^ direli, or ahoJe in a place. It is in the 
singular number agreeing with fl O ^ , and the 
enelitie ^ lias the force of the Greek 6, The 
expressitm ie probably merely etiuivalent to fl, aa it 
is used frequently in Halevy*8 inscriptions. 

H ? ^ ^ J for S ? J 4J Y 1 iinperf. precative, 3rd pers. 
sing, niaase. of ? ^ 4{ s Jv word of which the obvioiifl 
meaning is to product or preserve, 

7-8, ^ 4* J H * 1^' subst. = Hek pm, to he afar off, at a 

distance* 

8. n J ^ ' ^' ^^i^ist, = Heb. ^^1^, to he near, 

'^- n ? ^ M ? S n » ^' pi* ' * ^^ sub tribe of the Beni 
Marthad"\ 



Ti'umlaUon^ 

Mnwaddad'''" of the Beni Anhjah hm^ endowed Il-Maiah 
Ilirrdn with this tabht because he has tf ran ted the prat/er adJresJieti 
to hittiy in that he kept him Bafe when he returned to this city 
of 'Aiurau to distribute his inheritance of Kanhbat Dhat- 
Martha d^"^ and to giv^e this property in separate portions to 
another; and becatiHO Il-Makah of Hirran has continued 




With Examplu of Translation, 



399 



to bestow upon liis Bervant Muwaddad*" safety fur his 
cultivable lands and personal liappiness ; and the satisfaction 
of his heirs, the Beni Marthad^"" and their tribe of Bakil, 
occupying 'Amran ; and may he protect his servant 
Muwaddad*™ from humiliation and the adversity of enemies 
at a distance and near at hand ; and because there has been 
favour in timeff pasf^ and may there be favour in times to come 
to his clan, the Beni Asliyab, in the station and power of 
11-iIakah of HiiTtlu. 



XXVIIL 

(B.M. 29 ; Os. 30.) 

1. X 8 O ^ "P ^ n. pr. compounded of the verb V ^V = 
Arab, ^^, to defend from any one or thing; and 

^ fl J <0, n. pr. = Arab. l._^j, to adhet^e to. 

? 1 O V $ A* ^- pr- compounded of V I A ^ Heb, 
rad. np^, Arab. \^, to be lofty or t.mlted ; and 
y ^ O, the Ugh {Most High), an epithet of the deity, 

H 3 T 1^ ^ s ^- aubst,, a stone (cf. Lane's Lexicon, 5. r. 
*Ldi' Freytag would appear to be right in saying 

the word is of the dialect of Himyar, It is probably 
a sacrificial stone or flat altar. 

1-2. H 1 ^ ^ ^* subet. plur. intern, of ^| ^m = -^^^th. (^(YK" \ 

2. ^ H ^ X » "^"i<^ verbis from ^ ^^ . Here the meaning 

would seem to be, io begin or mmmence a work. This 
and the preceding w^ird ^ o ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^* conetr. 

of V^, Up eubst in stat. cnnstruct. verbal from 
^ ? V' *^ y?ojr€d beii^g spilt ; and therefore, probably, 
a receptacle for water^ a tank or reservoir (Halevy), used 
for purposes of irrigation. 
Vol, V. ^1^ 



400 A Sketch of Sabcpan Grammary 1 

I S V H ® ) ' "• sobst, J , 16 probably identical 

I with the Hebrew '^"^^, opohalmmum^ and the Arab, 

I ^y ^ species of tree which is common in El-Yejuen 

I (cf. Lane, Book I, part v, p. 1790), The termination 

I l| ^ 1^ , is the iiitengifictl dual form. 

I S X 1 n ^ ' ^* suhst, Hali^vy is of opinion that 

I X *1 n ^ ^'^ ^ term of agriculture in parallelism with 

I <D J fl I but I think it more probable that whilst one 

I ^ ? M ^ ^^'^^ constructed for the special use of the 

I ® ^ ^^'^^^^ <^f which the gum was used for incense, 

I s- - 

I the other was for the geneml use of the tribe, 2u-J ^ 

I s- - ' 

I Amongst the ancient Arabs^ the ^^^j (tribe) was 

I ^ ^ ' 

I the first and principal sub-division of the ^__,*., ^ 

I X ? S f¥» ^- s^l^t- fern, from f S ^ V* H. of <? S f 

2-3. ^ V ? H * J V ? '^o^dd seem to be either an epithet of 
the god = Heb* ^^rPf W^V^ proud ; or the name of 
a place. One of the sulxli visions of the tribe 
YSfa'a C8-Snflfi of El-Yemen, which claims descent 
from Hiinyar, is called Yehar at the present day. It 
numbers about 700 fighting men, and is settled some 
fifty or sixty miles from Yerim.* 
NOTE.^ — ^Dr, Praetorius has translated this inscription in 
theZ.d,M,G., xxvi, and at page I (Die Altarninschrift 
vera Abian) of his Nme Beitrftffe, 1873, but it is im- 
poseihle to accept many of his conclusions. 

Tramlaiion. ■ 

Ham'atht sou of Wazhbilo, servant of Samaha'ali, has' 
endowed 'Athtor with this votive stone, and all his children, 

* Beport on t1i«? TftHcms Arab Tribes in the Jfeighbourlioocl of Aden 
(No* 01. of th© Itecordi of the GtJTcrnment of Indis, Foreign DepartiQent) , 
1872, pp. 25, 29, In HaL 187j 6, and 1S8, 5, Yeliar musfc be the name of a 
place wlicro A tempk and fortress eiieted. Cf. HaJ. 577, 5, 



with Ejramphs of Tramlation^ 



401 



on the day of commencing the special irrigation-tank of tlie 
two balsam trees, and the tank of the tribe, m an endow- 
ment of Yehar (or, of the lofty one), in the name of *Athtoi" 
and in the name of Il*Makah. 



XXIX. 

(B.M. 30; Ob. 32.) 

This inscription is fractured in such a way as to leave the 
k beginning and endings of the liims incomplete, 

1. ]] X X ^ 1 n. pr, = Arab, jjit , Aram. Wrty, fortis, 

X 1 H ? X » !!• pr* compounded perhaps from H ? X» 
j^ ■ » inf n* of ^\ . , it increased ; and )[ ^ k for 

V 1 ^ > a name of the deity : c£ X ^ r^l H ^ fH ' 

HaL 577, 3, 

2, S J 8 ® V J P^^t 3rd pers. plur, masc. As this word 
has the paragogic 1^, it cannot he the first verb 
of a series. This would probably be O Y H R » ^^^^I^ 
built, on the fractured part of the stone. ^ 8 ^ V 
16 IL of a verb probably identical in meaning with 
the Arab^ J*, to make levels or equal, and refers to 
the operation of planing down the inequalities of the 
stones with which the building is constructed, C£ 
Heb. Itr^, recttm /nit; planus, CBqittts fuit; and in 
Hiph. rectum, planum fecily complanavit, 

HJ^^V* P*^^'^* ^^^^ P^^* P^^^* maec. with the 
paragogic ^ , IL of a verb of wdiich the meaning is 
uncertain, but which probably signifies to complete by 
painting the building red. Arab. JH^, rufm color^ 
Chakl, *l|?p, rubra pinxiL M. Halevy points out the 
frequency of the expression S^^^IH^IVl^^J^ISfl 



4f)2 



A Skekh of SainFan Grammar^ 



in hi8 inscriptions, the former of which words 
referable to the Heb. ttTjtiJ, radut, pars inferior^ radii: 
(montis), fundm (marie), and probably means 
foimdatimi ; the phrase therefore signifying from the 
fonndatiom to the finiskin^ stroke. In the inscription of 
Axum, the /Ethiopian king Tazena speaks of 
destroying the painted hottses^ meaning probably the 
temples. 

• * • • B ^ ? » perhaps the commencement of the name 
of the house or temple. As the name of the king of 
Saba occurs in the next line, we should here supply 
V f if n ' '" ^^^^ year, 

3' 1 h n V ^ ' ^^' P*'- composed of fl V ^ * '*^ 5^^**^ 
Aramaic Srr,, and "^ f^ . 

X l^J f J surname of Wahaba-iL 

4. . * • 8 ^ is evidently for ^ ^ S ^ > a Babajan verb ot 
which there seems no exact correspondent in the 
cognate languages. The noun ^ ^ S V^ *^ ^^^^ ^J 
the lexicologist to mean a gefieroia man, and it is 
applied as one of the many names of the lion; but 
the verb, judging from the context in the places 
where it occui*s, would seem to have the signification 
oi placing under the proUction of the gods (Halivy), 



Translation, 

1 , their sons, *A^iz**^ and Zaid-ilat and Sa'd- 

iluU have huih 
2 and have rendered even and have complete4l 

their house of Yafadh. . » . in the year of 

3, son of Wdhaba-il Yekhaz, king of SabU, 

4. In the name of Dhat-Ba,- damm and in the name of 

their god, Dhfi-Samawi, and they have placed it under 
protection, . . . 




with Examples of Trandatioiu 



403 



XXX. 

(B.M. 37; Os. 36.) 

This inscription is also greatly mutilated, 

1' ^ ^ X ® H » "• ^^^^** ^^' ^^'^^ ^v' pr<^9tantia. The 
votaiy is e\ndently a person of the highest rank, and 
probably a relative of the king. 

h A 1 ^^ ^^ ^^j- = J^^ ^o^^i 

2* 6 ) ^ h V 1 ft J ^- subst,, an epithet of the god Dhil- 
Samawi, the god who rules over circutiutances or events, 

3-h^1 ; restore H^1lH^- 

1 A ® X (H ' P^^f* ^^'^ P^^i^^ &mg. masc. X. of *^ ^ O = 
/Eth. i\rTt"®TlA> conjidenliam Itabere soUtus est (Os.), 

4- 1 fH ^ V ? ^ ^- pi*- composed of ^ ll^ ? for ^^^% 

imperf. of ^ ^ I* , to protect ; and ^ ^ . 

8- XI n* n. sxibet. = ^j good fortum^ prosperiti/ ; health. 
Here in «lai. comtruct 

X ^ H ? ^ » n. Biibst fern*, from a cognate of the 
Heb, V^lr cognovit; Jiyi^Dj eogrdtioy famtliaritas, 

X ^ H ? ^ probably signifies the collection of people 
known or akin to one another, i.e., the/amiltf. 



Translation. 

1 Dhfl-Watrim, the royal clan, 

2. has endowed Dhik Samiwi, lltih-iirariin, lord of ^ 

3. • with this votive stone which he has confided to 

him because of the safety 

^ In an inicription m tUo poflacBaion of Lieut.-CoL S> B. I^tiles, Poiicictil 
Agent at Miwkat, Dh^-Sumiwi b callixi ^ J ^ f] I 1 ^ Fl ' ^'^^ of oxen. 



404 A bketch of Sabwan Grammar, 

4* Yeham-il Dhft-Watrim, and because of the 

safety 

5. and het'ause of the mfety of the lords of their houi^e, 
and because of their prosperity 

6. and becauBe Dhft-Sarnawi ha^ given tliem children in 
abundance, and because .... 

7. he has kept them safe lu the fulfilment of that which 
they demanded 

8» . . . . may he continue the prosperity (or health) 
of the family I 



XXXL 

(B.M. ; Os. 31.) 

The first line of this inscription is lost 

2, i^i ^ J , ^' subst. derived fi'om a verb cognate with the i 
Chaldean Pa, It^ttJ, minutraviL In Sabsean, the 
word indicates one who serves the needs of his 
worshippers, therefore a patron or tutelary god (Hal,). 

S X ^ n. pr< of a goddess ; a diptote noim as being 
similan and perhaps referable to^ the 3rd pers* eing. i 
fern, imperf of ^ O ^ or ^ , cognate with Heb, 
P|'13, n^^, emiumtm, e^reelsa. Comp. the eponymous 
^ ^ , Arab, ^j (Abyan Inscript. 5) and the sur- 
name ^ ^ f (Fresnel, xiij 1, etc,). 

)( 'I O fl , n. subst. fern, of *! O p ; here in stat, constr* 

S y Tl ' ^' P**- ^^ ^ towii or district in El-Yemen ; 

the residence of the Gedranitw of Pliny. 

hX ^ fl) h ^ n^ii^' = Arab. |^^ Heb. rryH^jN, four. 
The Ij is the demonstrative enclitic. 



mth ExarnpleM of Translation* 405 

S V H J ^ ^ * num., the dual form of ^ ^ 0,= Arab. 
^^, HeK ^toy, ten; therefore SVS)J^ f^^ 
l| V H ? B O = Arab, l^^, Heb. 0^*^^ 

3. h ^1 ft h> n- s^bst. plur. fract. of ^ ^ft = Hek ^, 

nmuktcntm^ Idolum^ 

h T 1 n J ^* P^- ^f ^ caatlo or palace in El-Yemen, 
which IB, perhaps, the Xikeov of Ptolemy. It is 
meutioned in the Geez iiiflcriptioiis of Axum as a 
capital city of the Saba&ans. 

^' ^ h H ih iH J ^' subst. plur. fract. of S H iH (^^® ^^» 
8-9). 

^ X ^ ? ^ ^ > n. eubst. plur. fract. of ^ } ^ (see XX, 
8-9). 

5, O Q I perf. 3rd pers, sing. maec. As there is here 
a Btriug of verbs in a eequence, the Uist one only 
takes the eoclitic L , For the meaning; aee XII, 10. 

I n 8 J per£ 3rd pere. sing. masc. from = Arab, t , 
to retrain y hinder; disappoint; destroy, 

O ^ ^ , pert 3rd pers. sing. masc. from = Arab. .^^ , 



Heh. yjtS , to forbid, to hinder, 

4 ^ ^ fH ' V^^f* 3rd pers. sing. masc. from = Ai-ab* 
to retard^ make to retreat* 



j.\> 



I H J n. Bubat. from a verb cognate with Arab. ^ » to 
kartn^ injurt^^ hurt. 



Translation* 

has endowed his patron deity, Tamif, 

the Lady of Ghadhr&n, with these twenty-four images^ be- 
cauBe of their safety, and the safety of this house of Silhin, 
and of its lords, and of their king, and because lie has pros- 
pered them with the favourable sanction of the calhng-places 



406 



A Sketch of Sabctan Grammar^ 



and of the stations, and becaiiBe he has humiliated and dis- 
appointed, and hindered and retai'ded their injure re and their 
enemies; in the name of • Athtor and Il-Makah, and in the 
name of their patron, TanuiJ the Lady of Ghadhi-An. 



xxxa 

(B.M. 5; Oe, 4.) 

^* V 1 N ® A ' ^^' P^- *-''^iiip<»sed of H O 1*1 , prosperiii/^ 
and V ^ J»| , « (^eki/. 

4. V ^ ^'^ f *^^ particle ^ here has the meaning of the 
Arab. ^ > and between two verbs may be translated 
and 8o^ and therefore, 

5-6. WAhlXfl^l^TM- The sense of this 
passage has been misapprehended by previous com- 
mentators. It raeana *' in ^ the offering (*,«„ when 
they offered) the first-fruits (or, best produce) of 
their fields." X ? 1 ^ i« ^^^^ *^ ^eb. ^B, H^f, 
separavit^ disthu-it, } ) (S fH ^ ^^ plur. of f n or 
\\^ = Arab. L, tJie best or viont fruitful pari, 
especially of a valley, the middles of meadows (see 
Lane's Lexicon, Book I, part iv, p, 1338), ^ ? J i 
ie nom. verb from ^ f J = Heb. D^tD, ponere* 

t>. H ^ V ^ rS H » ^^ ^ V J ^1 ^^ formed like the let pars, 
sing, of the imperfect tense, it is according to rule a 
diptote nonn, and must consequently here be in the 
plm-al. 

8. H • ' ft ? 1 • Various attempts have been made to 
restore this word. Osiander enggested ^ ^ T ^ ? J J 
Praetorins S ? >^ ? 1 ; and Hal^vy S M ft ? 1 • 
Judging from the facsimile, I should feel inclined to 
say JL Hale^^y was right. The word, whatever it 
is, must signify, to protect or guard. 




with Examplei of Thanslaiian, 407 

8-3- ^X^^' °- subet phir. = Arab. r\ii plur, iuj^ 
if /'/'a, plana^ campus, 

9 h VI, li. eubfit. plur. = /Eth. ^/>1- ; or Xh^ : locus 
gra min os us^ p nt t um . 

<p g ^ , n. subat. plur, ^ Arab, ^c*!^' plur. jll^» 
dw el ling-places^ habitations^ 

10. ^ }^ t ^ ) ^ - These words being repeated convey the 
idea of frequencj-. They appear to be cognate with 
the Heb, "^^^ (vide Gesen. Thesaurus^ p» 330), and 
probably refer to periodical offeiinge. Cf. Piid» X, 8 ; 

^ ^ V n N H I h h 8 <!> 1 h V n H ? [1 

maif he sacrifice a mctim to the idol once a year 

^ ^ *li n = '^'^b. uJj^j throughout the year, 

*] (D . This has been recognised by Praetorius and 
Ilalevy as the equivalent of the Arab. \ , verily^ 
truly. 

10-11. <D^0XT1?' iniperf. 3rd pere, pltn-. masc, VIIL of 

^ if 
y ® 41 — Arab. ^^ ^ to descend into a lower country* 

IL O y ^ fl J is scnptio de/ecHva for V ? S Fl > ^^ ^ 
line 1. 

11-12. ^ 1* n H ? » ™perf. 3rd pere. plur. maBC,=Arab. ^j, 
^tk H'flrh : H^^* '^^J, to sacrifice. 

12. *! n J ^s *^® prep. [| ^ with the intensified enclitic* 

^ J ^ , n, eubet. from ^ ? J > and thefefore a place 
where offerings are deposited. The plur* X 3 T ^ ^ 
has the more general meaning of a sturehouse in 
VIII, 7-8,^ and is formed like X ^ ? ^ $ '"'C)"! ^^t* 

« Cf. Mth, ^^f'^ : rtpQsiiorium, kotrewH. 



408 



A Sketch of Sahcean Grammar^ 



The word may be translated temple for want of a 
better word. It is here in tiae dual form, as 'Athtor 
and Shams had each a special shrine. 

13- s > V n ! 6 ¥ n H ® • ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^' ^^^ 

there shall not only be sacrifices to 'Athtor and 
Shame***, bnt also to Il-Makah, the god of Hirran. 

S h S X n * P^^* 3rd peie, sing. masc. VIII- of ^ ^ 1 

= Arab, p^i Heb. p3, iexit. proterlt. But the verb 
being the protasis of the follo\\ang ^ ^ ^ ^^ which is 
connected with it by tlie conjimction Of>|^» the 
correct reading is probably h H S X 1 ? • This verb 
take8 the prep. ^ after it, as the corresponding 
Hebrew verb takes 7M or 75^, and the Arab. ^J^^- 

14. X $ V > ®^® section on Pronouns, p. 193, 
14-15. O f^ ^ > conj., and also^ (is well as, 

S M ^ ? H » inxperf. subj. 3rd pers. sing, maec. from 
V ^ <0 , ^^ hear favourablt/, 

15. ^ J ^ ^ 5 n, snbfit. in stat. construct. = Arab, >*-srv«i 

a sacred or forbidden phxce^ a sanctuary, 

16. X ^'^ ^ 4' ' ^^" P^'" ^^ ^ place or district in El-Yemen 

devoted to the worship of Il-Makah. 

"I 4' J P'^^P- according to (see I. 4). 

^ J O , n. subst. = Arab. A^. , a sign. For an explana- 
tion of the grammatical phenomenon by which ^ *! O 
drops the mimation and ® V (1 ^ Arab. ^ . • - i^jJl, 
666 Miiller, Der status comtructus im fftmjarischen* 

3 1 ^ X * P^**^' ^^^ P^^®' sing, maec, V. of ^ "^ O ► ^0 t€ 
fnade to knoWf or be instructed. 



I 




I 



I 



witli Examplu of Tramlation. 409 

17. fl/, perf, 3rd peiu aing. — Arab, J > to see, See 

Miiller, Lc. 

18. ^ ^ O 'i J 11. pi\ of a neat of tlie worship of Il-Makji!h 

18-19. ? > ,fi I ' ■ • * I V ^ ^ 1 h ^ ^'^ t^qilivalent to the 
Arabic locutions ,^_j . . . , Lt( , 

20, ^ ^ ^ [| » ^' BTibBt, = Arab, j' » Heb. TJH, /m/?. 

^ X ^ 1 ^ > |i. sub St., calamity^ mufortune*^ 

Translation^ 

SaM-ilah aurl his sons, Benfl 5Iarthad^'% have endowed 
II-Makah ofHirrau with this tablet, because 11-Makah, lord of 
Awwam Dhu-'Iran Alii, has favourably heard the prayer 
adtkeesed to hiui, and liaa cousequeutly beard the Beni 
Marthad"" when they offered {JLL in the offering) the fu-st- 
fruite of theii' fertile lands of Arliakim in the presence of 
Il-Makah of Hiniin, and Il-Makah of Hin-un has favom'ably 
heard the prayer addressed to him that he would protect the 
plains and meadows and this tnhe in their habitatione, iu 
consideration of the frequent gifts throughout the year; and 
truly his (Sa'd-ilah's) sous mil descend to Arhakim, and 
they will indeed sacrifice in the two shrines of *Athtor and 
Shams^"*, and there shall be a sacrifice in Hirran — both iu order 
that /?-J/crX'a7i may afford protection to thdse fields of Bin 
Marthad^ as well as tliat he niiiy fiivourably listen — and iu 
the sanctuary of Il-Makah of Harwat^ and therefore may he 
keep them in safety according to the sign in which Sa'd-ilalx 
was uistiiicted, the sign which he saw in the sanctuary of 
Il-Makah of Na'man ; and as for Il*-Makah of HiiTan, he has 
protected those fertile lands uf Arhakim from hail and from 
all misfortune (or, fi'om cold and from all extreme Iieat). 



* If we adopt Oaiander^s reiuUiig QfiK^p* the word must be referred to 
the Heb. ^i^p, Arab» ](^ J Jj i JSth. '^/'j® ; giting th« notion of exirettiB 



h4aL 



411) 



A Sketch of SalxMn Grammar, 



I 



XXXIIL 
(B.M. 33; Oe< 35.) 

L The commencement of the lines is lost, as well as the 

endings ; but iii the firet^ line, the restoration is not difiScutt 
(see TranBlation, p. 412), 

VH ? > H ' *^f' 'TroDB. Soc. Bib. Arcli., Vol II, p, 10. 

^ O } ^ , n. pr. the lofty or eminent A common name 
amongst the Somalia at the present day. 

n V S ? > epithet of Fai-i*"™ ; perhaps from a verb 
cognate "with the Arab. ^_^ - , io plunder* 

f > ^ ^ , pert 3rcl pers, dual, see XXVU, 4, 

S ^ ^ h V ' P^'^"^* ^^^ pere. dual. The Arab, verb 
^ j means to lessen or diminish^ and Halevj^ thinks 

reference is made to a reduction of taxation, I would | 
prefer to look on the word as a verb in the 7372*11 
voice, and to rcftir it to the root ^ ^ , which we find 
in the Heb. n^jj with the force of dijucandi (p?ij, 
judex)^ and in the Arab* ^Jj , decrevit 

S ^ V h ^ pref- 3rd pers. dual = Arab. '* ^ to grant a 

delay. 



2. <I> ^ V J H ® ^l s "' suljst phir, fract, of J ^ O = Arab* 



,J A^, a virgin^ young nunden. 



^ S ? * rh <I* m A f*1 . n. pr. of a tribe or family, 
apparently composed of J p ^ ^ , plur. of ^ |] ^ , M€ 
gi'eat ; and ^ ? ^ ^| s plur. of ^ ^ ^ > ^ servant, Cf. 

Hal, 174, 1; (324, L 

1 ^ ^ h I plur. of ^ ^ , a chief (see XXIV, 2). 



4 




tttth E:tampl€s of Translation* 411 

^ "1 O I ^ ri O . These two words are thought to 
refer to a tribe by Halevy, As k,; means a prince 
or noble^ the terra may be a title of the Leir apparent 
to the chiefdom, like the ^Xfc J* of the Muliam- 
madaQB. 

3 Smn- • Halevy supples sin I? 11<J>. 

and thifl seems agi'eeable to the context. 

H nn ^ n = Arab. l-XU, plur. lUTUS* possesnons. 

h n H 1 ' ^^' ^*i^ A^^- A H fl : to he soft, smooth, 
poliJiheiL 

s 

h^\\hh> ^^* Arab. ^^^ a captive or sluve^ espe- 
cially applied to women. 

^' h h ? *^ X iH T 1 ' irapeif. prec, 3rd pers. plur. masc. 
X. of Y ^ O , 7fiai/ ihiy keep intact, 

S X ^ * u. Bubst*, cf. Amh. ©i*^<C ! to stop<, obstruct, 

5, I' J ^ 1 f*i » II* PT- **f many of the Sabasan kings, com 
posed of "l ^ , //, and f' ^ ^ ^ ^^' '^ revml 

ni4'?» epithet of Il-shamha = Heb. n^n, cecidit, 
deleviL 

1 X h ? I n. pr , cf. tbe ^th. ft H ft : mr fortis, 
strenuus, 

^^f\t a freqnent surname of the Sabeean kings, 
from the root 4 H ~ Arab, [^^ to become manifest or 
apparent. 

*^« ^ ^ N ft ^ ' ^' eubet. = Arab* ;^jt..3^» « confrmatitm^ 



412 



A Sketch of Sabcptm Grammar, 



^ h J ^ S! ^ n. Bubet. from J ^ V * ^ gi^nt. 
1 X 1 1* h * ^- eubst, = Arab, u^, a gifl. 



BS^rniH 



of 



being ^ 



curious instance 
formed from the perfect tense of a verb, that which 
18 resknrd^ the /Ethiopic l-flft. 



writmq. 



aubet, = Arab. ^» a line of writm^^ 



DyTlft. = Arab. 



lU. 



Translation* 

1. Ilsha^XLha Yahdhah ajid his brother^ Ya;:al Bayyan, kinp 
of Sabd and Dhil-Raidan, sone of Fftrr™ Yaiihab, kiiig 
of Saba, have g-ranted and decreed, and lastly hare 
postponed and 

2. , , of their i/oung men and of their maidens, the 

Akbar-wa-akain"™, the chiefs of this tribe of Betil™ and 
the BinWa'l (heii* apparent) of their tribe of Bekil*° 

3 the Akhar-wa-akain^ and their tribe of 

Bekil*^ may acquire for their lords possesaions and gentle 
female slaves 

4* .«..«.. . as to their sons* sons and their daughters* 

daughters, may the Bend Kabiriikain^" and thfir tribe 
keep intact this restriction 

5. their two lords, Il-sharaha Yahdhab and his 

brother, Yii^al Bayydu, kings of Saba and Dhfi-Raidan^ 
Bons of F&ri'^ i , . . . . 

6* ...... the restriction and the confinnation and the grant 

and the deed of restitution and every writing, great as 
well as small. 



I 
1 

I 
I 




with ExmnpUs of Tratulatian, 413 

XXXIV, 

(B.M. 35; Os. 37.) 

ThiR inscription is in a very mutilated conditioiu but it is 
clearly in the Hadhramaiit dialect. The name of the votary 
appears to be Nabata4l of Rakif and the offering is a piece 
of gold of four 



XXXV, 

(B.M. 31 J Os, 28.) 

This inscription is in too fragmentary a condition to 
admit of translation. 



XXXVI, 

(B,M. 6 ; Os. 29,) 

This inscription is in the dialect of Haclhramaiit. 

1- J A H ^ H ft 1 ^' P^- composed of ^ ^ ^ , the just or 
rigliUom one, Arak jaU» an epithet of the deity; 

and ^ (H H ' *^^^ ?^^^^* ^^S' perf. ^ Arak Vj, to 
remember, 

^ ^ fl J epithet of Sddik-dhakora, from = Arab* "[J, 
with the adjectival ending l| ^^ ^^ pW, reverent 

S H h » another epithet, meaning the on^ who listens, 
thence the obedient^ nncere = Arab, ^j] . 

Y 4 ^^ ^* suljst., property^ or servant, 

Xn>'B'i'=Arab. ^^;^, Heb. niQ-iarr. Ha. 
dhramaut, a pro\^nce in the south of Arabia. 



414 



^4 Sketch of Sabwan Gi^animar^ 



2. ^ S ^ i^ , porf. 3rcl pers. sing. masc. IV* (Saphel) ot 
YSi=f4^V ill Sab^n. 

l| Y 1*1 , n, pr. of the god of the moon. (Z. d. D. M* G. 

xix, p. 247 jtqif) 

^ 1 h H ' Alam ia the name of a place, one of the 

prijxcipal seats of the caltiie of Sin, 

^ V n V H ' *^® noun n V H ^^® ^^^® ^^^ paragogic 
y peculiar to substantivee in the Mineean and 
Hadhramaut dialects, when in tlie construct state* 

2-3. 8 ^ 1 ^ B H» ^^- e^il^^*- genitive case = iEth. ^'^Jf A»^ : 

weitjld, t^ahie. The words simply means '* of weujht or 
value'"; if> as Halevy thinks^ they signified *' of which 
the weight," the phrase would be |S 8 <I* 1 H 11 H * 
In the Hadhramaut dialect the final )( of feni. nouns 
and 3rd pers* fern* peif, of verbs is often converted 
into 8 * 

^' II 1 V ^ ^^' adj. = Arab. \ ii_^ , here meaning different 

fronu 

^ ¥ ? ^ I ^ n V H * II- «i^bst. and adj. accus. The 
second word = /Eth. <^£fh> red^ and refers apparently 
to an inferior kind of gold. 

8 n i ^ ^ perf. 3rd pers, sing. masc. passive voice. 
The exact sense of this verb is not dedncible from 
the other Semitic languages ; but from analogy it 
e^'idently signifies to offer^ dedicate^ % ia {or ^ (vidi 
supra^ /. 2). 



X J 1 X H ; 'Ais ofering (see XIV. 7> 
4. 0) $ A = Heb. *in|, like m. 




wkh Examples of Traiulution, 



415 



A V Ih 8 A ' P^^*'- ^^*^^ pers. Bing. raasc. The 
etymolofcy of the word is not veiy clear, but from 
the context it is plainly identical with tbe Sabsean 
m^^^m. The /i at the end of this and the 
following word ^ ^ y * 

h B X ' P^^^' 3rd pers. sing* masc, VIIL of ^ = 
Arab, ^i^^ «^ recepit, confugit ad aliquem ; VII, ne 
contulit ad aliquem* 

L^ 1^ ^, ^ Arab. Jt » the ear ; here, tlie favourable 
protection, 

^' A n h I ^ X 8 ^ J ^^ would appear from this that in 
the Sabseaii inythology 'Athtor was regarded as the 
father of Shi. 

? X VI ^ . fern, of ? V 1 h ' fr«'n V 1 h « « '«''»«%■ 
Here m the plur, construct state. 

G. h V J 1 V ' *^'^ word also has the Mineean paragogic 
^ in addition to the demonstrative encUtic, 

X *^ n ?» a town of Hadhraraant, known to the classic 
wi-iters as Sabhatha or Sabota^ and enumerated by Al- 
Haradani in the IklU fi~Anmb amongst the castles of 

the province under the name of j * (Z. d. D. M. G,» 
xix, p. 247 f^qq*)' 

ASHh^ll^l*lOh= A^^^- ^"iU ^^^--i-' t referring to 
the mul or spirittml element and the mind or intsUectuai 
faculty. 

7. X 'F n ft J ^ subst. fem. from a word cognate to jEth. 
fTT m ! Arab. . ^ » the light of tht morning^ the datviu 
But although tins is the recognised interpretation 
I feel some doubts regarding it. Cf. Mth. 81 rh^ ; 
tribute* 



41G 



A Skrlcfi of Sabeean Grammar, 



7-8. It is difficult to scay whether the '* hix oculorum " and 
the ^'mcmuria cordis'' refer to the pereoiiH mentioned 
ut the end of the iuflcription, or whether these are 
dimply the names of the engravers. The former is 
tile accepted interpretation. 



ImnslalHin, 

SSdik-dhakara the pious, the obedient, the slave of the 
King of HadJiramaut, Bin 11-Sharaha^ has endowed Sin 
of Alam with an oflering of gold different from the red 
gold; and has dedicated thii* offering to Sin, as he hae 
granted the prayer addressed to him ; and he haa reeom- 
mended to the favouralJe protection of Sin of Alam, and of 
'Athtor his father, and of the goddesses of his sanctuary of 
Alam, and of the gode and goddesseg of tJds city of Shahwat^ 
himself and hia mind and his children and his posseissioDS 
and the hght (or, tribute) of his eyen and the memory of 
hie heart, Martliad"" and AddAn*^ of Yen*am. 



I 

I 



XXXVIL 

(B JL 38 ; Os, 35.) 

] • (SOS* ^^' snbst. This word, which is cognate with 
the Heb. tL^M, bears the Talmndical meaning of a^ 
sepulchral monument in Saba?an* 

1-2. I n ^ ' ^^' ^u^^- ^ Heb. ^"^i}, iiepHlcrt4.m. 

2. ^ iS X h V > ^- P^*' ^^^ imcertain derivation. 

3. (D |1| ? O , n. pr. CT. Heb. Itoi;, Esau, 

The end of this inscription, which was found at Warka, 
ihe Biblical Erek, is too mutilated to admit of translation. 



wiifi Examples of D'analation* 417 

xxxvin, 

(Hal^vy, No. 686,) 

Thii iiiBcription was found at M4rib, and is now in the 

British Miieenra. 

l-h/Slf^inVn- »■ ?>•• SAVh i« the Ambic 

^^\y protected against alkicL 

nnn^ » f. (xxn, i). 

2, 1X?' surname of RaMb"'". 

X S n ^l 1 V H • ^ should have been iaclined at first to 
think that Y ^ wan a dual form, but the verbs are in 
the phii'al : thLTefbre ^ |=| may also be a plural furm 

**^ H • X S n fS "^^^ *^^'*^ *'^^*^ ei^nity the place of their 
reside nee, 

^ ?1 r n J peif. 3rrl pers. pliir. = IIel>. ^"J^, jhmiaviL 

3- h ^ B V (XXIX, 2). 

h n i f ^ > ^^* sabst* — Arab, ^j^^-u , (he high phce. 
or station of the Imam in a mosque; a pavilion^ or small 
place of worship. 



4. 1 n A *^ A ' ^* P^" ^^ ^ place in El-Yemen, now called 
\^Xt Kaukaljau, dmved no doubt from ^3, 
radical signifying globum convolvit^ thence i5l3 
meaning in all the Semitic languages, a constellafiotK 

^ 9 ^ has here a more extended meaning than usual^ 
and means the place, or seat, where I]»Maknh wu« 
worsliipped. 

•'■'■ <t>H%>' (XXIX. 4). <D ^ V iH ^ ^ (XXXI, 2). 



418 A Sketch of Stflnmn Grammar^ 

6. J n 1 X ' p^^' ^^^ p^^^' T^^^^' sj'^g- ^ • ^** J m ~ 

Mih, ^^^4: ni 't^mi opm/edt op&tatnt. This 
and the following word are engraved in emaller cha- 
racters, and may liave been added by the sculptor. 

n h H ® * a common proper name amongst the Sabasans, 
meaning, not the love of the fath€f\ as Halevy trans- 
lates it, but '*CUJUSpa^erWadd esC lite the Hebrew 

IM^Vw, 1H1% The %vords f] h H «^ I ) <I>|S^f ''^ ^^P^^ 

mentation of Wadd-ab^ are placed over the figure ot 
a man preserved in the Sluseum of the Bombay 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society {JowniaU 
No, VIII, October, 1844, p. 30). Wadd was pre- 
eminently the god of the tribe of KalK and was 
worshipped in Damnabu-!-Jandal. The name is also 
foimd in the Arabic ^Titers as a peraonal designation 
{Ibn KhaMiin, apud Caussin de Percival, Ussai torn 1, 
p. 137). 



TVamlation. 



Bahat Ahsan and Rab&b™ Yatal of Ahnat have con- 
structed and completed this sacred pavilion of Kaukab4n in 
the seat (or^ place of worship) of Il-Makah, and have placed 
it under the protection of their benefactor {or, tutelary deity). 
Fecit Wadd--ab* 



with Ej-amples of Translation, 



419 



NOTE ON THE FORMATION OF THE REGULAR 
PLURAL IN SAB.EAN. 



In the grammatical sketch which preceded theee trana- 
lationa, I expressed the opinion that the regular plural 
{pluralis sanus) of nouns in Sabsean ended in D, and was 
probably vocalised ae dinu, or itnu. As thiB opinion is 
opposed to the views of many who have made a study of 
the language^ I think it right to oflfer a brief exposition of 
the grouude for my belief. 

Few things strike the student of Sabtean more strongly 
than the close etymological agreement of the phenomenon 
of the mimation with the rnlee which govern the Arabic 
tanwm. Syntactically, there are variations, as Dr. Miiller 
has shown with reference to the dropping of the mimation 
of the noun when it is the antecedent of a relative sentence, 

and therefore, on the analogy of the Arabic ii^ , the mima- 
tion should be retained.* But, as a general mle, it may be 
stated that the mimation follows the tanwin. It is always 
found in broken or internal plurals, such as D^lKMi D]lD''pQ, 
DHD^tl^^Di ^tc. ; and it is dropped when the noun is in the 
status constructm. And yet etymologically an occasional 
dc\nation from this principle occiurs, for which it is difScuIt 
to account. The presence of the phenomenon certainly 
cannot depend on local usage, as suggested by M. HaMvy 
(Etudeg SahSennes^ p. 55), for we often find a mimated and 
an unmimated form of the same word in inscriptions coming 
from the same place. It therefore seemed to me that if 
anomalous forms are found, such as DJllt^lSn, D2'^DHj 
D1**Dn^ etc., they must be explained, not by the hypothesiB 
that diptotes (or nouns declinable in t%vo cases only) are 

^ It it dropped in Arabic when the subject of tlii? relnUve k indclerminati^. 



420 



^4 Sketch of Sahwan Grammar^ 



occasionally triptote in Sabaaan^ but by the fact, which I 
shall eofleFivoiir to substantiate, that the apparently triptote 
form is really a note of the plural number. 

The key to the interpretation of the Sabiean inficriptionB 
was afforded by the words Dl'^DH *^7D> which occur in the 
inscription of Hisn GhorSK These Gesenius (who was fta 
jiit unconscious of the phenoinenoii of the mimation) trans- 
lated as rex Himjariiharum} This was natural enougli, for 
the ^ being a nmUr kctionis^ might be written defectively, aa 
in the Phceniciaii QJTt (sing. ^TTJi)* and occasionally in 
Hebrew, as in Gen, i, 21, D?'*?il. There may be also noted 
the ari.'haic plural in Q— ^ tis in S^p (sing. ^7p), D|9 
(sing. 1?). But, t>eyond this, -. is a diptote noun in 

Arabic, and good evidence is required to prove that it is a 
triptcite noun in Saba^an, In the Ai-abic mythologj" Himyar 
was the son of Saba, or, in other words, the clan of the 
Himyarites was an offshoot of the great tribe or people of 
the Sabamns, and while there are sufficient proofs to show 
that Salm was the name of a tract of country and of its 
inhabitiints from a very early date, there ia not a single iota 
of e\ddtuce that there was ever an acre of ground called 
Himyar. The word is not found in the Bible, nor in Stj-Jibo. 
Ftolen>y calls the district occupied by the Himyaritee, not 
'0)if}pla^ or any similar word, but ^Op^^pumv X^P^' -^^ other 
authorities^ from the Periplus to the Greek inscription oi 
Aximi, speak of the BaaiXevs 'OfitjptTmv. The same may be 
said of the Saba>ans, who appear in the documents whicli I 
have cited as ^a^ahroi or Sa^iiToij but from tar mure 
ancient writings we know that Sabii (Mitt?) was a tenitorial 
nam© and was inhabited by one of the piiucipal nations of 
Arabia. It would be beyond the scope of the present inquiiy 
to enter into a discusKiou of the historical points involved 
in the question of Himyar and Saba, but briefly the case may 
be stated tluis. The original Joktanide possessors of EI* 
Yemen were the great tribe <^f Saba, the Sa/Baloi of Strabo» 
whose metropoUs was Maptd^c^ and whose chief in the 

* Themurutt p. 793* 



I 




with Ed*amples of Translation* 



491 



inBcriptions is called t^lD ^i^D.* Between ihc time of 
AiigUBtus aiifl tlie date of the Periping, one of tlie ftuli-tribes 
of the Sabaean stor-k, the Hitnyarites, roee to power under 
their chiefi Kariba-il, and probably extinguished the parent 
line. I believe that Kariba-il was a Hirayarite^ because in 
the passage where lie is refeiTed to in the Periplus, tlie 
Hinijarites are e^4dently the ascendant tribe, and also be- 
cause in the inscriptions of Fresnel, Nos. XI and LIV, his 
father, Dharaar'ali, is not described as Malik Sahd, but as 
Makrab Sabd, an inferior title denoting a viceroy or deputy 
under the piincipal kings, and probably the rvpmn^o^ of the 
Periplus. The official title of the kings of tliis line was 
n^lTi M3D TfT'D, and the seat of then* sovereignty was at 
the castle of RaidAn at Zhafelr* In later tinies^ this junior 
stock probably moved to the eastward, and the chief was 
known by the title of Ql^n '^h'0> In the time of Mo- 
hammed, this ancient name was forgotten, and the whole of 
South Arabia was supposed to be Himyaritia Theophanes 
of Byzantium informs us that in his time the term 'Afiapirat, 
(tV«., Yemenites) was synonymous with * OfiTjpirat.^ 

We have therefore every reason to btdieve, both on philo- 
logical and hieitorioal gi'ouuds, that the instinct of Geaenius 
rightly guided him, and that the expressions Q^^n ^ho 
pUd D'T'Qn ,jnb^» should be translated, not as khttj of Hinu/ar 
»nd hnd of Ilijut/ar, but as kinfj and land of the llimt/arit^s* 
If this is coiTect, the final Q is not the mimation, but the 
sign of the plural. 

One of the best established niJes of Arabic graniinar is 
that nonns ending in lJ are diptote* Such a Wi»rd is tne 
local name ^j^«*-*> which in Snba.^an is represented by U?^^ 
As however the form d3J?D frequently occurs in the inscrip- 
tions, and as I did not think these variations attributable lo 
cii price, I endeavoured by an analysis of the texts in which 
the words are fuimd, to discover the reasons for them, but 1 
am compelled to say without much success. The conibiua- 

* I was fonnerlj of opinion tliAt ZbaiHr (KaidAn) woa the scat of Lho earliest 
stock* but I novr iee reaaon to beliere that this Tiew was incorreGt. See 
Sprenger, Die AlU Qeorp'apki^ ArahienSf pp. 72, aqq. 

' Eichhonii Monumeuta AnfiqaUaima Hittorux Arahum^ GothflDi 1775, p. Gfi. 



422 ^4 Sketch of Sc^HBan Gramnwr, 

tions JJTO ^h^, pD ^3*TO. and pW "HID occur twenty-five 
times * in the lEScriptionB copied by M, Haldvy at Me'in and 
Berdkish, which appears to be the site of the ancient 7n^ or 
Yathal ; while the combinations DJ^D *?|7Q» D^^D "^STDf 
and Dii?0 TlID only occur ten times/ In one inficription. 
No. 242, the expression D2i}^l pW ^vDt and this seema 
sufficient to prove that the words are not identical in mean- 
ing. As the inscriptions in which the former of the combi- 
nations occur were found both at Meln and Ber&kiah in 
large numbers^ wliile those containing the second combi- 
nation were nearly all found at Beriikish, I ara disposed 
to think that the terra \yo IJ7D expresses the territorial 
sovereignty of the king over the whole country, while that 
of D3PT3 W7f2 indicates bis rule over the people of Me'in 
or the Mitiaeans, as distinct from the people of Yathal or 
Hadhramant (see No. 193)* In No. 188, 10 we have^ for 
instance, h^^^ D-VtD 72. «^^ the Mina^ms and those of YaihaL 
The terms |yD Ji'^m'^M and UIV^ th'^^K, god* of Mitttu 
gods of the Min(Eans^ are used indifferently. When, however^ 
there is a question of the tribe» the form D3J?TD is used, 
as 033^3 1 t^lD fit between the tribe of Sahd and th€ 
Minwans (HaL 354, 2); D3J?D v3 Dt /mm all the Minaam 
(Hah 385, 3) ; 031^ *^7Di^j the possensimu of the Mhiosam 
(Hal 478, 18). The phrase |yD oy, people of Me in, is 
used twice (Hal 237, 5; 238, 3), and both ]yD D33W, 
jyD^Dnyti? and DWD D3i?U^ (Hal 199, 11; 535,21; 193,5) 
are met with. 

The same observations apply to such words as d^lJD 



and QD'^IM, which are written in Arabic 






and 



njQ Jll *^iid D313Q rf\ correspond with the respective 
terms ]ya vh"^^ and Da?D n^^SM. 

We find that another rule of Ai*abic grammar, viz., that 
proper names formed by a combination of two words are 

J Hal. 187, B i 191, 1 ; 192, 3, 12 ; 195, 10 1 221, 3 ; 228, 1 j 237, 1 ; 242, 8; 
243, IS : 255, 1 1 257, 1 ; 430, 2 ; 451, 1 1 469. 3 j 462, 1 ; 480, 3 j 48S, lOj 
504, 11 i 521, 2 ; B23, 2 j 535, 20 i 553, 2 ; 562, 2 ; 674, 2. 

3Hiil.l93,4j 199,10: 200, 1 j 449, 3 ; 467. 3 ; 479,2j 616,2; 520,4; 
527, 2 J 534,13. 




with Examples of Trumlation, 



423 



•'Vyrrop, 



diptote, 18 also closely followed iii Sabeaan, e^g. •»*; 
Sl^yan, etc. But the two forme pD'lSn (AraK (^:jy,,j^} 
and DJlD*^5n occur. We find the former in the two 
passages f^D^^n "^hl2 ( Os. 29, 1 ; Ilal 193, 1 ) where it clearly 
refers to the territory of Harlhiamauts ; in Hal, 149, 5, we 
find, on the contrary, DHQlSn, for the passage alludes to 
a war with the people of lladhramaut 

I have up to this point confined my remarks to the plural 
form observable in proper names which in then* formation 
present a variation from the ordinary rides of Arabic gram- 
mar. To prove the general rule that the pluj^Hs sauus of 
masculine diptote nouns ends in Q is a task of some diffi- 
culty, partly in consequence of the rarity of examples arisuag 
from the preponderance of broken or internal plurals, and 
partly because we cannot always from the context discrimi- 
nate between the D of the mimation and the Q f^f the 
pluiaL I will offer a few examples : — 

(Os. 31, 5) ; 1Dr[N:U?n 1Dm2 ba ; in this phrase, the 
word H2tt? is in the singular number, being qualified by 73 
(everi/ injur er and enem^ of them}. 

(Os. 18, 10) inpTi pmi DH3tZ? >2U> 1 ^2 p i here the 
word is in the plural, as the phrase mentions not a single 
foe, but two classes of enemies, those at a distance and thosB 
close at hand. 

(Os, 17, 10) PSttm DD3M h^ : the word DD3M is here 
in the siogidar, being qualified by 73 and the following 
verb being in the singular of the subjunctive. 

(Prid. XVIII) Diyni DD^M IMIDD : iu this passage the 
word is probably in the plui'al, the English phrase '^ man and 
beast " or the German " mensch und vieh ** being foreign to 
the genius of the Semitic languages. 

The following passages afford clearer instances of the 
plural in D : — 

DOp Dnm nDM pD]3a (Hah 215, 3), i.e. half a cubit 
(in depth) and Jive kahn (in capacity). The two first words 
may be compared with the -^thiopic ^>*i<C+ • ^<W*^ : and 
the laat word with the Hebrew and Talmudic ^*2. 



424 



A Sketch of Saibamn GramnHsi\ 



Hh^ 



nrnDi Dcm mo -- '^^rvn • ^ - • M'r't (Hal. 192, 3, 4, 5) 

"I^n ^2^2 rnsrro i.e- he buUt up^ tJie conduits 

fHeK Ti^VPi^ . .... of the sLv tanh (Arab. ^Ur^ » Lane, 
Book I, p. l()55) and of the sir towen (Mi\\, ^'^<jr : pitir. 
^^^^"h *) 'V* the enclosure of the city. In thiB passage DDnS 
cannot be an internal plural, like the Arabic ^^^ ^, because, 
if it were, it would drop the mimation before the following 
words, l^n M2^, in accordance with the rales of tha 
Status ConBtructiiB in Saba^au.^ Cf. Fresnel, LV,3; LVI,4:— 



p^rro p hyi mzrvy\ nayrs '?:3, 



The last example which I shall now offer affords an even 
more convincing proof of the fact %vhich I have endeavoured 
to Bubetautiatc :— 

p D'TpDI int^M (Hal 87, 1), ie., the follow€r$ and 

ojficers of Bin , . . ♦ , a passage which reminds us of the 

BibHeal iTlTj ylU?) Tips (Ezekiel, xxiii, 2^). In 

this sentence there can be no doubt that the words DTJJU 
and intl?M are in the status construct us before p,' in©H 
(pkne, DSn\yM) in the plural of yw, seclaior (Os, 8, 7j Hal. 
20; 2e*; m; 169, 1; 202, 3), and DTpD must therefore also 
be the plural of a word which I take to be TpQ (^^th. <^J?I 
Heb. 'T^i'pS), prwfectits^ prwpositus. As the mimation falls 
when a triptute noun is in the construct state, the presence 
of the final D in DIpD can only be accounted for by the 
fact that it is not the sign of the nihuation, but of the plural 
number. 

In conelueion I will merely add, that from the Sa' 
possessing the miraation, it is even agi^eeable, on a pi 
grounds, that the plural would end in dmu or some such 

' TliB word tt^T i» pogtiatc with the Heb. &<7p, npp, Ppp, (i.e., ^^^ in Chrt- 
t<?nden'» Inscr. of SaD^4, line 3), which prinnarilj Bignifjr to raiie. WftUrfTOtmii 
m the East arc genoriillj' ni&dw by heapmg up tli© onfth on either 
the Tunool through which the water passe*, 

3 Miiller, Zeit*ehrift d. D. 31. ecselhicliaft, nx, p, 122. 

' See, for eiamplea of the phmj^es ■ |1 ^IV, etc., Dr. Mordtmann, 5r*« 

himjaritche Inschripen, Z.A. M. G., xii, pp. '11, 32. 



with Examples of Translation, 



425 



form. It has been conjectured, frcrm the few adverbial 
accusatives which are found scattered in Hebrew with a Q 
termination, that that language was originally mimated; 
and the analogy of the Arabic shows what is the true 
development of the ianwin. I believe that in nearly, if not 
quite, all the passages in which a final ) appears, and in 
which it has hitherto been taken to be a plural ending, it is 
simply the demonstrative enclitic, which, as a mark of energy, 
plays such an important part in Saboaan grammar. 



W. F. PRIDEAUX. 



Bus/lire^ 12th Januaiy^ 1877. 




426 



CH.\LDEAN ACCOUIiT OF THE CREATIOJf. 

Tramlattd hp H. F. TALBOT, F.R,S* 
Read ^th January, 1876. 

The cuneiform text of the Firfit and Fifth 
Tablets, which are the only ones as yet found in a tolemSle 
state of preeervation, htis been publifihed by Miv G. Smith 
and also by Delitzech in his Amyrische Lesestucke, plates 40 and 
4L From these my tranBlation has been made. ^ 



Tee First Tablet, 

1, When the upper region was not yet called Heaven, 

2, and the lower region was not yet called Earth, 

3, and the Abyss of Hades had not yet opened ita armB»j 
4* then the Chaos of waters gave birth to all of them 

5. and the waters were gathered iHto one place, 

6. No men yet dwelt together : no tLnimals yet wandered 

about : 

7. None of the gods had yet been bom. 

8. Their names were not spokt:u : their attnbutes were not 

kno^vn ; 

9. Then the eldest of the gods 

10. Lakhmu and Lakhamu were born 

11. and grew up 

12. Assur and Kissur were bom next 
13- and hved through long periods. 
14. Ann 

[The rest of this tablet is lost.] 




Chaldean Account of the Crmtioth 427 



The Fifth Tablet of the Creatiox Series. 



This fifth tablet is very important, because it afErmB 
clearly in my opinion that the origin of the Sabbath was 
coeval with Creation. 

1, He confitnicted dwellings for the great gods, 

2, He fixed tip constellations, whose figures were like 

aniraals- 

3, He made the year. Into four quarters he divided it. 

1. Twelve months he established, with their constellation e, 

three by three. 
5. and for the days of the year he appointed festivals, 
fi. He made dwellings for the Planets : for their rising and 

setting, 

7. And that nothing should go amiss, and that the course of 

none should be retarded, 

8. he placed with them the dwelbngs of Bel and Hea. 

9. He opened great gates, on every side : 

10, He made strong the portals, on the left hand and on the 

right. 

11, In the centre he placed Luminaries, 

12* The Moon he appointed to rule the night 

13. and to wander through the night, until the dawn of day. 

14. Every month without fail he made holy assembly-days. 

15. In the beginning of the month, at the rising of the night, 

1 6. it shot forth its horns to illuminate the heavens, 

17. On the seventh day be appointed a holy day, 

18. And to cease from all business he commanded. 

1 9. Then arose the Sun in the horizon of heaven in [glory]. 

The last word is broken off, and though there are seven 
more lines, they are so broken that I cannot give a translation 
of them with any confidence. 

It has been known for some time that the Babylonians 
observed the Sabbath with considerable strictness. On that 
day the king was not allo%ved to take a drive in his chariot; 
various meats were forbidden to be eaten, and there were a 
number of other minute restrictions. See 4 R, plate 32, 



428 



Chaldean Account of ths Creation . 



But it was not known that they believed the Sabbath t/v 
have been ordained at the Creation* I have found, however, 
fiinca this traimlation of the fifth tablet was completed, that 
Mr, Sayt-e has recently pnlJiehed a eiiiiilar opiuion. See the 
Academy of November 27, 1875, p- 554. 

This account tails short of the majesty of the Ilehrew 
GeneniB, eBpecially where the wiiter iiiipHee tbat the heavenly 
movements might poBflibly go wrong, and it was therefore 
necessary that the gods Be! and Hea should watch over them 
and guard against such a uiisfurtmie, 

I will now give the cuneiform text of the First Tablet :— 



'■ ^Vr ^ ET s=n ^ -ET -^f V- m^ V ET -¥ 



Enuma elish la nabii 

When tlie region above una not called 



samamu 

Ifftiveu 



2. 



*IdI ^ ^ m^% B E! -ET E^< -\V 



Biplinh in kiln Ruma la zakrat 

(tmtT) Mow on Earth (hij (hut) name was not ^f 



a. ^^n tt] El ^ET ^ -EET m^ Vi m JT «=!;; 

zuab * raa la patu zani - sun 

and the A ftt^ss had not opened il» amu 

mumFini tieallat muallidat 

the Chaos of Ocean was the mother 

girari-sun 
of all of them 

5.]}h-l^ ^TT ^T « t^E ^ tx^ t^W ET 

mi - sun istinisli ikhiqu - ma 

their waters into one place were gathered 



Chaldean Acf^ount of the Creatmu 429 

gipara la ki.ssiira : zuza 

Afen not ijet dwelt totjether ; anbnaii 



la sc'hu 

7Wt vet imtidered affout: 

'■ ^}} ^ t] ->f T^ -£T M ^- m- £l -\ E! 

eniima ili la subu iiiaiiama 

when the gods not had risen none of them 

^- jm-£T mrn'm <i-£I^t -n mm 

mxnx'd la siikl^ui'u: siiuata la ( ) 

tliPir names not were named : (heir honours not (were knowtt) 

ibbaiju - ma ili ( ) 

(then) were born the ifodm {eldest ?) 

Laklirnti Lakliauiu uetabu 

L JLfakhmu {and) Lakhamu arose 



11. y^r^fz :m't-^n]'^m^mm 

adi irbu 

artd grew up 



Assiu" Kit^f^iir ibbariu 

~ Assur (and) Kt^^f^tir leere horn 



430 



Chaldean Account of the Crtntion. 



urriku taini buda 

ihey were prolonged to days long 

14. ^>f yi y- p^^?2^^S?i?^?S??^ 



'1 V <L*'7*'^^* -i.^'ft'lV' -^* 



Anu 
Ann 



Notes and Observations. 

The whole series of Creation tablets was called the 
Enuma tluh^ from the two first words of the first tablet* So 
the Jews called the book of Genesis Beresith^ from its two 
first words Be-resiili, * in the beginning/ 

Line 3. Zaru, * its arms/ Heb, jnit * the Arm/ The 
same image is found in the Hebrew scriptures : * shall he 
deliver hia soul from the hand of Hades? (Sheol)/ Pis* 
Ixxxix, 48, See a similar passage in Pa. xlix, 15. And Hosea 
xiii 14, says : * I will ransom them from the hand of Hades** 

The word zaru JTlit is poetical. It is used in Dent, iv, 34, 
for the arm of the Almighty, * stretched out ' to deliver the 
Israelites. 

Line 4. Mummu^ Chaos, Heb. rTOirTO? ' tumult,' fi^m 
root DirTj perturbare. It was especially a Chaos of waters, 
a boundless Ocean. Nearly the same as Heb. iahum DITIA 

* the Ocean/ from ^ame root mn, wliich the LXX always 
render A^vairo^, Dinn is feminine in GenefliB vii^ 11, and 
xlix, 25 ; Ezekiel xxxi, 4, Gesenins renders it Oceanus, 

Its plural mDnn takmut is the AsHyrian tamti or tamuU 

* the Ocean/ a word of frequent occurrence. In our Transac- 
tions, vol. iii, p. 511, I have given the gloss Um}m . Mummn 
tiyys: ^ tfJI ^ ^ ^yy f i^. This word Umnn pOTT 
occurs in Job xxxi, 34, where it is feminine, and means 

* tumult : confusion/ from same root rTOtl or DIH- 

Timllaty Ocean. If this word was pronounced Tithailat 
(and there are instances, especially in the Behistun Inscription, 
of S used for TH), then we have here the BaXarB of the 
Chaldean autlior Berosus, who says, * There was a time in 





Chaklean Account of the Creation. 



4S1 



which there existed nothing but darkness and an Abyss of 
waters wherein dwelt all manner of monstrous animals* 
The being who ruled over them was a female named 
Omoroca, which in the Chaldean language in Tkalaith : in 
Greek Thalmm the Sea/ See Smithes ' Chaldean Account ol 
Genesis/ p. 41. 

Mttalltdaty feminine paii;iciple of the verb ^7^ * to bear 
children.' 

5. htinisli^ * into one place.' htin in Assyrian signifies 
' One,^ Compare Genesis i, 9, * And God said, lot the waters 
be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land 
appear; and it was so. And God called the dry land Earth, 
and the gathering together of the waters called ha Seas: 
and God saw that it was good,' 

Ikhiqu or Ihiqu^ from Heb, pTT, an appointed bound or limit, 
from verb p^n statuit, terminavit This word occurs hi a 
most remarkable passage in the eighth chapter of Proverbs, 
where Eternal Wisdom is said to have been present^ with God^ 
at the Creation of the World ; which Calmet compares to the 
Eternal Ao^o<i of the 1st chapter of St. John's Gospel, The 
sacred writer of this chapter of Proverbs pictures to himself 
the time before anytliing was created, save Wisdom alone, 
and his words take a turn not unlike the Eimina elish of the 
Babylonians, ex, gr,^ ' When as yet God had not made the 
Earth,' &c. Proverbs viii, 26. 

Three lines afterwards we read : * When He gave to the sea 
bis decree, that the waters shoidd not pass Hiscoramandment.' 

Here the decree (pTf) given to the Sea, not to pass over 
its appointed Hmits, ia the same word as the Babylonian 
tablet employs in line 5, mi utinish ihiqu, ' the waters were 
gathered into one place/ 

Line 6, Gipara, Heb. lU* * a Man.' Syriac gabra* Often 
put absolutely for * Man.' Jeremiah xvii, 7, " Blessed is the 
man (gibir) that tnisteth in the Lord/' Job. iv 17, '* Shall 
man {(jiMr) be more pure than his maker?*' 

Job X, 5, " Are Tby years as the days of man (gibir) ? " 
These words are addressed to the Deity. 



^ Poiotwi so e» to reftd ffibir. 



Vol. V. 



28 



431 



Chaldmn Account 0/ tlu Creation, 



Ki$9uru *tliey were l:mnded together; umted ; or bound/ 
Heb. l^p tQ join or bind together; Rometimes to unite in 
iympathy, as the hearts of David an J Jonathan: to bind 
iijto a group, as the stars of the Pleiades. Job xxxviii, 31, 
f*Didflt thou bind together the bands of the Pleiades?** So 
Gesenius renders the passage* Hence the union of the first 
men into societies would be properly expressed by the rerb 
kissur. 

Zuza 'animals/ HeK Zi^ Tt, a living animal^ especially 
a wild beast ; from the root ziiz TIT to live and move, 
as in Ps. 1» 11, **I know all the fowls of the mountains, and 
the wild beasts (zu) of the fields are mine," And Ps, Ixxx, 13. 
**The boar out of the wood doth waste it, and the ^vildl^east 
(ziz) of the field doth devour it." Sehu * they wandered 
about/ Heb. nyjl and also Tiyo * to wander*; oberravit; 
erravit. 

Line 7, Suhu * they were risen/ Cat.^fago» p. 143, bas#a&aa 
to rise (as a star) : sahdk the dawn of day ; «uAA, the dawn, 
aurora ; salnhat, the dawn. The stars were the original gods 
of the Babykmiana, who to denote 'a god ' figured a star* 

Line 8. Suma la sukhtru^ * their names were not spoken.^ 
Apparently the same as zaiiaru (speak or name); which opcm^ 
oftei). 

Line 10. Uatahu is I think a T conjugation of subu (see 
L 7) and with the same meaning* 

Line 13. Urriku * were prolonged, or extended/ Cora- 
pare irik% llriku, ruku ; from pTH longe recessit, a word 
which occurs very frequently. 



The discovery of this tablet has gi'eatly raised the repu- 
tation of the ancient author Damascius, for it is now Been 
that his account of the Creation w^as derived from genmne 
Babylonian sources. He says (see Cory s Ancient Fragments, 
p. 318, compared with the original) : *' The Babylonians speak 
not of Om origin of all things (^PXV '^^^ oXe^p), for ther 
make two original beiogs, Tavde and Awa^rmv, makiug 
Airatrmv the huslmnd of TavOe^ whom they call the Mother of 
the gode. Their only son (? eldest son) was Mmvp,i^. And 




Chaldean Account of the Creation. 



438 



I 



another race (jepea) proceeded from them namely ^a^^? fitnd 
^a-^Qi;, And again a third race proceeded from the same 
(parents) namely KtaaapT} and A(r(T(0pQ^~ These had three 
children Avo% IXXti/09, and ^0?, And the son of Aof^ and 
Aavtc-ff was called Bi^Xo^, who they Bay was the Demim-gns 
or fahricator of the world/* 

This agrees very nearly with the Babylonian records, 
Tavd€ is Tamti the Sea (a very common word in the inscrip- 
tions), exchanging the cognate letters U or V for M. Aira^rtov 
is tty *"*^TT Apzu or Apzo the Abyss (which word occm:« 
continually). Mmv^t^ is Mummu ' Chaos ' (see line 4 of our 
tablet). Aa-x^Tj and Aaxo<; are conjectured by Mr. Smith to 
bo the Lakhrtm and TAikhanm of the tablet. This is very 
likely, and is due to the carelessness of the copyists in 
writing A for A, 

A<r{rmp agrees exactly with ^>^ ^ the god Assur, the 
great god of the Assyiians, and Kta-aapT} >-»|- ^IeJ -^ 
is the same with the syllable ^][£T Ki prefixed, and therefore 
properly transliterated by Kusur, Aifa^ is Anu, named in 
line 14. The rest of Damasciue*s names are broken off from 
the tablet, but Ao is the god neually transliterated as Hea. 
The sound of his name is doubtfijl ; it is possible that Ao 
may be the tine sound. 

Most of this (regarding the testimony of Damascius) has 
already been pointed out by Mr. Smith, but I could not omit 
some mention of it here, as it is so closely connected with 
the interpretatioq of the tablet. 



1, 



The Fifth Tablet of the Creation Series, 
ubassim 



he constructs 

-4- 1-4- £1- f*4< 
ili rabi 

[/or] the i/ods great 



manzazi 
dwellings 



434 

Kakkabi tanisQ - bu as lunanii 

Comtellatioiis^ their figures like animaU 

\ uzziz 

he filed np. 

iiaddi 
he ifiade 

mizrata omazzir 

quarters he divided U 

arkhi kakkabi 

twelve 7nontIis, their constellations by threes 

TIZZIZ 

he fixed up 

iatu tami eha muanna 

from the dat/s of the year 



V-H ^m T ^m^ 1>-^ Eriy -T< 

iistatil usBiimti 

he established festivals 



Chaldean Account of the Creation. 



435 



usarsid manzaz ili nibiri 

he founded divelUngs (for) the divine plaiieU 



ana iiddu u 
for ijidr ruing and 



eimutzu • buu 
settimj 



ana la epish anni, la egu 

Tltat nothing should act wrong fior stop still 

manama 
aniithing 



B. « rj t^ ^4- ^11 < ->f tM Vi m^ III 

Hea ukin 

Hea Im placed 



manzaz Bel u 

the dwelling of the god Bel and 



itti - su 
along witfi theni 



ipti- ma babati rabati 
and he opened gates great 



as 



on 



tsiU 
aidet 



kilallau 



^^^ 436 


Chaldean Account of the Crmtimi. ^^| 


^H 


<T-«=m^*jn ^Ttn?pf:-^i jtt--^ 




gigaru uddanniua eumila 1 




the, portaU he made strong on the Ufi 1 




< A4f-^I J 




n * imiia ^^1 




and on the right ^^H 


^^^^ 


- ^tid ^ ^r< V El ^n ^m ^ 




in kabatti-Bba-ma istakan M 




in the centre of it aim he placed 1 




^Vj -t] TI ^T< ■ 




^H 




luminanet 1^1 


^H 


^.fE:;s^<^*m S^T^r^Tf -^vl 




ill! Urrxi tietipa mtisa 


^^H the divine Moon he placed on high^ ihi ni^t 




-I<K -<]< ^ J 




iqtipa ^^H 




to go round ^^H 


^H 


f m^^ :^ET <T53^ ::^ ET JTtS^<" -^^ 




uaddi-sii'inma Biikkur musi 1 




and made it to wander tlirough the night m 




TI^T '^T^ ^T<cc 1 




ana uddu tami ^^M 




until the rising of the day ^^^ 



^^^^^^^^■^^H 


I 


H Chaldean Accouni of the (Wation, 4S7 ^^^H 


i 


arkhi 8ara la 
Mmi th e ve7*^ with out 

&B agie titgir 
with holy /estiva I A he obseriYd 


naparka ^^H 


I 


ina reeh arkhi-ma 
in the beginnhig of the month 

■ lilati 

' o/' the ni(fht 


napakbi ^^H 
at the rising ^^^| 


16, 


^:^ .^y ^^f yr j£|yy y 

garni imbata ana 
its horns it mhot forth to 

Bamami 
the heavens 


illuminate ^^^t 


1 17. 


ina tami sibitti-kan aga 


ukin-ma ^^H 


1 


an the seventh dai/, a koli/ da if 


A« appointed ^^^H 


I ^^- 


ana baitiilu sutkbumti ^^H 


H (and) to ceaie from all business ^^^M 


1 


y-T<T (--IT) AW^ 


■ 


H 


nzzu 


^^1 


L 


/i€ commanded 


^^J 



43S 



Chaldean Account of tfie Creation. 



u tzar- ma Shenis ina 

and he jnade the Sun tn the 

Shamie aa arka 

{}/ Heaven in its place 



isid 



Notes and Observations- 

Line 2. Taimil, figure or reeerablance : from Ttt^Q to 
reaemble* This word occurs frequently, 

Utnami * animals * is a frequent word, but doubtful here» 
I think the last letter eliould be T»- or ^E^, and not ^T»-* 

Vzziz *h© fixed up.* Heb. Tty firmavit. 

Line 3. Mizrata ' quarterft,' ig a term frequently applied 
to the quarters of the human body. It ie sometimes written 
mizfiti. The etymology ia nn certain. 

Line 5. U»tatil *he eBtablished.' An uncertain word, 
but compare edil *I established'; mudiY * establisher or restorer/ 

Umuratif holy festivals held on certain days, rvi2ty dies 
ferial us : feria ; coetus ferians- 

Line 6* Nlbiri, the Planets. Moving stai's, from 123? ^^ 
pass over ; whence nilnrti, a crossing over. 

Line 7. Anni, faults, errors, wrong doings. I have 
treated of this word in my glossary No. 415; ex, gr. Anni 
ebusUf 'the faults I have committed/ It is the Heb. py 
peccatum, perversitas, actio prava. The verb epis or ebm 
nsnally governs annij as here, * ana la epis anniJ 

E(;u^ from nJ3? tardavit ; to stop or retard. See Schindler, 
p. 1267, 

Tsili * sides/ Heb. yrj^ latus. 

from Heb. 73 omnis, is a word of frequent 



Line 9. 
Kilallan^ 
occurrence. 
Line 10. 
Line 11. 



Sigaru * gates.* Heb. IJD porta, claxieora. 
Kahat^ Cor. Etiam medium rei cnjuBuia, See 
my glossary No, 500 on the meanings of iabat, 
Elati^ luminaries, Heb. 77*1 splenduit, luxit. 




Chaldean Account of the Creation, 



439 



Line 12, Urru is a frequent name for the Moon, as being 
the tutelary divinity of tlie city of Ur. 

Uitipa * he placed on high.' T conjugation of HeK rTDttJ 
eminere, whence D*^Dffi ' high places,* 

Iqtipa is I believe the T conjugation of vp^ circumivit, 
nearly the same as Fp^ or Vp to go round, or wander about* 
From root P|p iqtipa is a reg^ilar T conjugation. This verb 
Ip2 noijip * to wander * is the root of naqU * wanderings,' 
which occurs in the Deluge Tablet* vix,, ** Eleventh portion of 
the wanderings of Izdubar.*' See Transactions, voL iv, p. 81. 

Line 13. 5*4ifor to wander about, or circulate, Heb. *inD 
cireuniivit. 

Line 14. Agie 'feetivak*: plural of Aga TI fcTTT^ TI 
which occurs in line 17. Heb. 2n festum. 

Utzur^ it assembled (?) probably from 'yj.V to assemble 
the people on a feast day, oongregavit (Geeenius). The 
meaning seems, * Every month without exception the Moon 
(that ia, the New Moon) caused an assembly of the people ' ; 
for, on ^^ first day of the month (see line 15) she shows 
her horns in the evening twilight, and on the seventh day of 
the moon (see line 17) there is a holy festival. 

Line 15. NapakM, 'rising* or 'coming forth.* Chald. 
pD3 to come forth. Often used with >-J- ^T to express 
Sunrise. 

Line 16. Nabata *shot forth ' or 'poured forth/ Heb. jnj 
copiosfe effudit. In 4 E 27, 22, the same verb nalkat is used as 
it is here in connection with * horns * : garnd^sn kima sarur 
Samsi ittanatibithu. The last word is from nahlih, another 
form of the verb nahaL 

Uildtt^ in the sense of Light, is frequent. 

Line 18. Ana hattulu * to cease/ Heb. 701 cessavit. 
Buxtorf renders it ' to intermit, cease, rest, be at leisure.* 
SutkhuraL Heb. IflD commerce, buying and selling, 
marketing, or business, (See Buxtorf.) 

Uzzu *he commanded/ Heb. mit proecepit, jussit. 

Line 19, Arka^ probably Heb. ^J? ordiuavit, disposuit, 
Btiiisit. 

It will be obsei-ved that in line 3 the year is said to 
be divided into four parts or seasons. This agrees with 



440 



C/mUean Acrouni of the Creatt&n. 



Mr. G. Smith's Btatement ia p. 405 of hia * Aftsyrian Dis- 
coveries/ 

As the word employed in line 3 of col. IL mt^rafa or 
mizriti * quarters/ is a remarkable one, I tliiiik it desirable to 
confirm it with another example. In 4 R 9, mizriti is 
employed to express tJie four quarters of the lunar month. For, 
in the time of the Aeeyriane, even as at the present day, the 
limation was divided into four equal parts — new moon, first 
quarter, full moon» last quarter. 

lu 4 R 9, 20 (which is an Ode to the Moon) the Moon is 
said to complete its horns {arbati mishriti) in four quarters. 
The line is as follows : — 



burn 


iqdu 


sha garni 


gabbarn 


the beacon 


Mif 


whose hojfis 


increa^ii 



arbati mizriti kullulu 

(nnd in) four quartern are completed. 




Ul 



THE BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS 

Found by General di Cesnola in the Tr^uury o/ the TempU 
at Kurium. 



Bv Rev, A. H. Sayck, M,A. 

Bead Sth December, 1876. 

One of the most interesting and valuable discoveriefl ever 
made was that of the Temple-treasure of Kiuium, in Cypioiti, 
by General di Cesnola. It is the first time that 8ueh a 
collection of offerings has been found, and the vast number 
uf precioxis objecta it containe, mostly of gold^ and many of 
them of exquisite workmanehip, bear testimony to the wealth 
of the temple and the devotion of its frequenters. The 
objectfi dedicated to the deity are of various ages and styles 
of art ; some influenced by Egypt, some by Assyi^a, some by 
Phoenicia, and others again being of native Greek work. 
Among what may be called the Assyi-ian objects are several 
Babylonian cyliuders, which seem to have been imported 
into Cypnis as oriental antiques^ and regarded by their 
owners as articles of value. Three of these Babylonian 
cylinders have cuneiform inscriptions, which General di 
Ceanola has bad the kindness to allow me to copy. The 
copies will be found below ; mj translations of them will be 
given in the present paper* 

The cylinder of most interest is one of haematite, and of 
no great size. A priest vrith the usual flounced diTss is 
represented upon it as holding up his hands in adoration of a 
deified hero, betiiad whom stands Rimmon, the au-god, with 
the forked thunderbolt in one hand and the mace or scimotar 
in the other. Three symbolical animals, together with the 
fltm and groups of stars, are interspersed among the figuresi 



442 The Babylonian Cylinders found by Gmeral di Cemoku 



and a kneeling siippliant, the origmal poBaessor of the 
cjlinder probably, i& placed between the priest and the 
figure he is worshipping. The inscription on the seal is as 

follows : — 



Abil-aRIstar 
Abil'Istar 




2. abU Uu-ba-lid 
son of Ilu-ialid 



3. 



abed D.P. Na-ra-am D.P, EN-zu 

the servant of the god Naram-Sin* 

Now Naram-Sin was a Babylonian monai'cK the son and 
fiuecessor of Sargon of AgancJ, who flourished before the 
sixteenth century B.C. A vase was diRcovered at Babylon 
by M, FreRBel, bearing the name of ** Naram-Sin, king of the 
four races, conqueror of Apirak and Magan/' or the Peninsula 
of Sinai, wliich was afterwards imfortimately lost in the Tigris. 
In the legend on the cylinder, therefore, w^e have a proof of 
the apotheoms of the Babylonian kings. We know of 
another Chaldean king who was similarly deified. This 
was Araar-Agu, an early monarch of Ur and Nipur, whose 
inscriptions are found on bricks from Mugheir (Ur) and 
Abu-Shahreiu, and who is mentioned in a list of gods in 
W.AJ., Ill, 69, 77, As the determinative prefix of divinity 
is attached to the name of Amar-Agu in his own brick 
legends, it is clear that the deification had taken place in hie 
life-time, and not after his death* This may also haTe been 
the case with Naram-Sin, and it is possible that the cylinder 
found by General di Ceanola may date fi*om his reign. It 
cannot be much later> as it is not likely that the cult of 
Naram-Sin would have survived the fVill of his dynasty in 
the reign of his successor, the queen Ellat-Gida. It may be 
noticed that whereas Amar-Agu belonged to Aceadian times^ 
Naram-Sin and his subjects were Semites. 

The second cylinder fi-om Kurium, also of hsematite, is 
much smaller than the other, and of inferior workmanship. 
Two figures are engraved upon it, one of them in a long 




The Babifhnian Cylinders fomid by General M Cesnola. 443 



fringed robe, with a crooked staff iii the hand. The inscrip- 
tion ifi only two lines in length : — 



1. Eriv-Ba-gas 

£r{v ' Bagas 

2* eriv D.P. NIR-XTJOJ-iOAL 
serrsini of NergaL 




I 



The legend is in Accadian, and the cylinder, therefore, muet 
be considerably older than that of AbiWstar. If the Dungi 
fion of Lig-Bagas, who is mentioned on a cylinder now in the 
British Mueeun^, is the sanje as the Dongi eon of Lig- • . . 
king of Ur, who goei? back to the earliest times of which we 
have monmnental record, it is possible that we may find an 
approximate date for the Kurinm cylinder. I know of no 
other instance in which the name of the deity Bagas enters 
into the composition of a proper name, and wp may perhaps 
assume that where we have two names of which it forms part., 
one being the name of a monarch and the other of a private 
individual, there is a probability that the latter was modelled 
upon the former, and so belongs to the same epoch.* 

The third cylinder brought from Kurium i^ of yeiy con- 
siderably later date than tlie otiier two. It is of rock crystal 
and of large size, and I believe cannot well be older than 
the eighth or seventh century B.C. Indeed, I am inclined to 
reduce its age still more considerably. The chai'acters are 
not weU formed, some of them being quite unrecognizable, 
and the scribe has made a curious mistake in the first line, 
from which it is evident that he was simply a copyist whose 
knowledge of the writing was veiy imperfect. The name 
of the moon-god, Sin, is expressed by bis Accadian title of 
Enu-ziMia *' lord of waxing," but the three Accadian words 
are written backwards, na-zu-enu. The whole inscription is in 
Accadian, though the proper names are Semitic, and I tliink, 
therefore, that it belongs to the period when a taste arose for 
imitating the archaic, and the Assyrian and Babylonian scribes 
began to compose in Accadian, just as it is still sometimes 

^ I ma J mention tkat the Accadmn Bigaa 10 plainly idmiticftl ^itli the Cuaaite 
pr KoBiwan deitj Bugas. 



444 The Babifhnian Ctflinders found Ay General di Cesnah* 

the fashion to write public or dedicatory inscriptionB in Latin. 
Id this case the cylinder could not be much earlier than the 
time of Eear-haddon, The same date is ako indicated by 
the engraving which represents a priest, with two ephinxe* 
above him,— clear evidences of Egyptian influence. The 
iascription, so far as I can make it out, ninu thufi:^ — 




1. DtP. na-zn-enu (?) khi 6a tic 

The moon-god the good 

2. di-tar kur-kur fii-di di-A an ci-^d 
the judge of the worlds the fortune completer of fteaven {and) i 

3, eem-ga nam-ti dimirriene-la 
tlte giver of the life of the gods to ; 

4, nin ii-a te-im zu 
master who givest • * » . . thy 

5* eak (?) li Bak(?) nun mu bat 

head{?) precwm(?) header } prince ofUiedeadiJ) 

6, p.p. Tn-ua»rai-i8 

Ttinamis 

7, tur DP. Pa-a^ri 

wn of Pdru 

8, nitakh mu ni-pam im (?) n© (?) 
the man who the gear remrds 

The office of ** recorder of the year " explains why the 
moon-god was the patron deity of the original owner of the 
cylinder. 



443 



ON A HIMYARITIC SEAL FOUND IN THE HAURAN. 



By Isaac H. Hall, LLB., PilD, 

S^ad eth Fehruaty, 1877. 

In January, 1876, I obtamed several gems that had been 
dug up in the Haiinin, Bome distance Bouth of Damascua, 
bat the locality I cannot give precisely. Among them was 
a seal of fine agate, composed of dark and light alternating 
layers, inscribed with six intaglio Hirayaritio characters. 
The shape of the stone may be described as that of a nearly 
perfect hemi-elhpsoid of revolution about the major axis, 
and having, accordingly, a flat elliptical face. A hole passes 
length wise through the stone, intended probably for a stiing 
or the pivots of a setting* The dimensions of the face (if 
important) are 2 centimetres in longest diameter, by 1^45 
centimetres in the shortest. The characters are 0*ti of a 
centimetre high, and nm across the stone in two rows, tlu-ee 
characters in a row, between parallel lines cut 
across the face, of the same 4^ptli ^^ ^^^ 
characters. There are six of these parallel 
Knfs, two at each end of the face» and twii 
l>etween the two rows of characters, Tlie 
edge is a httle broken at one end, bnt not 
eni^ugh to damage the inscription. Further 
details of its appearance vnll appear from the accompanying 
figure. The seal I have presented to the British Museum, 
where it now is. 

Like many coins and other seals, its legend is cut so as 
to read corre<;tly on the stone ; the impression reverses both 
the reading and the charj^cters. It appears to be a proper 
name, composed, like most Arabic names of the present day, 
of two distinct names, both of which are well known to the 




44(1 



On a Hhmjnritic Seal found in the IlaHratu 



Arabio-epeaking people of Syria at the present day. The 
traiisliteratiou into Arabic letters is w-i^ SJ^ (or, neglect- 
ing vowels, Shkr Chrf). The first name is common in Arabic, 
both old and modern, and usually takes the vocalization of 
the infinitive or verbal noun, and has the siguificatiou 
*' thanks/' Sometimes a ^^ Cv^) is added, making ite meaubg 
** my thanlts.'* We have both at thi« moment as names of 
students in onr Syrian Protestant CoUege. But a moro 
common name is formed by inst-rting an elif between the nhin 
and the caph^ thus, ^Li (Shdkir)^ meaning "thankful'*; and 
this is perfectly allowable in turning the Himyaritic into its 
Arabic equivalents, as the former commonly omits the eli/\ 
frequently necessary in the latter. I therefore adopt this 
latter reading as the probably coixect one. 

As to the second word, by itself it is a Himyaritic (not 
Arabic) word^ meaning "year,** whicli is here inappropriate* 
But by inserting a ^ (icaw) between the re and the/«f, which 
is qxiite allowable in the transliteration, it forms the nmne 
i^jjt^ {Charuf)^ an Arabic name of renown, being the name 
of a noted Arabic grammarian as well as of the Beni Charfi^ 
an Arab tribe. Its meaning as an Aiabie w^ord is '* Iamb.'* 
The whole name, then, would be ^jjL i'^, (ShaJcir Charuf\ 
and, by the vray, its transliteration, *Uhankful lamb^** would 
not be very strange as an English name. 

How this seal came to be in the Haxn-an I do not pretend 
to conjectiii*e» If any are inclined so to do, it may help them 
to know that near it Tvas found a carnelian seal in forrai of a 
scarabeens, wnth an intaglio human figure, which is most 
likely of Hamathite origii^. 



I 

I 



Syrian Protestant Colkge^ BeitiUy %ria, 
NoiK 15, 1876. 




447 



ON THE CYPRIOTE INSGEIPTIONS. 
Br H, F. Talbot, RR.S. 

Ue^d %ik Feiruary, 1877. 

Great interest was excited a few years ago by the 
publication in the Transactions of this Society of papers by 
Mr. G. Smith and Dr. Birch relating what was then known 
about the Cypriote inscriptions, and evidently containing at 
least the commencement of a true interpretation of them. 
But I believe that few British scholars are as yet acquainted 
with the great discoveries w4iich have been made by 
the German archBeologists Moriz Schmidt, Deecke, and 
Siegismund, within the last two or three years. 

Thanks to their labours, we i^ow possess a nearly com- 
plete Cypriote syllabary, correctly valued, which when 
applied to the best and most perfect inscripticnis transforms 
them into very intelligible Greek, thus realising the pre- 
visions of Mn G. Smith and Dn Bii-ch, and adding a very 
important and interesting chapter to the history of the Greek 
language. 

Of these authors Schmidt^ was first in tlie field, but 
Deeoke and Sicgismnnd' followed later in the same year, 1874, 
Their labom's had been quite independent, and apparently 
carried on unknown to each other, hut when the essays were 
published they had the satisfaction to find an almost complete 
agreement in the results w4iich they had obtained. This, as 



^ Moriz Scb mid fc, " Die Iii*cnft tod Idalion, und das Kjprifiche S^Tllabir." 
Jena, 1874. This is a work of more than 100 pagos in anto-Uthography, an art 
of the greateBt utilitj for kamed irorks of tlu» kind, in which the correction of 
tlie prt'fls is bo difEciilt and eitpeiiMre, and moreover causci* so miidi clehij, 

^ Die wichtigsteD Kypri*ehen In&chriftcn, timsehrieben und erlaat^rt Ton 
Wilhelm Deecke und Justui Siegismwnd— in Ciuiiup Shirlien, Leipzig, IS/'l. 



iU 



On a Himy antic Seat /mi ml in tfi£ Tlam^n, 



ArabicJ-BpeakiDg people of Syria at the present day. The 
transliteratioii into Arabic letters is ^^^^ J^ (or, neglect- 
ing vowele» Shkr Chrf). The first naoie ie common in Arabic, 
both old and modern, and usually takes the vocalization of 
the infinitive or verbal noun, and has the signification 
** thanks/* Sometimes a ^5 (//e) is added, maldug its meaning 
**my thanks."' We have both at this moment as names of 
students in our Syrian Protestant College, But a more 
common name is formed by inserting an ^///between the shin 
and the fa^>A, thus, ^Li {ShdHr\ meaning ** thankful"; and 
thie is perfectly allowable ui tuniing the Himyaritic into its 
Arabic equivalents, as the former commonly omits the €Uj\ 
frequently necessary in the latter, I therefore adopt this 
latter reading as the probably correct one. 

As to the second word, by itself it is a Himyaritic (not 
Arabic) word, meaning *'year;' which is here inappropriate. 
But by inserting a ^ {tuaw ) between the re and the yV, which 
is quite allowable in the transliteration, it forms the name 
4^4 jL {Charttf)^ an Arabic name of renown, being ihe name 
of a noted Arabic grammarian as well as of the Beni Charfl^ 
an Ai'ab tribe. Its meaning as an Arabic word is **lamb/* _ 
The whole name> then, would be <jj^ ^^Ih (Shdkir Charu/\ \ 
andj by the way, its transliteration, ** thankful lamb^" would 
not be very strange as an English name. 

How this seal came to be in the Haumn I do not pretend 
to conjecttn^e. If any are inclined so to do, it may help tliem 
to know that near it >va8 found a canielian seal in farm of a 
scarabaeus, with an intaglio human figure, which is most 
likely of Hamathite origii^. 



1 



I 



Syrian Fwte$tant Colkge^ Beirfit^ S^ia^ 

JSTqv. 15,1876, 




441 



OX THE CYrKIOTL Zv>.1Z-T: - 
By H. F. ZMSJb.' 7 I..- 

Great interest wa* rsjiTri i :•■ -- - ...- - -- 
publication in the Trar.Bi::: 11.* •: i:..- *!: .--- ..>.- - 
Mr. G. Smith and Dr. Bir.l r-.c.:::.^ v:...- -.- . -_ . :. - 

about the Cypriote ins iri; :..---. u-i r-. .:-:..: - : 

least the commencem^:.: :•:' u t-ii-. -:-':•-:.- . .-::. 

But I believe that frrw Biv.l-L ••.•ii ^iuT- ..•• a ■ .. 
with the great (ii-. .v-.rl-v v:.-: ^ -. ... :.^ . 
the German archft-l v''!-':- X •-:: ^..•_. :. . •' 
Siegismund, within tL- li*-: tv . »• t..:. . •... - 
Thanks to their iii'.'. ---. v- :. v . ik^^^ 

plete Cypriote sy]lH''':irv. • ..-r : ; *. .• 

applied to the best aL-i ::-'.»< :»^-:t - l..- •• ; , .; 

them into very iut-r"! :;.-"■•.•: '.-■••::: : , . 

visions of Mr. G. >::r.v. ir.:\ *•■ • • 

important and intereJrtl'.;: :!:;.;•.•.- . * . . - - . 

language. 

Of these antL- r^ ^v!:!:;i r v :. . 

Deecke and Siv^'-iwi:.-:;. 1- ' .;. v. .. .; - 

Their labom-s iind '•-• • •:••:• . .^ .. .. .-— 

carried on nnkj;' %v_ : »^u •: -.- • . -. - 

published tli'-y ]j.,i "• • k. :.-■ - 

jigreement iu t'r^*: rr-Ki.v v . • _ _^ 

' Mftriz 5c}.r::! ' r.v ' ..— : _^^ — 

»Ifna, 1871. Th.t -» t wt^: ! :.— ^ -^r — • - -"="= — 

of the greatest -!.:•;:-- -»-:!* »-: -. — h 

the pn'M i« *o '." 5. ■• . - ■ 

' J^ie wic r:2«-.-: 1- •- _-- — 
WillK-lmD'-. : • - 

V^.T " 



4-18 



On the Ci/priote Inscriptions. 



one of them justly obsei^ves, is of itself a fitrong argumenl 
for the truth uf the conchisione.* 

I first became acqiiaiated with these new researches hy 
reading a very iiweful little book '* sur le decUiffi-ement des 
mscriptions de Tile de'Chypre," par Leon Rodet, Paris, 1878. 
Diis givt.^8 a clear and accurate account of the late discoveries, 
and includes a careful copy^ of the inscription of Dali or 
Idalium as rendered into Greek letters by Deecke and 
SiegiRmund. But Rodt^t gives no translation of this Greekt 
which is emlmrrassed by a multitude of Cypriote expressions. 
The goiieral tenour or me^iniog of it is however not difficult 
to fullowj aud I made a translation of it. At a later time 
when I had procured the German works themselves^ I was 
gratified to find that my translation was VGvy similar t^ 
that of the German scholars (see p. 240 of Deecke and 
Sie^smiind) with the exception of a few passages. 

Schmidt on his side tranHliterated the Cypriote original 
into Greek letters, in close accordance with Deecke and 
Siegismund, and his copious notes show a general agreement 
with thcii' \^Lm^8 thi^ouglmut the inscription. In ehort, these 
translators are in very fair accord, aud I shall follow them, 
except only in a few passages, in the annexed English 
version, which 1 believe represents pretty closely the sense 
of the orijrinal. 




The Bronze Tablet of Idalium. 

\Vhen the Medes aud the Kitians^ besieged the city of 
Idalium iu the year when Philokupros son of Onaeagoras 
was eponym (or chi^f ma(ji strata?) the king St^sikupros , 
and the city of the Idaliaus commanded Onasilue son of 



' DaraiiB prg^ab elcli riasa wir itn WpBentlichen ^Ti&bhUngig tou einander g^n* 
KU cipnrtelberk Rotiultiitt'n g<4angt wtireu — gewbs ein© Bcbliigende Bestjltigiing f"? 
ihre Richtigkeifc. 

' The author mjs : " Je donne iei k tmtiscription de Ift plaque de. Dili, 
d'apr^s U rpHtitution de MM. D*^pok« efc Si(*gisjmiind» apr^j TaToir colUticuafe 
BUT iea fnc-Himilp du due de Liijmes pt To'Stre asauro que la tranM^iption ijU^* 
bique **st faito iiT^ee ime enti^re botine foi.** 

' Inhabitants of Kitium, a citj not far from Iiialium. Compare the Chittiin 
of Seripturo. 




On tkt C^piiote Inscriptwns, 



449 



Onaaikupros the pliyBiciaii and hiB brethren to heal the Tiieii 
that were wounded in the battle, without iecei\Hiig any fees. 
And at that time the King and the City made a covenant 
with OaasiluB and hie brethren, in lien of all feeB and 
rewards, to give them frtJin the King s honse and from the 
city (so nmn^) talents of silver. Or else, instead of those 
talents of silver, the King and the City shall gi^e to Onasilns 
and his brethren fi*oni the King's land, wdiieh is in the mcrt^d 
ineiosure (?) of Alphirita the piece of land in the valley which 
adjoins the field of Onkas and all the yoimg plantationB 
which are upon it, to hold it ami take all its produce as long 
as he lives, free from all taxes. And if anyone shall expel 
)nasilue, or his brethren, or the grandcliildreu of OnasiknproB * 
rom this land, tlien the person who so expels them shall pay 
to O nasi! us ami his brethren, or to then* eluldrcn, the money 
aforesaid, that is to say (so many) talents of silver. 



Part H. 

And moreover to Onasilus himself, apart from his other 
brethren, the King and the City have covenanted to give 
him in lieu of fees and rewards^ silver amounting to (somuch). 
Or else, the King and the City sliall give to Onasilus in lieu 
of that money, from the kijigs land at Melania in the plain 
the piece of land which adjoins the field of Amcnias together 
with all the young plantations which are u^x^n it, which 
adjoins the street (?) of Drumion and the sacred enclosure of 
Athena, and the garden in the field of Siramifl whicli Diithemis 
the Ai'amnian liuld formerly, which adjoins (the house of) 
Pasagoras son of Ojiasagoras and all the yonng plantations 
which are upon it, to hold it, wnth all its produce^ as long 
as he lives, free from taxes. And if anyone shall expel 
Onasilns or his children from this land, or from this garden, 
then he who expels him sliall pay to Onasilns or his children 
the aforesaid sum of (m manif) pieces of silver. And these 
declarations, mutually exchanged the King and the City 
have deposited w^th the goddess Athena of Idalinm with 

* IIi^ wA:s father of Oiioftilyjf. 



450 On dif CypnoU /it«cn/)/tVH#. 

oaths not to break these covenantft as long as they Uve, 
Whoever shall break these covenants let him be held guilty 
of impiety. These land^ and these gardens the sons of 
Onasikupros and his descendants shall hold for ever, so long 
as anj remain in the sacred service of Idalium. 



I will add a few remarks to this translation. It will be 
perceived that the King and the City make a double covenant, 
the first wnth Onasihis and his brethren, the second with 
Onasiliis alone. In each case the minor stipulations (such as 
the option of paying either in money or in lands) were nearly 
the same, yet they had to be repeated in the same wordi. 
All this is expressed with so much precision as to lead to 
the belief that this agreement was drawn up by a lawyer* 

It is necessary however to remark that there is a great 
difference between Schmidt's translation of the first line and 
that given by Deecke and Siegismund, It appears to me 
that Schmidt is in the right for the following reasons:— At 
the time when this bronze tablet was engraved, a war (>£ax^)i 
was going on, and many persons wex^e wounded. The 
Medes and Kitiuns were then besieging theCSty.* Surgeom 
were of course greatly needed, and therefore the City mads 
a contnict with a confraternity of them. The words of the 
original are 'Ore rav TrroXtv HSaXimv Kareopfcovp Maio$ 
K€TL€t<:. Here we liave the well-known verb woXiopfcetP '*to 
besiege a city/* of which Kara-noXiopKeiv would l>e a stronger 
form^ implying a formidable siege.* 

The Cypriote phrase rav 'moXtv Kareoptcovu is equiva- 
lent to the Greek tcareTroktop^ou^ ray ttoKiv. But Deecke 
and Siegismund take opxof; in the sense of * an oath,* 
which gives no satisfactory meaning, for certainly the King 
and City of Idalinra did not swear anything to the Medet 
and Kittians, nor receive any oath from them* The brouse 



* Schmidt, p. 68, *' Die Miidoi (Meder, Per«er) dio SUdt b«lag«Tt<eii/* 

* Compare i^oXr^fiv * to mflke war,' but KararrGkr^tiu ii * t<j itiBk« war t^d 
gonquer.' So in Intin heUarf, and iU stronger form dehAtarv. 



( 
I 



On the Cypriote Inscriptions. 



451 



I 

I 



tablet relates to a purely domestic transaction, a contract 
between tlie City and tertain citizens of Idalium. 

Each of the three writt-rs I liave quoted from, Schmidt, 
Deecke, and Rodet give the Greek text as it comes out when 
rendered into Cypriote syllablee ; it is therefore unnecessary 
for me to do so. I think it wdll be more useful to give a 
copy of it when divested of some of ita unusual forms, it will 
then be considerably more legible. The inscription witli the 
Greek rendered eomewliat more regular, but still eemi- 
barbarous, is nearly as follows : — 

^Ot^ rap irroka* HBaXtcav xareopKovv MaBoi teat Kerieis 
€P T^ ^tXoKvwpov £T€i TQv Oyaaajopov^ ^a<Ti\€V9 Sfaa-iKVJrpo^ 
aai a irrfyki^ MhaXtei^i avmyov OvaaikQV rov OvaatKVTrpop top 
tarripa xat rovi fcaatyviiTOvs taa-$ai Toy? apQpmirQv^i tou? ev 
T^ M^X? t-t^pi^P^M^^^^ ^^^^ ^<T0mv* Kai 7ra etppTjTao-avro 
fia<Ti\€v<; Kai a wToXt^ OvaniXqf xai roi^ KaatjprjTots avri T<yv 
p,ia6ii^¥ xai airri ravxeptx^p Bovpat ef t^ otfcfp rov ^acrtXewy 
/rat ef ra wroXei apyvpov (..*,..} Ta(XavTa). H BvavoiT} 
am Tov apjvpou rmvBe tq^u Tokavrmy paaiXevq Kai a irruXt^ 
OpaatXep Kat rot^ KatriyvrjTOts awo ra ja ra ffaaiX€(os ra €p 
T^ ipwvi TG) AX(f>tpiara rov xtttpov tov €v t^ iXet tov 
^pavopL€vov OyKavTos aX<pa} tcai Ta Tep^ma Ta einotn-a wavra 
€)^€iy wav mviov icas (?) fa (?) areXTju, Ei tee tis OvaaiXay tj 
Tov<i /caatyvriTov^ tj tov^ TratSa? tgov waiStttv tov OvaciKvirpou 
cf TOD X^Pf ^?^^ ^f^P'??7i tB€7ra 6 efo^tfij Tretffc* OtfaaiX^ 
teat TOi<i xaaiyvriTOis tj tocs irattrt top apyvpop ToifSe, apyvpou 
( ) Ta(Xat^a}. 

II, Kai Oya^tXtp cap ap€v tojv tcaaiyvriTijap tci>k aXXoiv 
€ipp7jTaaaVT0 0a(rtXev^ xai a tftoX*? Souvai ami TavK€pa>y Ta>y 

fii<r6my apyvpov (. ), H StoKOij} ^adtX^v? Kai d tftoX*^ 

OvaaiXm ayrt apjupov rooBe a'Jro ra ^a Ta ^aaiXem^ Ta 
MaXapta Ta ireBia Toy "^(j^poy Toy j(pavp,£yov Afirivta aX^oj 
Kai Ta T€p)(yia Ta einovTa irayTa tov iroT€')(opL£Pov itotto^ 
po<f}m Ta>v ApUfiKxiP Kai iroTTau lepetap rap A0ava^ Kai tov 
Kairov TOV €v Sipfii&o^ apovpa top AitO^iLts o Apapiv^vs €i)(€ 
aXXoirOy tov 7rOT€')(pfi€Pov iroTi Jlaaayopav tov Ovaaayopov Kat 
Ta Ttpx^^^ Ta einopTa irapra^ ^X^^^ Trar^wFWiitf kms (?) fa (?) 
aTeXca €orra. Ei Kt ris Oya^iXov tj tov^ watBas tov^ OyaaiXou 



452 



On ihf Cjipt-iote ImcriptinnM, 



ff ra ya raSe t? ef r^ teairtp rrpSe €^opi^ff iSe o ^^optfvf iseuft 

OpaaiXtp Tf rois iratat toy apyupou rovSef apyvpov ( ) 

TaXavrmv raSe ra ewea raSe evaXXaXiafieva ^aaiXetK ira# a 
tttoXk fcareOmv ei/ rap 6iov rav Adavav rav wap^ HSaXiD9¥ 
aw opKOt? fiT} Xvcrai tak? ippTjTa^ raaS^ ita^ (?) fa(?) *ihri tk; 
fC€ rav <f>pfjTas toctSc Xvai) apoaui #( jevoiro, Taay^ ym 
raaBe fcat roi;? Kawovf rovaSe ot Ovatrt^tcvfrpov TratSe? ir«« 
Tcoi' Traihmv oi TratS^sr e^ovat aid ol ev t^ ipo^n to HhakiU 



Notes on the PREOEoiNa Transliteration'. 

Ev T(p €T€i rov ^iXoKimpoVf in the year of Philokuprtia 
that iH, wlieii he was chief magiBtTate, which office 
prohaMy chaiif^ed aimually, 

Pliih>kiipro8. A Iring of this name is mentioned by 
tierodotns, book 5, oh. 113, as reigning in Cyprus, Ho wassi 
friend of Solun. 

IfCfiapLficpov^^ a word of imcertain origin, 

E<pp'f}TaffavTQ 'they covenanted': from (ftp'tjTa 'acoven^nil 
or treaty/ which occurs in line 29* The usual Greek isj 
pifTpa, Tlie celebrated and very ancient Elean inseriptioti i 
begins A fparpa *' thia is the treaty, &Cn &c**' 

Tavfcepmv. A Qy'priote word fitlierwiee nnknown. 

E^ rm otict^ m a Cypriote solecism. It will be remembered 
doubtless that the people of Soli in Cypnis spoke Greek «o ■ 
badly as to give riHe to the word * Solecism,' or * speech «»f 
Soli/ 

fltnop * saleable/ Uav mvtop * the whole saleable produce I 
of the land.* 

Xpauofjtepov^ ' touching/ 

AXtpm, garden or vineyard, Hesychius, quoted by Deecke. | 
has AXova* fCTiirov Kirrrpmi, 

Tepx^^ta is explained by Heeychius ^i/ra pea (Deecke). 
I have rendered it * new phmtations/ 

jEfoptff?, £ix)m e^opt^ety ' to expel ' : from opo<i tenuinus ; ' 
ij,tt exterminare. 

Tletaec, ^ he shall pay ' : from an old verb 7r€yB€tp (Latiu 
pendere * to pay/) Trei/Sw, fut. irtiaw, like <nr€phmj aKrcio'ti* 



Oil the Ctipriote In,tcriftions. 



453 



"troivf) (penalty ur paymeni) is another rJerivative from the 
same root. 

AwKOi^ from a local verb hmicuv derived from ehmKa, 

AWoTTQ * formerly ' for aXXoTrore, but the word is very 
uncertain. 

The chief monument of the Cypriote lang'uage hitherto 
found is tliis bronze tiiblt^t of Dali or Idalion. It in written 
on both sides, and contains not less than thirty-one lung lines 
clearly and legibly written* It was found in the ruins of tho 
temple of Athena at Idalium, wherti it had been suspemled 
as a record of the public Engagement or C(*%^enant made 
between the government and the family of Onafiilus. Of 
this tablet the Due de Luyues gave a correct fac-simile in 
his ct>stly work Numisniatiqiie et inscriptions Cypriotes, 
Paris, 1852. foh This w!is republished h\ Professor lioth of 
Heidetburg in a very splendid work published at the Due de 
Liiynes expense, entitled 'die ProclamatiiJU des Amasis an 
die Cyprier bei dcr Besitznahme Cyperas durch die Aegypter, 
Paris and Heidelbmg, 1855, folio. Professor Roth erroneously 
supposed that the inscription of Dali was written in a lan- 
guage closely akin to tlie Hebrew, and ha therefore essayed 
to give to each Cypriote character its equivalent in tho 
Hebrew alphabet. The quabji-Hebrew words or sentences 
thus obtained he affirmed to be a Pruclamation issued by 
Amasis king of Egypt to the people of Cyprus. But all 
this was labour lost, since the inscription is really in tlie 
Greek language and the name of Amasis does not occiur 
at all in it. 

The word Basilsu^^ which occurs many times, was 
supposed by Roth aiid the Due de Luyues to be Salamis: 
and the other letters were equally nuBtaken. This account 
of the fu'st attempt to interpret the tablet of Dali is chiefly 
taken from Schmidt's work, pp. 2-3. He then proceeds to 
relate the beginning and progress of a more successful 
solution, Lang, he eays, was the lirst to discover tlie 
raeanijig of one or two words,^ Thi n G, Smith followed,^ 



* Transactiona of tho 9t>cit^tj of Biblieul Archajology, vol. i, pp. llG-128. 
' Ibid., pp. 12D-144, 



4:a 



On the Ct/pnote Inscnptions, 



aud explained that ** tlie Cyprian system consiBted of a sylla* 
bary» each consDuaiit havhig about tlu'eo forms, the whole 
number of characters amounting to between fifty and flixty.'* 
Then Bmudia in 1873^ made some further progi'ess : for 
instance, he noticed that /cat is spelt wra? in the inscriptions, 
which we know from Hesychius to have been a peculiarity 
of the Cypriote dialect. But the success of the later ^i-riters, 
Schmidt, Deecke, and SiegiBmuod, far surpassed that of their 
predecesBorSp This was mainly owing to their careful study 
of the pecuUarities of the inscription, which enabled them to 
find out that the Cypriote syllables (when not vowels) 
consist of a consonant /b/fow'tfi/ by a vowel, such ati no, «^ nt, 
no, niif but never an, en, m, &c. To express an they write 
two signs, a ne^ no doubt omitting the final vowel in pronun- 
ciation." Another great peculiarity of the Cypriote dialect 
was this ; it always omitted the letter N before a dental 
S T or ^. Thus they said ToSe for rouSe, an for avri.' 
As this omission of the letter N was very frequent, it is 
evident that so long as it remained undiscovered the reading 
of the Greek text appeared much embarrassed and in many 
places hardly intelligible. 

Before concluding this paper I wiU add one other specimen 
of the language. 

The bilingaal inscription of Idalium (Phoenician and 
Cypriote) given by Rodet, pp. 12-19, as rendered by him into 
Greek letters offers ah obscurity. I think it should stand as 
follows; — Ba<Ti\€<i)s MiX/cta^mpos Kertanf Kat HSaXiayp .,... 
{efrayo)u>€pmv rcov TrefiTra^ieprnp vedirara^^ rov avhpiavra xorSf 

ifaTca"Ta«re o ava^ o AfiSifjuXxov rtp AttoW^vi t« 

A^vfcXm, "Milkiathon being king of the Kitians and 
Idalians ....,., on the last of the five intercalary days, the 

prince son of Abdimilik erected this statue to the 

Amycleean Apollo.''* 



1 Braiidk, Vertucli mr EntzifiVrang dor Kjpriachcn 9«hrift, 

' Deeoke and Siegismundy p. 220. 

» IHd., p. 229. 

* See ftleo Schmidt, p. 97, who hiw not seen thtki the broken word , . 
tliould be restored firnyofAfvtov, I find, liowevcr, tfmt Deocke has pirecad^ rot 
in tliia reiteration. 




On the Cypriote Inscription a. 



4^r> 



The last of the five intercalary days will he the last day 
of the year, or perhaps New Year s day, a proper season for 
honouriDg Apollo with a new etatue, The word vediraras 
{sc. ^fjLepa^) more fully perhaps ewt vemraTas -tjpLepa^, has 
been hitherto read veocraTa^y which gives no satisfactory 
meaning. But Schmidt (p. 52) says that he possesses a 
squeeze of the original, which shows that the letter given as 
J^ or S is really ^ or 0. Making therefore this coiTection 
we obtain the word pemTara^, 




451) 



ON AN ARAILI^AX SEAL. 

By LiKDT.-CoL. W. F. Prideaix, F.R.O.S., Fe/foti? of 
the Umver»{fy of Bombay. 



Meml 5/A Becefnhrr, 1876. 

A SEAL engi*aved with ancient Phoenician characters haa 

lately come into my poBseasioii, which from its intrinsic 

interest deserves, 1 think, notice in the Transactions of the 

Society. It is fojmed of very pale-blue 

chalcedony ; and is of a conoidal shape, 

1 inch in length, '65 inch in breadth at 

bottom* and -3 inch at top, and in depth 

■45 inch at bottom, and '3 at top. The 

face on which the legend is engraved is 

slightly convex. A hole has been bored 

through the upper part of the stone to 

admit of its being suBpended from a string. 

I am ignorant of the exact locality in which 

the Real was found, but it was somewhere 

in Mesopotamia, and probably at Babylou* 

On one side of it is a four-winged monster 

of Babylonian type, apparently with the 

face of a man, and the body of a bull, 

rearing on its hind-legs. Its head is surmounted by an 

ibex-horn, in front of which is a crescent. Before the 

lower part of the body is the Egj^ptian symbol of life. The 

annexed woodcut gives a fair representation of the figure, 

which is unfortunately rather worn upon the stone. 

The inscription is Biirronnded by a border, and is con- 
tained in two hnes which are divided in the manner 




Oh an ^\m}}nvf7n Si'tiL 



457 



coimidered bj the Count tie Vogilt' chiirac'tmatie of Hebrew 
eeale, although it in occaHionally luct mth in others 
(MelangeB d'ArcheoIogie Orientale, pL v, No, 11). The 
paUi2ographj belongs to that tiiue when the Phoenician, 
Arameean, and Hebrew writing was identical^ and from the 
general distinctive sigUB of high antiquity being found in 
the seal, namely, the undulated ti?, coml)ined with the 
cnieiform jlt and the cloKed loops of the 2, 1, and *^, its 
date cannot be asBigned to a later period tlian the eighth 
century RC. (De Vogiie, pp. 145, 140). The stone, indeed, 
apjieare to afford an indication of the original formation of 
the letter "ti?, which in the earliest monumentB hitherto 
known appears as W, hut in the seal as W* The H is also 
of the njost archaic type. 

In Hebrew characters the h'gend readw as follows: 

''Belonging to Bkyhth bath *Abd-Yrkh." 

In Hebrew the word nWjpB (from the Piel C?j?3) signifies 
petitio* The ntime ntV^ ^^ ^*^d. found elsewhere in Pha?nician 
We know^from the First Trilingual Inscription of Leptis tha 
the name n31D> the last three letters of w^hich were vocalized 
in the Hebrew^ "^p"!-? <is in nttr[?5, ^^'4i« transliterated in 
Greek and Latin as BYPYXe and BYRYCTH, but it wouhl 
not be safe to assume that the same pronunciation prevailed 
in early days in Aram as was current ( enturies after^vards 
among the Phoenician colonies in Afrit a. In the case before 
us, the Masoretie pointing of the Hebrew is probably a surer 
guide, and I tliink we may infer that the name was pro- 
nounced BakkasliatL 

The name of Bakkashath's father m far more interesting. 
Although the Moon was personified among the Chaldeans, 
as well as the Sabseans of South Arabia, by the deity Sin, 
I believe I am right in statuig that no indication has yet 
been discovered, from Semitic sources, that Lunus or the 
Moon-god, found a place in the theogony of the more 
westerly nations of Syiia and Phoenicia* \Yv have ty^tinSS? 



458 



Oh an Ai-amwan &*a/. 



in the mscriptions Athen. I aod 11, correfiponding witii tte 
Greek 'HXio&wpos; but before the diBcovery of the preeent 
seal we had no name indicative of a Totaiy of Ludub. 
tZnTC2» corresponding witli vovfujviof^ belongs to a diflerent 
class of names, and is not significative of worship. It is 
therefore important to ascertain that tlie Phoenician word 
m*" does not merely mean the moon or lunar month, 
but is also the designation of the personified Lumis, 
as U'^DtZ? IB of the peraonified Sun} Whether the name 
has any relations with the Arabian patriarch Jeroh 
^n*1^) in Gen. x, 26, I will not venture to conjecture. 

The crescent engraved in front of the head of the homed 
figure on the side of the seal, has not improbably some con- 
nexion with the name of the owner's father* 

I have called the seal " Aramaean," because the place of 
its discovery and the engraved figure on the side forbid the 
supposition that it could have belonged to a dweller in 
Phoenicia Proper ; but as regards the palaeography no 
difi*erenee, as I have said above, is discernible between this 
and the most ancient Phoenician intaglios* 



1 



* The followiDg p&ftsftgei of Scripture refer to the worship of the Hooo tuider 
the appeOation of tTC : — Beut. it, 19 ; xrii, 3 ; 2 Kiugi ixiii» 6 ; Jer fiii* 2; 
Job ^ixi, 26, 27. 








.». 



11 



O I 



. JL tiL 111 o ■ <= 









e^ aflj'B,R.«?n 




459 



NOTICE SUR UNE ST^LE fiGYPTIENNE DU MUSfiE 

DE TURIN. 

Par Franqoib Chabas. 

Bead lut May^ 1877. 

APRis les papyrus et les msmptioBS monumentalee, left 
stiles de boie, et eurtout celles de pierre, founiifisent aux 
^gyptologues les eoui'ces les plus abondantes d'infortnation. 
Elles 8oat fort heureusement parvenues juBqu'it nous en 
quantity k pen pres innorabrable. II en existe des plus 
anciemies ^poques jusqiraux temps romaine } et I'on peut 
7 suivre le progres et le declin de Pepigi*aphie egj^^tienne. 

Ces monuments ne none montrent souvent que des scfenes 
d'offrandes et de courtes prieres ; d'aiitres nous donnent des 
details biographiqiies ou nous renseigneut sur des faits 
historiques. Dans le plus grand nombre, on tronre des 
notions interessantes pour la mytliologiej la morale et les 
rites fun^raires. En un mot, on est bien fonde k affirraer que 
pen d'entre elles pourraient etre consid^r^es comme absolu- 
ment denudes d'int^ret, 

Dea publications, deja assez nombreuses, ont fait connattre 
plnsieurs de ces monuraena, mais, parmi les phis iniportants, 
il en est qui n*ont point et^ encore traduits ; tel est en par- 
ticulier le cas de cehii que M. de Eongi^ a appele la reine dss 
H^lesj et qui est dej4 connu dans la science par dee citations 
partielles qui ont pu en faire apprecier la grande valeur. 

On trouve dans tons les Musses de TEnrope nn assez 
grand nombre de stMes qui ra^riteraient aussi d'etre pnbliees 
le analjsees avcc eoin. Je viens ici satisfaire a ce desidera- 
tum pour ce qui concerne nne stele du Musee de Turin, sur 
Isiqiielle nion nttention a etc appel^e par mes reeherclies snr 



400 Notice BUT une St^U ^ffyptienve du Musie ik Turin, 

lee doctrmes religieuBes et morales dee ancienB Egj'ptieiiSt 
dans le coure de niee Etudes pfnir I'lntei-pretation dee 
Maximes du scribe Am, que je publie dans le journal 
' I'Egjptologie/ 

La stele dont il s'agit porte aiyourd'tmi le No- 19 
dans le Mu&de r^organisf^. Pendant ma mission en Italie, 
en 1869, j'en ai fait une copie, que j'ai collationn^e, deptiis 
lore avec une empreinte h la plombagine, prise k men 
intention par mon savant confrere M, Fr. Rosed, attach^ 
au Mus^e Egyptien de Turin, Cest k i'aide de ces 
dl^ments que j'ai dress^ la planche jointe au pr^eiit 
menioire. Mes confreres en <^gyptolugie poiurout Tutilise 
avec confiance. 

Le regifitre 8np^.rieur de la stMe, que la planche ne figur 
pas, est, corame a rordinaire, Burnionte d'un symbole d eterait 
et d'inflnitd : le disque du soleil supei-pose au vase et aiix 
zigzags de I'eau, et flanqud des deux outas, ou yeux sym- 
luliques. 

Dans d'autres monuments du mfime genre on trouve, k la 
merae place, le disque m\&. Au-dessons est representee la 
scfene habituelle du culte des ancetres. 

Le d*5fuiit asais, tenant un rouleau, insigne de ea dignite 
de scribe, re^joit I'oSrande entaes^e devant lui sur une table^ 
au-des80ii8 de laquelle sont raug<^*8 trois vases, qui sont 
census renfermer les liqiiides de Foblation ; chaque objet est 

accompagne du eigne T signifiant mille, ou beancoup, et 
donnant k entendre que chaque objet ^tait oifert par milliers. 
Entre le d^ftint et la table, trois lignes vertical ee diseut ee 
qui suit ;— 

** Royale offrande pacifique k Ammon-Ra, eeigneiu' des 
trones du monde ; bonheur, richesse, justification, a la per- 
Sonne de rintendant du gi-enier publie, controleur de la haute 
et de la Imfise fig}^te, Beka, justiti^. Tout ce qui Boi*t des 
autels d'Osiris dans toutes ses fetes, k rintendant du grenier 
ruyal, B^ka, justified* 

Cette legende nous donne le nom et les titree du d^fiint^ 
que la stMe ne repute nulle part ailleurs d'une manifere plus 
complete. En voici Texpression hi^roglyphiqiie : 



Notice 8ur une Stil^ igypiiinne du Jlmt'e tie Turin. 461 



,,nn^ Q 3^ jUT 'S^ "^^ (1 w| ^^ tintendant dn 'gre- 
nier public, controleur de lu haute et de la Imsge Egi^pte^ Bt^ka^ 

B4ka est iiii nom aasez frequent Bor les monuineuta 
egrptiens ; il eigiiifie serviteur^ et uorreHpond an 8<5mitique 
Tm?, abd; ce nom ne nous donne aucmie indication Bur la 
date de la stele, mais, k en juger par le style des hieroglypLes, 
on eet en droit de rattribuer anx terapa de la XI X"^* on la 
XX"*^ dynastie. Le defunt, qui (circonstance a«sez exception- 
iielle) ne nons donne ni le nom de sa mere ui celui de eon 
p^re, devait appartenir k une famille d'origine modeste. Sa 
promotion k dee postes importants» qni lui permettaient la 
frtiquentation de la personne royaler (itait done due unique- 
ment k eon m^rite. Cbez les anciens Egyptiens la science et 
les services intelligents primaient les pretentions de caste 
avec plus davantage que cliez beauconp de penples 
moderues, ou, malgri les tendances d^mocratiqnes de 
Ft^poqne, il reste trop d*influence anx privil^gi^s de la 
naissance et de la ricliesse. 

L'inscription de B^ka noxis donne peu de details bio- 
graphiques. Comrae nous Vavons dit, il ne nomnie ni son 
pere ni sa mere ; mais il nons apprend que ses merites lui 
aval en t valu la favein- du roi dee deux ftgyptes, et qn'il 
etait parvenn a nne haute situation. Par tout il etait admis 
k frequ£*nter et a approelier le souverain, Le roi Tavait fait 
jieb-kat, c*e8t-^-dire clietkroflice, ou quelque cJiose d'approeh- 
ant. Malgri cette Elevation, et peut-etre a raison de son 
origine obscure, Beka affimie que, quoique grand^ il a agi 
comme s*il efit ete petit* vSes fouetions d'intendant royal, 
charge des greniere publics, devaient coraprendre les attri- 
butions du patriarche Joseph k la conr de Pharaon. B*5ka 
conserva ea faveur jnsqu'^ sa mort dans un age avauce. 
Les vertus dont le d^funt se fait gloire, aussi bien qne 
les vices dont il pretend avoir exempt, forment un abr<^g^ 
des pr^ceptes principaux de la morale recommandee par 
la doctrine egj^tienne. On obtiendi*a un tableau complet 



' Le d^terminatif 1%/%^] pepresentant de» p^aina entaas^^ eat doubk*, C'cat 
une particularity des uotdj des dlablisaciiicuts public* ou royaux. 



462 Notice but une Stile ^gyptienne du Mmee de 7\irin, 

de ces pr^ceptes par riiiterpretation d'un nombre Buffis&Dt 
d'insmptioDe fiineraireB. Mais letir miee en ordx*e exigera 
iin ti'avail considerable, qui trouvera Ba plac« dans la 
suite de nos Etudes 8iir les traites de morale des ancieDs 
figyptiens. 

Nona DOUS bornerons k enTisager les pointa sp^ciaux au 
document dont nous aliens donner la ti'aduction. 

Respect de la vMtS. — B^ka ee vante d'avoir iti juste et 
vrai, sans maKo© ; de s'etre complu a dire la v^rite ; d'avoir 
connu Tavantage qu'il y a de s y eonformer eur la teiTe, depuis 
la premiere action jusqu'au moment de la mort. Detail 
nouveau dans les textes de ce genre, il ajoute qu'au moment 
de subir le jugementet de ri^poiidre aiix quarante-deux accu- 
sateurs du tribunal d'Osiris, il coueidfere corame ea defense 
efficace la simple confession de la v^rit^ ; et, dans le para- 
graphe suivant, i! nous apprend que c'est effectivement par 
la v6rit^ qu'il est aorti de cette ^preuve enpreme* Dans sa 
vie de Sahou^ c'est-i-dire de transition entre la vie de ee monde 
et celle de THadts, k T^tat de momie, il s*est encore repos^ 
dans la v^i-ite. 

A la fin de son pan^gj^rique, Beka revient encore sur sa pre- 
tention d'avoir v^cu d'une vie de verity jusqu a une vieillesse 
venerable. Une autre marque de Timportance attache au 
respect de la v6'it^ se rencontre dans cette phrase un pen 
naive : Xai dU ce que fat entendu, tel que cela tnavait iii dit 
Les figy^tiens avaient fait une bien juste appreciation des 
inconvenients de Tintempi^rance da langage. 

Jmtice» — La notion de la justice se confond avec celle de 
la verite. Beka se contente d'avancer qu'il a At^ juste et 
vrai, ce qui revient a dire veritablement juste, 

Seuls, les juges profesfiionnels pouvaient avoir k insister 
davantage eur lenr impartialite, et c*est ce quails ont fait 
dans quelques inscriptions funcrairee. 

Amoitr jUiaL — Chez les Egyptiens cette vertu etait recom- 
mande^ de la meme raani^re que dans le D<5calogue de Molse. 
C'^taient lea enfants pieux qui pouvaient compter sur une 
longue vie. L*amour filial et Tamour paternel etaient puis- 
samment eutretenus par le culte des ancfitrea, qui formait en 
quelque sorte nne annexe inseparable des honneurs rendus 




I 



Notw. sur nne St^le t'gtipiienne du Mmre de Tttrhu 463 

aux dieiix. Cliacjue amit^e toute la famille, aecentlante, des- 
cendante, allies et domestiques, se reiuiiasait phisieiu's foie 
autour de la tombe dee membres defimts, et reaouvelait lee 
prieres et les oblatious des fun^railles. L'mscription de Beka, 
difft5rente en Cfla d'tin gTaiid iiombre de textes funeraires, ne 
mentionne pas raccompliasemeiit des devoii-s envers les 
m&nes, maiB notre pereoniiage ^voque UDe image delicate ; sa 
bonti etuit dam^ le ca?uv de son p^re et de sa tnere^ et son amour 
iiait en eua*^ If fi^Qvatt jamais fatmife ce seniiment envers msc 
depuis sapluB tendre en/once. Aimer son pere et sa mere, c'est 
obeir a nn beeoin natnrel plntot qut^ pratiquer ime vertn, 
mais mcn-iter Taniour d*mi ptiro et d'loie mere, c'est prouver 
qu'an s'est aeqnitte eonvenablenieut de tons leB devoii'8 de 
Tenfant pienx. 

3Iode8tte, lutmillte, — Ces deux mots ^embleut faire liiseo- 
nance avec la teneur babituelle des pan^^g^Tiqties deB morts. 
Lea figyptiens se vantaient sans vergogne, et t^^piiif^aient 
envers leurs defnntR les fornmles de la pine hyperboliqiie 
lonange, Cependaiit ei elleB (^^taient pen respectdes dann 
la pratique, la modestie et Vbumilite n'en faisaient pas 
moinB partie dn faiscean dcB vex'tiiH n*cnmmand6es par la 
doctrine. 

En anivant k FHad&H^ Beka aime k se donner k lui-nieme 
t^moignage qii*il n'a jamais eberehe k ee rendre maitre 
d'lm plus petit que lui, et il nous affirme, dans un autre 
passage, qu'^tant grand, il a agi comme b'U eut et^ petit, 
et qu'il n'a point k se reprocher d' avoir <^vincc un plus 
m^ritant que lui, Les memes rt^gles de modestie 8e mani- 
festent dans plusieurs auti'cs inscriptions, mais lee formules 
de celle que nous etudions ont uo style pajticulier qui les 
signale k rattention, 

Bienfaisaiice, douceur. — Dans tons les monuments du gem*e 
de celui qui nous oceupe, nous trouvons IV^nonoiation de !a 
bienfaisance et de rbumanite. Les niorts prt^tendent avoir ^te 
boiis sm' cette terre, et s'etre abstenus d'actes dommageables 
envers aiitrui. L'iuscription de Beka ne fait pas exception 
a cette r^gle; eeulement ce pemonnage a.joute une nuance 
importante, k savoir qn'il ne s'est r^joui d'aucnn acte 
d'iniquit^J et d'indignite. 

Vol. V. '^ 



464 Notice mr une St^le ^gyptienne du Musve de Turin, 

Vivant a la coiii\ an milieu ties familierB do Pharaon, il 
ne croit pas devoir faire la moiiidi'e allusion k see rapporta 
peraonnels en dehors de ce cercle, et il lui suffit de notis 
appreiidre qu'il avait merite lus faveiurs du roi^ raffectiou de 
BeB favorisi et n'uvait k redoiiter aucuo facheux sentiment de 
la part des gens vivant dans la demeure royale. Mais 
pnidence et eon anionr de la concarde se r^vdlent dans le 
soin qii'il avait en de parler avee bienveiUance et de ne pas 
pi*cparer de qnerelles. 

IMtfjion, — B6ka seinl>le avoir en une religion philoso* 
phiipie; de noH jours il aurait pasec en France pom* Volt^irien 
Dans Bon inncription il nv fait appel k aucnn Bouvenir 
mytholoi^ique. Seul entre tons les dieux de TEgrpte^ 
Amiuon-Ra y est nomine, niais eiuiplcraent dans le voeu 
fimeraire dn premier regiatre, qui appelait ndceseairement 
anssi la mention des mete d'Oeijns, Dans le corps du 
texte il est question dee divina magistrate et des seigneurs 
^ternelfi etablia devant les dieux, raais cela ee rapporta 
Bimplement an jugement des morts, et Ton n'aper^'ioit id 
null 6 tnentioM de rOeiris infernal, ni d'Home, ni d'Anubis, ui 
de Thutli, etc. 

On croii-ctit avoir affaire k un deiste inhume par nne 
tamille qui a respecte lew npinioiis du defunt, tout en satii^ 
laisant aux exigences de la fete des fun^railles. (Jest du 
reate ce que laiese supposer la formule initiale, qui attriboe 
le royal don d%>frrandes directeinent a Beka liii-m^me sans 
intervention d'un dieu quelconque. Mais s il faisait peu de 
cas du fonnulaire traditionnel et des rites sacerdotaux, B^ka 
avait si on Ten croit, une eroyance pure et sage, dont toutee 
les eglisee de nos jours pourraieut accepter la formule simple : 
rnettre dieu dans sou c(eur et bten connaifre les volonU-H de dieu, 
II y avait en effet, caeli<?e deixi^re le voile d'xme rajrthologie 
compliquee de myst^res sans nombre, une doctrine raison- 
nable, dont aucune autre doctrine, sauf le christianisme, n'a 
surpasse r(5Ievation. 

Beka termine par uu vceu passablement epicunen pour 
Fepoque, et fort different de ceux que Ton est habiiu<5 k ren- 
contrer dans les textes de ce genre. 11 s'adi'esse k tousles 
vivants de son pays et leui' souhaite de passer leur vie dans 



NoHee mr um Stile tgyptUnne du Miuie de Tlim. 465 

la joie, jnsqn'ik ce qn'ils arrivent k la tombe, aprte laqnelle 
il leur souhaite de jouir, dans Vinfemun^ dn droit d'entrer et 
de sortir librement. On salt que telle 6tait la beatitude 
principale de T^lu du ciel 6gyptien ; elle comportait la 
faculty de se transporter dans tout I'liniyers sons la forme 
qu'on Yonlait. Ce paradis est dans tons les cas bien 
sup^rienr k celni des honris de Mahomet. 

Nons donnons maintenant notre version de cette re- 
marqnable inscriptiony et nous la ferons suivre, de qnelques 
justifications philologiques. 



4r>(> Xotm 8H7 uiu* Stifle (hfifptienne du Musfe tfe TtiWit. 



Traduction. 



1. Royal doii d'offraiideB (a) k la persomie de riutendant da 

greaier public, B6ka. jiistifi^. 
II dit 
Moi, je fus juste et vrau sans malice (i), ayant mis dieu 

dans raon coeur (<?), ayaut &ti habile k discemer aea 

volont^Q (d)* 

2. J'aiTive k la citi de oeiix qui sont dans r^temit^ (<?), 
J'ai fait le bien sur la terre (/) ; 
Je ii*ai pas port<5 do prejudice (g) ; 
Je n'ai pas 6ie lu^^eliant (h) ; 
Jen'ai point acelame aucun acte dindignitd et d'iniquite 

3. Je me euis complu k dire la v^rit^ ; 

J*ai connn Tavantage qu'il y a de e'y couformer sur la 

terre depuis le premier acte jusqu k la tombe (*). 
Ma defense efficace ( /) est de la dire en ce jour oh 

4. j*anive aupres des di\au8 juges, intevpretes habilea (i\ 

riv^lateurs des actions, castigateurs des pechee, 
Pm^e (l) est mon time. 
Moi \avant, je n'ai pas eu de malice (ju), 

5. H n'exifite pas d'abus (u) de moi pas de pi^ch^s de 

moi devant leur main. 
Je suis sorti de cette epreuve^ par la v^rite (o), et voili 

que je suie ici dans le lieu des vt^nerables (jj), 
Apport des aliments de la verit<5 (g) & Fintendant 
fi, du grenier public, Beka, juBtiti^. 

E dit : J'ai H^ le grand reniplisseur du coeur du seigneur 

des deux r<5gionSj Taim^ (r) du roi de la haute 

figypte, le favorise du roi de la basse ^gj^te, k cause 

de raes merites excellents, qui out avancc mon poste. 
7. Grand ai-je &ti dans le lieu des millions de perfectioDs 

vraieB (i). 
Que le roi proepdr&t en'avant ou en arriere, j^approchais 

sa personne (t), marchaut autour de lui en all^^gre 

pour adorer pa bonte chaque 

^ Litt/iralempiit, tie /cJ. 



4 



Noiice sur une Sthh egi/ptienne du Mnsee tie Turin. 467 

8, jour, et rendi^e gloire an double aspic de son diadenie en 

tout temps. 
L'intendant do greuit-r public, Beka» 11 dit : 
Je Buis un 9ahou (uu mort, une momie) qui s'est complu 

dau8 la Terite, conformemeot aux lais du tribmml de 

la double justice, par moi deairces (?/). 

9, J'arrive au Khei-neter (THades). 

E u*e8t pas d'huniblcH Joot je me soi« fait le maitre ; 

Je n'ai pas fait de mal aux liummes qui out c<51e^br6 leurs 

dieux (r). 
J*ai paeee ma vie dans la vie de verite {.t), jusqu'i* ee que 

je fueee parvenu a lage 
10, de veneration, etaiit dans les faveure du roi, aime des 

grands de eon entourage. 
La demeure royal e, ceux qui j reeidaient, il n'y avait nul 

mal contre mui dans leur coeur (^/), Le8 liommcs 
IL il venii", taut qu'ila seront, seront ravis de mon mf5rite 

eminent, 
Celui qui babite dans la demeure de refficacite ealutaire 

(k palms du roi) avait fait de moi iin maitre 

d*office (*}, 
Jla sincerite et ma l>oiite etaient dans le coeur de mon 

pere et de ma mere ; mon affection etait en enx (aa). 

12. Jamais je ne Tai violce dans ma raaniere de faire envers 

eux depuis le connnencenieut du temps de ma jeuBesee. 
Grand, j'ai agi cormMC m j'eusse ete petit (ec), 

13. Ma bouche a parl6 pour dire choees vraies, ne pr^parant 

pae de querelles. 
J'ai dit ce que j'ai entendu tel que cela m avait et6 dit. 
V0U8 tons ! homraee qui existez, vous complaisant dans 

la verite chaque jour dans TEgypte, 

14. vouja que ne nourrit pas (encore) le dieu, eeignenr 

d'Abydos, qui vit de la veiit<5 c!mc[ue jom-, eoye« 
henreux I Passez votre vie dans les delices juequ'i 
ce que vous abordiez au bon Occident.^ Que votre 
dme jouifise du droit dVntrer et de sortir libremeiit^ 
comma les seigneurs ^teinels qui sont ^tablis devant 
les dieux. 

' Lpt torn Ho dii jut*t<?* 



AM Notice mr une Stele igifptienm du Musee de Turin, 



Notes Philologiques. 



U: 



{a}, Je traduis inot-i-mot la formule iA^HSt '^y**' ^^^ 
d'offmndes^ h kqtielle on k vouhi, k tort, donner le 
eeuR do proscpthne, Le proscyiiume est iin saJut 
fiecoinpagiie d'uiie mclination profondep Le don 
d*offrandefi tel qu'il est repr^8ent«5 des miUiers de fois 
eiir les monuments, iie conrpoitait aiicune prostation 
de ce genre ; il coiisiste iiiiitpiement daus la presenta- 
tion dVibjets divers, solideB et liquidee, et dans une 
pritre tendatit a ce que le defimt prenae part, daus 
Fautre monde aiix tables d'Oniris, figiireeB par celle de 
la cereinonie, 
L'ol>Iatiuii jouait un gi-aud rale dans le ciilte des dieux 
et dan« celiii des manes* Pour le premier elle porte 
habituellement le nom de 1 A =^ /naa^w | jH ^t pour 



(6). 



le eecond, celui de '^ ¥ 



L'^pitbtite de \ ortbograplie pleine \ ,,J^ , indique 
qu'il s'agit d'une c^^r^^nionie telle que la pratiquaient 
les roifi, que rempHysaient eouvent de haiites fonctioiis 
aacerdotfdes. C'est une qualification d*homiem% qui 
ponvait etre retnmeliee sann nuire an sou** de la 
formuk\ I/t»rdre de8 group es y est sou vent inter- 

verti, eomme, par exemple, dans I ^^^^^^ iJ^ A ^^^ 
niot-ii-mot, royal Anubis gift-offeiings (for royal 
gift of offeiingB to Anubis), Dey interversions de ce 
genre ne 8<tnt du reste pas rares dans lee lii^ro- 
glyphes, 

/^ jp_pt l)oo'f/ est mx equivalent de ^ \^t 
XOOT, »'«^, malice^ perversUtS (voir Lepsins, Todtn 
cb, 125, lig. 3<>, et la variante du Papyrus Cadet), 
Dans notre monument les trois traits du phu-iel til, 



' Jc reppeecnto lea mota ^gjptieiiB en letti*e8 copteg, ot pour eviter toute con- 
fusion les tiiots cojjU'f* font toujour!* iiolG comiiie t*'!*. 



\otice Hur um Stele eg^ptienne da Mush de Turin, 469 



Bont qiieltitiefois reniplaces par les trois graiiiB ooo, et 

le ^^A^ par la bane Lb\>ite * Ces vanantes sont 

commuiies. 

(t-j. Beka dit littiralemeiit^ amnt mh Dieu dam son cftur. Ce 
t'liangement de pereoime ijiii coiiBtitiiait ime eleganoe 
dans le style egjptieii, u'efcjt pati tuujoiirs eans iiicoii' 
venient pour la clarte. Nous n*en tenons pae compte 
dans notre version. Le cas se reproduit assez tr<i- 
qneniDient dans FinBcription. 

(d), <dj^ est ime alireviation dc ^ 1^1 ^^<2 «i^ .. 

CCyc^Olf, mot qui sigiiiiie, e^rpert^ e^tperimenle^ habile. 
Dans tm© pri^re u Thuth, dien de riutelligenee, un 
scribe Rollicite la fiiveur do devenir luibiie (ccyc^of) 
danhi tons ses travaux (Pap, Anastasi, v, p, li, lig* 4), 
Au papjTUS midical Ebers, p. B<i, lig. 4, CcycA^OTT 
a le sens de i^econmmiiancej diagnoHic, Beka so vante 

d'avoir bien reconnu les voloiites de Dien. '^m 
^eOT, litteralement, eaprits^ se refere }i la pensee, a 
la volonte (voir ce qni j'ai dit de ce mot dans mon 
journal TEgj^tologie, tome 1, p. 47). 

(^^. AAw^'=ir'y ©5 mnt-li-mot, la ville de qui est dans k-s 

niillione d'aunees. 8^8 vent dire un million ; 
applique a la niesure du teinpe, il repund nu latin 
ftttxnila nwculoritm, C'efit mie expres.iion designant ini 
temps tres-long, indefini, et le copte cyA. £ii£^^ '*" 
Mirculuni^ se trouve en hieroglj^hes sous la tonne 
IM^^I^I i^H^J^^^'^ Abbott, p. 6, lig. 7). 
La ale de rtUernitt^ etait Tbabitation des morts. Dans 
une autre stele de Turin un trouve Texpression ana- 

logae m^ I'r^i^^ '^' fo^se de qui est dan^i 

ritemitv, 

if). J\ti fait J I Jitteralemeiil, rho»t bonne, II faiit se 
gar del de traduire lien bo a. 



(:')' 



^^ ^ I -^^ H . ■*-n iJUt^. <\- iiidt MigiiiHf 



470 Notice sur um SikU ^(f^ptienne du MuMie da Turin, 

bmgnet\ delremper, dMayer. II ne n*eet pas amvd de 
le renconter coiume desiguatiou d'nn acte r^prehen- 
Bible, mais les textea du mSine geni'e que celui que 
iiouB cHndimiB out habituellemeut ^;:;2^^^^ UX)f, 
mot dont la valeiU" est torU prejudice^ dommage. 

(h). ^^ ^^^y OTFl, na pas d'ajiaolgiie en Copte, et la 
definitioD exacte du vice ainei nomine est aesez 
difficile a determiner* Les textee nous apprennent 
seulement que ee vice ne doit pas se trouver Riir la 
balance du jugement de Fhomme meritant la justifi- 
cation. 



(t). L'expreseion 3* 



if^±i 



V\ 



y=f _ litteralement, depuis 



taction jmquh la tmnbe, est assez remarquable, ^i 
nominer Faciei Paction de la mainj et, par suite, textJtt- 
ence acHce ; i\ est pris dans notre texte pour lu 
premier acte, le commencement de la vie effective, 
k pen prus dans le memo acception que dans cette 
reserve melancoltque exprimee dans certaines lettres : 



j^ 



© 



(^ 



G 



nows ne 



vounaismns />tw notre acte tie demain^ c'est-a-tlire, ce f/ui 
nous serous on ce que nous fewns demuin. 

Lo mot que je rends par defense. ^ y ^^ ^'~^°t 
est de fort rare occmTence ; c'cst le troisi^me exemple 
que j*en rencontre. An Papynis Anastat^i I on ti-ouve 
la phi'ase : tu es seul, car tee 



{/). 



reetent deniire toi (p. 5, lig. 5)* IiiTe ^^w^ finafest 
reraplact' par ^, ce qui ne me parait par constituer mi 
mot diflereiit* Un passage rautiW du m^me docu- 
ment (p. 9, lig. 1) donne la mcrae orthographe, 
mais la forme avec ^^^^ ge retrouve au discoiu* 
d'Amenemlia (Pap. Sallier TI, p. 2, lig. 1), dans mi 
passage i>ii le nens ijardes^ csvorte^ est admissible. 

(k). "^^ est one abrcviatimi de Y\ ^^ I OIQCA., up- 

jtH'riei\ i'j'afftitit'}-, Jtttffr, r^fittiri\ 1 d^ <^>^v^ CA.pOT 



Notice BUT une Stile igyptiemie du Mmie de luriiu 471 

est une qualification coDceraaiit la scieuee, la peiititra- 
tion, que les textes douoeat quelquetbis a Thotli. 

(0* ^'^'^^N^^ xertX, mot que je tradnis par^^wr, lie m'est 
pas counu par d'aiitres textes. Au Rituel on trouve 
NWAA^ avec le ineme dfiterminatif. Mais on trouve 
ailleure /^^ determine par le vase de la puiifi- 

cation. 

[m), Le texte joiie ici sur les raots Hr 0*^n, etret exuier^ 

et yT '^^rf- OTJtj jnalice^ iii^chanceie. La versioii 
ue peut faire sentir cctte alliteration. 

00' Y ^ S[|^ C'pj^j est le meme mot qu' OH trouve ailleurs 
sous la forme 1 ^4^^, Cpj^J; il deaigne \m 
Tioe, tm abus, sur Texacte port^e duquel je ue 
suifi pas renseign<5. En medecine, ee mot nomme un 
mal atteignant dilTereotes parties du corps. La pre- 
cision est ici difficile, maie le sens du texte ee devine 
aisdment; Bcka veut dii'e que taction, kt nmin dea 
juges des morts u'aura pas a s'exercer eur des vices 
de cette nature a sa charge. Lea determinatifs de 
(11 ^ Kn _^^ sont erron^e ; il faut admettre ici 
im lapsus du lapicide, k moiBS de supposer ime 
autre erreur ^^% ^ ) ^ qui nous forcerait h modifier 
Dotre version, et a lire : 11 n^exiete pas d'abus de moi, 
pas de p6ches ; ma vertn est devant leur main. 

(o), Je retablis daus la lacune Thi^roglyphe de la veritiS, 



iP)- 



If^ Q Q ^ ' , ^JULi)I01r, (Le premier signe est 
eiTone; il faut y von* ^. Cette erreiu du lapicide 
est cTOlente.) Ce groupe se dit de la saiutete, de la 
veneration^ qui s*acqiiicrt aprcs niie longuc vie de vertu 
et de piete, Aussi fait-il quelquefoie opposition a 



472 A^otice sur une S^le iffypttenne du Mmee de Turin, 



I 
Be 



^ en/ant^ et a 8 ^^ 



^ ^ Jeune. AJUl6, 
dit ausfti Je la tcudreBse. «lu rainour qu'il ent 
louablu d'avtiir pour la diviaitcs pour un pfere, une mere, 
lee parents, lee bieufaitetirs et les rois, Le lieti dm 
venvrabkB^ c'est la dmieure des justes daii8 Tautr^ 
monde. 

(f/). Cette deruiere plirawe est elliptique. Le proiiom p nt- 

de la 



pint 86 rapporter qu' a la verite* Lm U \ 
verite sunt lea ofTrandes faites pour les maue^. 



(r), 'vsAw est un faiite ; il fuut liru 



l^olf^P 



\ 



Cette fHrmule qui con 
aclverbude est ici prise poin* 



I 



ooo 

Btituait une locution 
line indication de In residence royale, ce que nous 
appellerionB la cota\ Les f^gyptieus ee eenraient pour 
desiju^aer le nionarque (Vun assez grand nombre d' ex- 
pressions, doiit notre texte eniploie quelques niies. 

(t). Le ccjmmencemeut de eette phrase offi-e des difficult<*s. 
Je I'ai traduite en r^tablissant le signe d'Honis ^^^ 
signifiaut le rui a la place de la chouette ^v qui 
ne donnerait aucnn sens ; TuHure de la pierre pent du 
reste perniettre le dinite 8ur rintcntiou du lapicide, 

^ ^ ptUXj wignifio vnutre^ pousser, ii\wcroUret y/ro*- 

pvret\ Cest une expression canicterisant la vie 
lieiu'enee, analogue ii Tanglais to ihria', AuRituel, on 

trouve la eerie : *^^^ eire^ exister^ ^ vivre^ et 

^ ^-^^^ , prospSrer^ exprimant im triple mode d'exist- 
encc, soiihaite pour les defunts* D est tout natnrel 
que le dernier, la vie profphe^ fit prefeit*, lorsqu'fl 
H*agissait de purler dn Pharaou* La locution a f amnfi 
it fat-riiir, est un idintisme ayant trait k la vie 
exteriem^e et a la vie daue le domicile ; cela «ignifie 
tout siniplemeut: qne k roi tse mo/it nU en public ou 
tletnefuuif thut^ '^tm jHf/aii*^ ete. 




Notice mr une Stile i^^fptienm du Mmie (k Turin, 473 



doit etre lu 
de ws/wi^ ^ J\ on 
s'approcher, Les 






cyit, et coustitiier iiiie variante 

^ A5! jH M ^^T^f ^talent 
oeux qiii avaient le droit d*approcher le Pharaon, 

**)• ^SfJ, iAXTT'i*., litteraleineut, mon dhir. Beka 
eeaible dirt? que loin de reduuter le jugement supreme, 



il Fa souhaite f^^Q^ nous donne le phonetique du 

nombre trois, cyoJULT c^n Copte, qm a <Ste dgnale par 

M, de Rouge dans le poeme de Peutaour. Ici, c© 

» phunetique v^i prin coram e verbts Hignifia ut de8irei\ 

■ diipruH la traduction qu'un a donuee Mr. Goodwin 
W dans rhiBtoii'e de Saneha. 

(r), Ce membre de phrase fait naitre quelquen doutes. Le 

texte laiBse bien dietinguer le gi^oupe — *— t^ nj\ 
L qui lie me Buggere aucuu sens satis faiHaut* Jo soup- 

I 9onne encore une erreur du lapicide, et je traduis 

I comme e'il y avait ^ ^ ^ ^ X^JU.-Xj Mever, cdt- 

I brer^ exalter. 

(d). Par caprice le scribe a cerit ici S^ ^ ^^ JUL^OT, 
air, mujfle^ a la i>lace dc S^ Ij JULA , vaite, 

(if)* Cette phi^ase eat un curieux excmple d*inver8i(*n et 
d'ellipBO. Ma traduction fera Buflisanmieut com- 
prendre inon arrangement du texte ; il suffira de 

■ euppleer les d^terrainatifB de ^^^ ^v ^ Qr tij ' , 

(r), -"^^ M ^ txaSi KZ.X. Le PapyruB PriBse rapproche 

ce titre de "^z:^ c±^ ■ ^J ^ ^^^ fffet ceiiain rapport 
entre Tidt^'e rmuire de Fmuvre^ ch^f (fojit^e, et maitre de» 
P chosen, II y a la deux nuanccB de I'id^e maitre. 

Neb-kat etait usite comme uom de perKonnu. 



474 Noiiee $ut une St^le igypUame du Musdn ds Turiu. 

{aa). Lea derniers eignes de ce paaaage eont illisibles. Je ne 
diatitigue pas si le texte parle de raffectian dn fils 
pom* les parents, cm de ceUe dee parents pour letir fila. 



(W)^ 



(cc). 



le ne 



rj X — "^ est 8xdyi de deux signes indistinctB. 
connaifl de cette forme qu'un mot signifiant agsaupUr^ 
conrber, Beka dit pent fitre qivil n a jamais /<ms#^ 
/orrf, le sentiment de eon affection potu* ses parents* 
En f Vam^ais on dit, dans le meme sens, /aire mtorse (to 
sprain). 



R ^^=t j] gA Bouvent determines par le signe de la 

petitesee, signifie faibksse, injirmiti, fpuumietiU accahle- 
tnent, Ceet on effet de la maladie et de la vieilleese, 
comme nous dirion^ l^enfance &inUe. Beka assure que 
malgrd la haute position qui Ini donnait une gi-ande 
influence aupres du roi, il n'a pas en quelque sorte 
aneauti (dieiibled) un plus meritoii'u que lui-m6me. 




475 



THE BABYLONIAN CODEX OF HOSEA, JOEL, 
AND JONAH. 

Dated 916 a.d. {now at St. Petersburg}, 

COMPARED AVITH THE RECEIVED MASSORETIC TEXTS. 

Continued from page 176. 

By the Rev. Christian D. Ginsburo, LL.D. 



476 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea yu^n '"5 4 — ^iv, 6. 





B.M. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Add. 15250. 


A»uin>BL OKinrr. 16. 


B.M. Aiu>. n09. 


BJLBm. 


OH. V. 

iii. 4 


... 




*. 


• 




»t i» 


> 


9 


? 


? 


... 


M »l 

M 5 







\x\\ 


'333 bn \ 
n 




»» »» 







T 




ia 


»» »» 


... 


... 




... 


... 


If l» 


... 




... 


5 


... 


»» »» 


. ^^ 


^01 i 


^Di 


... 




Iv. 1 







tew^ 


*>o-6 


i 


tf M 




i 


i 


izi 


... 


.. 2 


... 




^ 


*. 


t 


»i »» 






S 

^ 


$ 


... 


i» i» 


a 




a 


a 


... 


If ?* 

M 8 








... 


... 


fl M 


... 








... 


ft If 


... 




; 


... 


• 


If fl 


... 




a 


3 




f. 4 












tf It 


h 




-> 


*?Dt7 




ft fl 






7 






It 6 












ft tt 






S 


*. 




ft e 






S 


h 


— 


t» ft 


n:>KTn^^ 


Nf)^ 


phDlt>lD«0«1 


KTn»{ 




i» ft 
It ft 








h 


3 





Th» Babyhtttcm Codex of Hotta and Joel. 



477 



MASSORAH PAKVA. 
iiosEA yunn JJi. 4— iv, 6. 



■ApD.Mt. 



B.». H^u. Il>28. 



p *n3 » 



i 



kTii' 









BiiTLoxiAH Coma. 



i 

bn 

i 

bn 

bn 
bn 

bn 



Rnjn 



FUHTED HLi.$J01i48. 



Dni 






I'KTn'p'fiai^ 
3 



TV 

Uttj* n-jif^n n»ri5 
ax 



iU. 4 



Iv. 1 



478 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 







MASSORAH PARVA. 








HOSEA ^ 




^y^ri ivi 7 IV, 16- 






BJI. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Add. 15250. 


AmUKDBL OmzsMT. 16. 


B.M. Add. MM 


ULIw 


OH. T. 

iv. 7 




... 


*. 


"? 




If ti 


ts^h ina 2 


b 


2 


\sr»h nna a 


b^ 


n 8 

II n 


■ 








h 


"* 


II »» 

1. e 


... 






3 


... 


n ,. 







3 


... 




M 10 




{ 




} 


... 


,. u 








*. 




■- 


n »• 

„ 12 

If If 


TT^ 


^ 


i 


i 




M 13 








... 




n f» 

H If 




1- 




^ 
h 


003 I 


naaS^ 


„ 14 






boh 


^D3 




.. „ 






... 

TV00 3 


... 




11 »» 


\ 


\ 


\ 


; 


DT'mi 


M 16 


bn 'Ki ^ h h 




'3C«S hnn 3 


e«^ *^n3 3 


feimi 


If If 
II 16 






<. 


*> 




It ti 


... 


a 


V 


'S3 on a 




If If 
' 1 







j 


3 





^^H 






r^ 


^■^^ 


^H 


^^1 




^^H 




y'A^ Bah}(hman Codex of Ilottm and 


Joel. 


^H^^^^^^^^^^^H 


r 


479 ■ 


1 


MASSORAII PARVA. 


m 


1 


iiosKA j>^^n ^^'^ 7— iv. l^L 




1 


BraAiH».4Ba< 


B.M. HiLXL. 1528. 


B«ITLe>$(IA9r OODBZ. 


I'll et TED .Mawobau. 






1 


1 ^. 


,„ 


... 


V 


D^-vg 


CM. V, 

iv. 7 


i 


^h hriD 3 [ 




b^h bDi 3 


■"'W 


M „ 


1 


1 




!♦» 


h i 




., e 

.. 9 


1 




... 


... 


3 


1(1^3 


ft If 




i^ns ^3 





- 





^'r.1 


M ,♦ 




,., 


... 


r 

... .^1 


K^l ^D2 1DB 1^ 


} «^1 


„ 10 




... 


^ 


1>D 




C'^TPI lit! 






b 


: : 


^3 


^ 




., 13 




^ 


: : 









1* n 

♦ 1 M 




S^ii b 


... 


... 


B'D3 N' 


n;BN)^ 


,* „ 






^ 






} -"^pe* 


.1 14 






».. 


... 


b 


D?'0^5>3 


ff ti 


U 


^ 


^ 


... 


1. 


"TV'. 
DVT 


t* fi 


1 


i 


... 


3 




"SJ". 


p. 


1 


m ^feo 


on «i $D ■« a 


1 

Db3 


on ini 


^«1 ^¥1 !j81 Sk 

n-391 


„ 16 
„ 19 


1 


1 -" 


V 


... 


^ 


iTJli? 


1 M 


^ 


■ 1 


^ 


^ 


i 


D»T 


„v| 


jg^^^ 






J 



480 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 



MASSORAU PARVA, 

iiosEA yanrr iv, is— v, 5. 



B.M. Add. 15261. , B.M. Add. 15250. . ABm>uOftimT. 16. 



CH. T. I 

iT.16 ; 



V. 1 



'I 



" 17 iDnnK^Dibp'T :( 

I IDT tDD .» 

n is' 



M 19 



hnoDhDhb 



b V(i b hD N 3 



„ 4 

If ti 



B.M. Abo. n09. 



^=51 



?D3 






fani 
h 






moon 

0! 



3^ 

^3 



lUt Ba^bmian Codt» of Hota and JoeL 



481 



MASSOSAH PAKVA. 

HoBEA jnjmn !▼. i6— v, s. 



lDaBA]N>.4f6. 


B.M. llAU. 1888. 


BAnLOMAV OODB. 








... 


... 


... 


•11^ b 


fc^M 


l^iiSl 


... 










aOT»» 


tl II 


... 





n 


1 


«»nw 


n 17 


"> 


... 


.M ... 


... ... 


OV?P 


.. 18 


*. 


... 


••* ... 





njfo 


•1 II 


... 


... 


... 


... ... 


IS})? 


tl 11 


... 


... 


... 


> 


«0 


II II 


... 


... 


... 


^b' 


ntynn 


1. 18 


i. 





$ 





^mf* 


11 11 


... 


h 





h 


Dph^fl? 


II i» 


... 


... ... 


... 


... 


wt1?01 


▼. 1 


... 


... 


*. 


... 


^ir^n»»«TI?01 


tl II 


... 


... 


... 


i 


T^O nw 


II II 


b 


... 





... 


«Jn«p ^ nw 


II 11 


... 


... 


... 


h 


MnBO 


•I II 


i. 


... 


... 


... 


n^veV 


It II 


... 


... 


^i 


$ 


n^T» 


>t II 


? 


V 


... 


TtDO *na in b 


nWBi 


.1 8 


rBai${ 




' 1 






It It 

1, 8 

It It 


... 








^333 k^ 


n^^ 


II It 


2 


... 








P'Sli? 


It II 


... 


... ... 


pn^ia 


... 




II II 
1. 4 


T 


t 




t 


njn^iufi 


tt It 













nfi\ .. 6 


... 


... 


... 


... 


VJW 


tl II 1 



482 



The B(ihii Ionian Co(!e,r of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea ycnil v, 5— v, 15. 



CH. V. 

▼. 6 



» e 

'» »f 

M 7 

»» l» 

8 

9 
M 10 



BJf. AOD. 15251. 



M 11 



M 12 



18 



14 



»» »» 
» 15 



2"? 



VtDa n^ 



^^ 



^h 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



bn^ 



VtDa m 



Aaumdbl Osifirr. 16. 



n">i 



h hi b h b 



Dni^ 
IDC iti b 

$13 ki bn K 3 



B.M. Add. 



BJLIUtt 



fani*) 
'^3 b ♦ro h{ 



bn^b 
i 



Ta 



po <n3 



on 



•tm^ 



TDTmor 



The Babyhniun Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



483 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosBA J^ttnn V, 6— V, 15. 



lII>aBADD.4«&. 


B.M. Hakl 1528. 


Babtlomiam Codbx. 


PkIMTBO MA880»AH. 












ih 


^«i«r.i 


CH. ▼. 

▼. 5 


^ 








onp^i ^{j-ife^A 


II II 




... 




n 


Dne^i 


II II 




... 


*. 


... 


"l^nroj ^' 


n II 




1? 


h 


^ 


0-S5V 


., 6 


^ 








r^o 


1, ,1 




*X«D3K^ 


... 


itt3l<' 


"W 


1. 7 


$ 


... 


... 


... 


n'n o^R*' 


II II 






^ 





DP'K^O 


II II 


^ 




bni h 


bm^ 


n-ivvq 


M 8 


^r 


^D^ 


*®h 


^Dt' 


rp;» 


»i II 


^ 








n}(?^j.'Wim 


1, 




tDB 'Kl 3 






VJJ 


„ 10 


$ 




*nDi$| 




I •J.1P155 


»i II 






6«33 tn iinK 











■i.eh 


^B«^ 


II II 


1 THJD K 1 




... 


T 




M 11 




^D1 3 


j 


^on 


^♦tjsin 


• 1 II 






DB 03 ^ 




IV 


M *» 








i 


E^ 


II la 


^ 




vi^D^ 


$ 


3?5?\ 


M II 


^ 






bm*) 


^9 


II 13 


$ 








m^i? 


»» »» 




bn «i ^D « 2 




^Dnn3 


NB^ 


M II 


S 




< 


^ 


"^jr. 


II M 


b 







^ 




M 14 

M n 

M l» 


^ 




^ 






II 15 



481 



The Babylonian Coder of Hosea and JoeL 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
II08EA JTttnn ▼» 15— vi, 7. 



B.M. Add. I52A1. 



CM. T. 
T. 15 



▼i. 



M e 



M 7 



P33 hD V6 



B.M. Add. 10250. 



ABUlfDILOMBIT. 16. 



bn"i» 



^DnK^ 






n 
DnS 



PD1 n 
■i>D *Ki bn *K h 

PD1 K^ 



B.II. Amk 0M9. 



njn pKi Ki n 



bfi hn K^ 

i 






ibniS 
* Dni^ : 

bn^b 



ULIai 



Tlu Bahytonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



485 







!iL\SSORAlT 


PARVA. 








IIosEA yc?ir! ^» 15— vi, 7. 




<ifcjt>.KnMii Apd. 466, 


E.M. HuL. Ifi2fl. 


BABTLOHlAlff CODSI. 


pmurTKD lUnouB. 




Of. ▼, 












i 


... 




... 


*tJP51 


T. 15 


». 


... 


... 


nnD 


■1-V3 


fl fl 


-.. 





•DHi 


tein :i 


•Jriqr 


M IT 


;^nbnn3o»y 
lin bn injD 


} 





I 


n^iE?}^ 


tL 1 


... 


-., 


: :? 


«!■?? 


t1 11 





^ 







, ".«n\ 


*J *l 


... 


i 


vme^ in hi ^ 


S 


X 


II II 


... 


... 




... 


*^wv 


M 1- 


... 


"' 


1 


n^n T JO IDS t 




ti 3 


.,. 







t3!9*5 


11 II 


.,. 









pi Tl 


... 


... 


! ^'* 


"rj« 


. 3 










If 11 
11 II 

11 ii 


... 


*inK* 


:: : 


^3 


wan 


11 Tl 

»i ti 


... 




^ 


u^m\ 


.1 4 


3 


... 


[i 


•^pr\m 


IT ft 


... 


... 


... 


... 


^931 


IT »1 


,.. 


... 


... 


3 


D'l?'5 


11 Tl 


3 


] 


... 


^n D'3p9 


** II 


. .,. 


.,. - 


... 


'MVJ 


.. 5 


.*. 


. 




h 


Ei'l«'3J3 


II ». 


^ 


.-. 


^ 


*** 


D'J^nn. 


»f »i 




3 









fl 11 
.1 7 


i 


,„ 


? 


1 


Bl¥? 


If Tl ! 



486 



The Bahyhfdan Codejc of JBosea tmd JotL 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Ho9EA yti^n vi* 7 — ^vii, 7. 



B.M. Add. 15261. 



BJI. Add. 1S250. 



AsnifDBL OftnxT. 16. 



LM. Add. Mtt. 



BJLHi 



CH. T. 
Vi. 7 



l» II 

11 10 
„ 11 
viU 1 



1 



p nnn 









7DP 






^^pS :> 



n 



3 

i 



The liabylonian Codex of Ho»ea and JoeL 



4«7 







MASSORAH 


PARVA. 








HosEA jrcnn vi, 7— vii, 7. 




UDoi Add. 16S 


H.M. Hakl. 1528. 


Babtloniam Codes. 


PsismD MA0w>aAH. 






p »n3 ^3 








nn3 


CH. ▼. 

vl 7 








^ 


■1?^ 


M 8 








^ 


•acpi 


M 9 


^ 






inn» niii»B 




M >» 


^nnnptj' 


*p nnn 


■pi 


■pnnniw 


njTW 


M 10 


bph 




1 


1 


rur 


M U 


^ 


^ 


S 


*. 


'«??■}? 


▼li.1 








1 


nunt 


»» II 
If II 


b 






^ 




l» l» 


... 




*. 




D?5^^ nj?»<»-^3^ 


M 2 


^ 




... 


$ 


b;;^V 


M »l 


^ 




*. 




0«9P 


M II 


^ 






3 




.. 8 

»♦ »i 


^ 




$ 


S 


oij'«?q?3i 


„ „ 


b^y!?D ^ 


bni Vboi h 


1 




} frs?3 


,. 4 

l» M 


bm^ 




bmS 


S 
^ 


or 


., 5 








om^ 


o'VV> 


l> M 


3 




3 


3 


«-5g 


.. 6 


J 










II II 


P ^HDI ^ 


Dni b 




bm$ 


ie'3 


It »i 








1» 


\Biy:. 


., 7 






j 


*C'3T J 


■rtSJDI 


1 



488 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JotL 

MASSORAH PARVA- 
Hosea J^tZHJl vii, 7 — vii, 15. 



B.H. ASif. lASfi]. B.M. Add. I6ZA0. 



TlL 7 



.. 9 



M 10 



i» U 



p. 13 



,. 13 



» 14 



Dm 3 



eon iD£5 m 3 



AiuxDu Omccrr. 16. &. M. Autr. 0199, 



^^^ 



X^n IDS t 



Dni 3 





^^3 



£:iD3\ 3 



3 



ini 



Tnavi 



f: feoDj: 



\ 



hoV xrh 



I 



a 

13 i 






.* 15 



^1 1 

DTD' 

3 



T%e BaJn/loman Codsx of Jffo$ea and Joel. 



489 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA. y)3J^T^ vii, 7— vii, 15. 



auJiia>.*ei. 



B.M. Habl. 1(28. 



bm^ 






I 

I 

bn 



mijn^ Ki h 



hi2h 



n 

1D& Kn 3 



BASTumun CoDBC. 



Dm ^ 



PumiD UUMttAH. 



KW1 KinnoB h 



Dm a 






j ^on 



n?iBq 
4n^3 

0irii39^ 



CB. T. 
▼It 7 



10 



u 



12 



18 



14 



15 



\ 



4i)i) 



The BaOi/lanian Codex of Jlosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA ycnn vii, 1.5 — viii, 10. 





B.M. Add. 16251. 


1 

B.M. Add. li2J0. 




B.M. Add. 9899. 


R.V. IlABL 


CH. T. 

Vii.15 
., 16 


i 

9 




2 


3 

9 


... 


viii. 1 













M M 


bnb 


... 


Dna 


^^3 on 5 


... 


M 2 


h 


... 


S 


... 




,. 8 

„ 4 


... 


... 


bD3 n 


3 

- -{ 


wn^nn! 


»i i» 












bi 


>» >» 




h 


n 


{ 


"'KS 


,. 5 












M 6 


Kin Kim 1DQ n 








Kin Kir 


M 7 


... 




3 


i 






bmb 


Dm^ 


^ 


Dni^ 




M 


n^n3pn3Dini 






1 




It M 


... 




b 


^D11 ^ 


... 


M 10 

/ 1 


... 






: 


... 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and Joel 



491 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA jrcnn vii, 15— viii, 10. 



^^MBBOMB Adv. 465. B.M. Hael. 



Babtlomiah Codbx. Pbimtbd Mamo&ab. 



bpn 






on 



pi^ 



DHD 



b^D3 Dn 






K^ 



n^mpn^rnDn 



DntD 



Dnib 



Dni^ 



} IT 'HD ^ 



n 
bni^ 



n 

^D3 



I 



nrni 


CB. T. 
▼ILlfi 


K^ 


.. 16 


^ 


11 >t 


w 


t1 M 


I5ir^ 


▼ULl 


1^ 


»» »i 


vm\ 


n 2 


nn 


» 8 


'???p 


n 4 


nvo 


.. M 


t6i 


»» M 


'WJJ«61 


If fl 




n 5 


l!i?5 


» n 


Kin\ 


M e 


wn\ 


f» II 


inj?y 


II ti 


D'39?' 


II II 


ni}^D\ 


11 7 


nvi?» 


„ .1 


»^w 


It II 


'"^^5- 


>i II 


«1J9 


.1 9 


niia 


M ,1 


«rin 


M 


D'3iJ« 


M M 


WD'. 


M 10 



492 



The Babylonian Codea of Hosea aiid Joel 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA y)iy\n via, 10 — ^ix, 6. 



OB. ▼. 

vilLlO 



.. la 

,. 13 



., 14 
ix. 1 



ft If 

M 2 



M 4 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



/" '/ 



b"m 



B.M. Add. 10250. Abomoxl Oum. 14. 



i»n» 



I 
|J»31 



bnh 









B.M. Abb. aM». 



I 

♦^3 ten 



Dm 



Dsbn'a 

3 






BJLHab. 






npaoa 





^1 


^^^V^^^l 


^ 




^M 




^^^31^1 


1 ^l^n 




T'/*^ Bolt}/ Ionian Codex of Hosea a nil 


/oeL 403 ■ 




MASSORAIl PAKVA. 


1 




ITosKA J^tl'nrr viii, 1C^— ix, 6. 




I 


|iSMiBASl».46ft. 


B,S1. Hjj^u n2». 


1 




CH. V. 


1 














... 





n 


^Vdm 


Hit 10 


^ 


m - 


.„ 


I 




OJl^ 


,. ,. 




^Btonao 


.. 




'DDT^ 


n'i? 1^? 


r. t. 


M 


i Vd *n3 n 


P 3nDK *p^1 


nw^ 


31J?5t« 


, 12 


^ 


... 


pUl 


h 


p*31 


13V 

DJTIKtDn 


M 13 


1 


tD3 bD b 


... 


».. 


..* 


iia^tr; 


,, ,^ 


I 


A "' 


... 


Voi^ 


V 


ni^5^n 


„ 14 


1 


H ... 


,.. 


... 


bnh 


n^Dion« 


M 


■ 


■ '" 


... 




... 


^ 1 ^WT". 


ix. 1 




1:' 


i 


$dS 


V 




tl »t 


1 


1 






J 


c»in;. 


. 2 


1 


■ "' 





... 1 


1DM Da n^3D 3 

n3 


1 "» 


., . 




H 




... 


9 


•13^:. 






1 


... 


... 


».. 


^V;?t«* «P«p 


.. ,t 




H ... 


... 


•^ 


i»6k*?i ^bh^l 


H^P 


M 4 




r " 


... 


... 


... 


^^t^r^ 


1> 




^ ... 


... 


b 


... 


V2 1 n;n^^ 


» 




1 "^ 


: : 


: : 


^ 




-1 




1 


*.. 


3 


... 


•iK9©t 


r. ., 




1 


... 


... 





Dr^3^ Dijr^ 


.. .. 




1 ^" 


... 


... 


... 


IJJIO D1»^ 


.. 5 




B 


... 


... 


*> 


or^^ 


.. ., 




H .. 


h 


... 


1 


n|nr3n 


M .. 




^P b 


... 


b 


,♦* 


B:f^P^ 


,. e 










* 




\ \ 1 


B_ 


^^^^t 


^^^B 




^ 



494 



The Rahyhnian Code.r of Ilosea and Joeh 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA jnZ^n IX, 6— ix, 13. 





B.M. Add. IA2A1. 


n.M. Add. LV-'.M). 


ASDXDKL OBIBKT. 16. 


R.M. Add. 9399. 


BJf. 


CH. T. 

iz. 6 


^ 


H 


• S 


Dm ^ 




t» »» 
M 7 


•<• ••• 


tlha 


DDKT3 
3» 


fanb 


D^^ 


M M 


• 
* 






2 




» ,. 





T 




1 




ti 8 








... ^ 




M M 


... 






n 


... 


n e 








... 




Tl l> 


... 




boi. 


ho^ 




„ 


^dS 




So^ 






M 10 


S 






... 




» n 


3 




n p»DD wh ^ 


»Bn^ 




»i »» 


... ... 






tei^ 


... 




bD3 So 3 


^D3 


BD3i^0 } 


Vn3 ^D 3 




M M 








^ 


r 


„ ., 








•.. 


... 


M II 








s 




M 11 








h 


... 


., 12 




... 




I. 




11 11 


rc' *nD 3 






h 




.. 13 








... 




/•' " 




\ 


$D* 


^O' 


... 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



495 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA jrcnn ix, 6— -ix, 18. 



DOS Add. 466. 



B.M. Habl. 



Babtlosoait Coobx. 



PftlimD 1IA880BAH. 



^^^3 on 3 






L'*^3 ^O * 



Vol. V. 



1DD K1 3 



Sd^ 



2 

So 



bo ni ^n BD «S 
Dion n-iiD3D *n 






Dm S 

i^ba on :i 

n 

n 

n 



Sob 
boS 



nni *Do t6 h 
*Dn ho i 






L"^*?3 S 



'O ^ i 



nm 

DijiKbn 

D?^Dntf 
D9C!*? 



CB. V. 

ix. 6 



10 



U 



12 



13 



X- 



^'L 



496 



The Babylotdan Codex of Hohu and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

iiosEA jronrr Jx, is— x, 6. 





B.M. Add. I&25]. 


U.M. Ajw. 1»250. 


AlD)II»t.OMS>rT.l«. 


B.1f.AiH>.iSI0. 


AJt.fiii 


en. IT, 

is. 13 


-' 


.,. 


h 


h 




.. 14 

.. IB 


^ 


^ 


3 


3 
^bDn3 1 




,. Id 


,., 


b «i h 3 i 


t»D HI on 3 J 


en 3 J 




It *i 


P"?^ 


■" 


pVy 


h ' 


' 


,. 17 




■" 


a 


^D3 




i> jt 


: : 


•^' 


s 






. 3 


■MOD a 


... 


3 


Dm 3 




ti tp 
tt B 
»i 11 
. 4 





». 




Dm ^ 
^ 


... 


■t 11 




DH^ 




Dni ^ 




II n 


t«* ■%* 


'" 


... 


■a ' 


... 


t* M 

.1 e 


*** '** 


: :: 


■ ■ i +^t-- ' 


*.. 


te 




D^bfl 


?' 


?, 


9| 


1 



2'h€ Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 



497 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA jrcnn tt» 18— X, 6. 



■BBiDOB Add. 466. 



B.M. Hakl. 1628. 



Babtlohah Codex. 



Pfturno) Mamo»ah. 



roon 

2 



11 lom h 
!?D Ki on n i 



bo Ki on 3 :i 



B'^^a Dni 3 



riD op 5 



nvaDrnm^D 



il 



^BIK^ 



Dpn 






DnanDnnnn 



..!? 



>^3 
n 



t 



h- 



on 



1=^ 



So 
... { 



S'D3 70 n 

nco fop pt 3 
n3D^ 



PBta 

3T? 

31D9 

WIJJ 



CB. T. 

ix.18 



14 



15 



16 



„ 17 
X. 1 



498 



The Baitj/loniaH Codea of Nona tmd JoeL 









MASSORAH PARVA. 








HoBEA yoyyn ^ 6— x, 12. 








B.M. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Abd. 15250. 


AftmcDiLOmmr.ie 


B.M. Add. MM. 


BJLHau 




cm. V. 
X. 6 











D3 


E 




II II 
II II 


... 


... 


S 


... 


• M 




ti II 





i 


i 


< 


... 




II II 


... 




... 


... 


' 




» 7 

»« M 
»» II 










h 


n» 




M 8 


ma n^K idd id 


} 








DC 




.. M 


ppi b 





■3 








M » 


... 




^ 


*> 






,1 10 










i 


3pm!?y 




»» l» 


... 


... 


■3 


h 


- 




l» »» 


p Dniiy 




p Dnjiy 


PW 


Pi 




» u 


... 


... 


h 


h 

3 


... 




M «» 


... 


... 


new 3 


?b^3 


npcnn^i 




M M 


... 


... 


$ 


... 


« 
^ 




II II 
II »l 


... 


... 


... 


^in 


— 




l» »» 


... 






n 




i_ 


,, 13 


... 


... 





... 



The BabyUmian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



49y 



MASSORAn PARVA. 
HoBieA J^unrr x, 6 — X, 12. 



B .^KBlUMaB Aj^d . 46^. 


B.M. E4ii^ 10^. 


ItAllYlibNUH CODU(, 


Pu»TkS MjLUOmAB. 






«.. 


.,- 


... 


D3 


^^9V 


oa. T. 
IE* 6 


3 


.., 


... 


.„ 


3T;n^0 


i> II 


t 


.,, 


i? 


S 


n)¥*| 


ir ri 


.,. 


.., 


... 


J 


ng; 


ir It 


!■• ..» 


,.. 


... 


^3 


>M3'1 


tt II 


!? 


*.. 


... 


ntaiJi ini ^ 


TO-13 


n 7 


»» 


... 


i.» 


n 




11 H 

' Ft tl 


.» 


*,, 


! 


... 


rvtm^ 


1. 8 


*D3 nS ISD b 


^., 


... «.. 


... 


n«or! 


r« tj 


'" 


**' 


Til pi hi V 


Tinippnni^ 




II n 

■ 1 *i 


^'i 


"> 


... 


h 


1»D3 


II II 




*.. 


DSl hi ^ 


1^031 -m h 


^%> 


II II 


- 


„, 


... 


H 


h^yr. ^«¥n 


II II 


^ 


... 


»*■ ... 


1 


own 


14 II 
PI II 


^ 


! 


.„ 


^ 


'pW3 


,1 10 


* . 


... 


^ 


V 


D-1DK1 


PI PI 


,- 


... 


a 


a 


'19*«\ 


M P. 


^ 


*.. 


*tt fTI 


•n *■■ 


D^P«5 


♦ 1 PI 


L. 


P> Dmil? 


1 


P Dnwiy 


Dr)j*p 


n *■ 


*,, 


,ri 


... 


n 


n:TP«?\ 


» u 


:j 


,» 


3 


a 


q-w^? 


n n 


».. 


.,. 


>> 


... #*i 


♦iwnt« 


11 II 


fT* »M 


.« 


{ 


nsj?3 on in 3 


} '^i^ 


t1 Tl 


««* 


♦ .. 


*^t 


aiD ^K -rni t 


3^0-^? 


II IP 


■<■ *•■ 


■■. ... 


=»• 


«iii .«« 


34D 


11 II 1 


^ 


... 




... 


3'?T« 


IP IP 


■M 


... ... 


.,< 


J 


enp? 


i% II 


^*mL"^ 


,** 




J 


ilfir 


n II 


«!• *■* 


.,. 


^m-^is 


... 


*nvi? 


n 12 



500 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 
MASSORAH PARVA. 

H08BA 5rcnn X, 12— xi, 8. 



B.M. Add. 16251. 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



A»uin»LOmisMT. 16. 



B.M. Add. N09. 



ULHab^IOLI 



OH. T. 

X.12 



18 



14 



16 



tea 



pro^ 



n 






L L 






h 

^333 tea 



B^^ *-in3 3i 



Kp6 

*teten 



hb* yiD3 IP 



3 



^te te n 



h 
^3 



a 

r 












The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and Joel. 



501 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
H08BA yif^Ty X. 12— xi, 8. 



Sambbidob Ax>D. 465. 


B.M. Habl. 1A28. 


Babtlokian Codex. 


Pbimtbd Mamobah. 
















CB. Y. 


... 


... 






n^J 


z. la 


... 


Dntn 


... 


n 


-»^3 


i» II 


... 




... 


D^D3 ^D 3 


wrp 


It II 


h 









"T[ 


II II 


- 




H 


trh nnn a 


1 BW*W 
1 J^ 


1. 18 


h 






... ... 




II II 


h 






... 


DQlVi? 


II n 


b 









T^a* 3T? 


II If 


P '"TO S 


p ^nDi ^ 


... 






II 14 

II »» 

II n 

II M 






1 




} 19 a?* ik^ 


.1 M 




b 






icSf' 


»» II 




h 


P^ 


bo) :> 


^K31« 


>l II 


b 










II H 


h 











o^mrvn 


II 16 




h 


... 


:j 


Tcura 


II M 


h 


... 


hD sia ^ 


:) 


nbij 


II II 


omh 


^ 


bni op ^ 


-? 


insqKj 


xi. 1 








2 




II II 

II 3 


h 






: : 




i» II 


h 




:j 


-? 


liie^^ 


II II 


h 


b 


p 


:j 


'j^nin 


.. 8 


h 


h 




^ 


vpWnt 


•1 II 



502 



The Bahylotnan Co{fe,r of no9ea and Joel. 
MASSORAH PARVA. 

H08EA yQy\n ^d, 8— xi, 10. 



B.M. Add. 15251 



OH. T. 

Xi. 8 



ho^h 



ho 



nm on m 2 



10 



^^B^^ "Kb a^K^ 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



AKUVDSLOEUn. 16, 






von n 
^D «i on K 3 



3 



B.1L Add. MM. 






BJLHab 



1 Dm 3 






PC 



KhM^pi 



The BabyUmuin Codex of Hosea and JoeL 



503 



MiVSSORAH PARVA. 
HoiBA yUnn XT, 3 — ^xi, 10. 



usoxAtiD.ifia. 


B.V. Hasl. IS:i8. 


BAlTUIMIAif CdDBX. 


HAtJfTED MAldOJkAJI. 






3 






% 


Jtin,;«6i 














11 4 


h 




- 


.*. 


05^Tp» 


IT J> 


h 





Hd nna 


..- 


mni» 


M ,* 






blv 


y 




l» 1* 
■ » 1+ 




bi!? 


^m ^ 
^ 
^ 


^D1^ 




r* e 


nna '^o n 






VQl QD n 




,, 7 






3 1 


^hmbnnna 


DW^O 


1t tp 








^ 




It ■»! 






■*' 


!i 




: : 


' "* 


^ 


H 






IT e 




s 


•" 


■■' 




»t ti 


h 


^ 


P U^\2 


1 




'* '- 


3 


s 




L 


^9^m 


tt f» 


. 


.», 


310 D^OD 


|"Q1 IDS 1 
1 




M & 


1 




GDD ^ 






T1 »t 


, 






bi h 


njn; nq%* 


,. 10 


^ 






.^i 







504 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MA.SSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea JTC^n ^ci, 11— xii, 9. 





B.M. Ax>D. \hU\. 


B.M. Add. ISZM. 




B.M. Add. M99. 


BJLH 


OH. V. 
3±U 





^D^ 


^ 
^D^ 




.„ 


xiL 1 


^D1 h 




DnS 


on^ 






on y* 
ho: 




on a^ 

a 


on a» 
*Sa So a 


bp im 












... 


D 








... 


3 


on 3 


' 






h 





on K1 ^D 3 T 


Soil 










ID 





ID 













3 
IDT 


3 

} S 






irnD : 


K^nD a 


... 


3 






... 


... 


Dm^ 


bpi Dm S 


bpi 


i n 

i" 


} 




3D 

h 




... 


i ■' ' 


2 




h 





t 




... 


• ... 


^ 








13 


13 


D 


D 




/" ', 


••• ••• 




... 


... 





^ 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and Joel 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA yttrin ^> 11— xii, 9. 



505 



ocAx>D.46&. 



B.M. Hakl. 1528. 



Babtlomiam Codsx. 



PmurTKD Mamorah. 









ca. V. 


T1BV? 


j±U 


npV?^ 


»» It 


D»?i3eini 


It ft 


DiJ'©?"^? 


It tt 


'J?9P 


xitl 


15> 


It ,. 


■>■) 


It ,. 


Dt'np 


It 11 


ar»^ 


,t 2 


11-11 


11 » 


in'-iy. 


II It 


\^ 


It 11 


V 


It tt 


ani 


It 8 


"T": 


It tt 


aj'rt 


t, „ 


2^f^^ 


It 11 


1993 


It 4 


36V 


It It 


13TK51 


,1 „ 


'ITT 


1, It 


Tfe«l 


It 6 


^9^1 


It 1, 


njpi'i 


,1 6 


nw^yn 'iJ^^ 


>» i» 


n«9yn 


»i It 


n.ii?i 


M 7 


Tkj^^ 


.. II 


pjrg^ 


1, 8 


3D^ 


It 11 


-HJK»1 


.1 9 






p *nD K^:» b 



Dm h 



hfi 



$oS 
DnS 



na 






nna 



DnS 
on T 

Dnn 



ID 



ID 



HD on 






mn^ S« ; 



)'^DH'*) UD a^ 



506 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA. J^ti^n xii, 9 — xiii, S. 





liM. Add. laUiiL 


B.H. App, iS^flO. 


AllL'.VI>£LOlUEMr. 16, 


BM. kxm. »3»* 


mme 


OH, f. 


... 





^d: 


f?D3 




1. 10 





r|hb 





.» 


™ 


' tr II 


pn 3^ 


.„ 


on i» 


on 3^ 




ft II 


.>. 


*„. 


1 


T 




n n 




**. 


3 


3 




11 n 


... 


.« 


^ 


.,. 


... 


T1 IS 




.« 


3 


3 


.» 


tl II 


V 


: : 


V 


■'* '"■ 


+♦. 


n HP 


H« 


,M 


... 


n 


.« 


t, 13 

TP 1* 




— 


3 


3 

3 


,... 


11 •! 




.M 


b 


,., 




n 14 






3 


1DD3^ 3 


.« 


Tl H 




'■ 


*- 


- 


... 


.1 15 








.«. 


,.. 


11 Tl 






^Db 


'^D^ 




1» »f 


ID 




13 


13 




xUii 




^ 


"? 


... 






., .♦ 




p nDi 


p *n3 n 




,. ♦, 


n^3 n^« 


1 


.1 


pni ^Kl IDS 13 
3Kn>3 


3 


1. . 


' * ' 


s 


^ 
h 


$ 1 

n 


- 


n 1! 


... 


" ^ 


1 ^ 


... 




.. 8 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


M n 
tr *l 


... 


... 


h 




-~ 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA J^tt^in 3di, 9— xiii, 8. 



607 



I 



IDOIAOD.465.' B.M. Hakl. 1528. 



Babylonian Codbx. 



Pbintkd Mamobab. 



P 



IDD K-) 13 



... { 



Dm 



^3 



DHT 



p »n3 n 



"pTW no 3 



*.D 



1DB3 3 



13 



■piSa 



p 'ran 

3t( 1DB3 n*K 
Dm 3 



Til 
0.T8 rnj? 

N»3^1 

D'Tj-ipn 

'n3t 



CH. V. 

zii.9 



,. 10 



M U 

t< II 
I, 12 



M 13 

i> ti 

„ 14 

M 16 

»i I' 

j> »» 
xiii.l 

II II 

I. 2 



I, 3 



:,oH 



1 he ikiby Ionian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA JWin xiii, 3— xiii, 12. 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



16. 



B JE. Asn. «Mt. 



BJLli 



. ▼. 
xiii. 8 



M 6 

6 

» 7 

«i II 

I* II 

II II 

II 8 



bppt^ 



K3 naiK^n 
nnit^n 



II 11 

.1 9 



} ^ nnitSn 



^tr\ K^3 1 









h 



y 



11 10 



u 



n 



^^'^ ^?^ ?7 






nnti 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and Joel. 



509 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hos£A ytt^n 2dii, 8 — ^xiii, 12. 



iiD«aADD.465. 



p ^nDi h 



13D ^D b^D 

1&K 



B.M. Hau. 1528. 



h nn«^n 



D-i B'^^a n 



... { 



bp *PT n{ 



Babtlomiam Codsx. 



h no.vhr\ 



... ^ 

13 ^ 7^\t^ 



b) no 31 bp ^ 

DB 



Pboitid Mamobaii. 






n 
D^3K) nm i? 



nsyTftM 

W3^ 



K1B« 

ni?^i 



CU. V. 

ziii.8 



.. 6 
M 6 



.. 9 



„ 10 



M 11 
» 12 



;-)10 



The Jial>i/lonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



MAS90RAH PARVA. 
TIosEA 3>ttrn xiii, 12— xiv, 5. 





B.H. Add. 15251. 


U.yi. Add. 15250. 


ABiJ]0BLOBRirr. 18. 


B.lf. Ant. MM. 


ULla 


CH. V. 

xiii.l2 


... 


:> 


h 


... 




M 13 














>. 14 


n 


^ 
h 




b 


- 


»» »» 


T 




n 


T 




» 16 


... 




... 


... 




11 11 
11 »« 

M M 


n 


h 


^0 3 




- 


xiv.l 


... 




... 





- 


n 11 


7 


h 








.. 2 


: : 




n 


n 




M 3 









bin 




1. II 








na 




11 li 


r 




y 


3' 




M M 

1, 4 

11 11 


3 


^ 






- 


ft 1* 
.. 6 


bp Kins « a 






^3 




»i II 










... 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoita and Joel. 

JIAaSORAH PARVA. 

Ho&EA. jn^irr iu, 4 — iv, 6. 



477 



■ AlKI».4€fi. 



B.H. Ha«Im 1AS8. 



fiASTboJfUV COD«X. 



^msKTvaMi^moMMM. 



p *n3 ?3 



i 






I X 



Tn* 









na 



DTI 



i 
bfT 

bn 

on 
bn 

bn 



... ^ 



onr 



^1 i 
n *n5i S 



m^^ 
S 



a) 



Harris 
n$^ 

ciirj; ni^'n n!ri| 
rov 



iiL 4 



iv, 1 



., 2 



.t a 



,. 4 



.. 6 






478 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA ya^n iv? 7— iv, 16. 



B.M. Ax>D. 15251. 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



ABUMDILOmiSMT. 16. 



B.M. Add. 9S89 



Bji.KAB..ini. 



^ 



OH. V. 

iv. 7 



M 8 



» 9 



M 10 
n U 
M 12 

n 13 



14 



K^^ -ina a 



Tt^ 



„ 15 



M 16 



/" 7 



bn i<i ^ h 3 



B«^ *^n3 3 



fc^aai 



«^ 



bD3 1DBT 






Tyoo3 
'JE^V nn3 3 






boni 



^^a on 3 



inn 

2 



^b 



^nmomna 



77(« Babtflonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



513 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

H08KA yann ^nv, e— xiv, 10. 



DOS Add. 46ft. 


B.M. Haal. 1628. 


BiLBTLOHIAll CODBC. 










... 


... 


... 


^w 


CM. V. 

adv. 6 


... 


... 


... 


?'3'' 


frsi! 


i» » 


\ 


h 


'tn nni K^an ^ 


*. 




M 11 
l» »I 
If >l 


... 





2h 


2h 


mn 


„ 7 

>l II 


... 


... 


*** 


... 




II II 

M fl 


DHT 


... 





DHT 


«rT 


,1 8 




3 


iniKi 3 


iniKi 3 


vd: 


II II 




... 


... 


h 


'"■»n 


If II 




... 


... 


h 


?W3 


•1 II 


... 


: 


... 


... 


nST 


tt It 


... 





... 


»b' 


0'9V8^ 


II If 
II 9 




... 


... 


M. ... 


♦J?'}^ '?8 


It II 


h 


... 


BV'm h 


^ 




II tt 

II It 


... 








»3 


♦JI?P 


II ti 


... 






^ 


in? 


If It 


2 







ran:: 


wn 


1, 10 




... 


h 


... 


OST-I 


,. » 


I p ^HD 1 


^D3D on : 


^d{ 


bnpnv Dn:n 
... 


e.9 


II II 

M II 






naon 




D^P^-^ 


t> tl 



5U 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel, 



MASSOSAH PABVA. 
JoKL ^Ti^ey U 1— ii 11* 





B.M. Add. 16251. 


B.M. Add. 16250. 


ABmawLOftDDrr. 18. 


«C^«.. 


BJL] 


CB. T. 
t 1 


h 


h 


h 


S 




M 2 


'mih 


... 


tel^ 


ten^ 




II II 


... 


h 


S 


^ 




.1 3 


... 


h 


h 


^ 


... 


.. 4 


1DD K-) h 


... 


DDKn^ 


B1^ 




II II 










... 


- 


II II 
.1 6 




D 


3 


3 




II II 


... 







... 


.« 


II II 


... 


... 


priD^ 


... 


.- 


II 6 


... 


... 


3 


a 


.- 


II i» 


1 


... 


n 


n 




»i II 






"7 


^ 




M 7 


h 


^ 


\ 


V 




.. II 


/ 




... 




... 


»i i> 






h 


\ 




II H 

.. 8 


... 





h 


H 




II II 
II II 


I 


h 


h 


'" 




1. 9 


... 


... 


h 


... 




„ XO 


«^ 


K^ 


N» 


K* 




II II 







^DJ 


}3 *n3 n 




.1 u 




... 


... 


,,. ,,^ 




II II 








... 


... 




II II 


... 


... 


... 





- 



The Babi/lonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



515 



MASSORxVH PARVA. 
Joel '^mv i, 1— i, 11. 



■ Add. 465. 


B.M. Habx. 1528. 


BABTLomAK Codes. 


PUHTBD MABMmAB. 






Vdi^ 


h 


b 


b 


^«in9 


ca. T. 
L 1 


... 






ten^ 


»3^ 


.. 2 


S 


h 


b 


^ 


no'pp 


*l 11 


^ 


h 


b 


^ 


<-«e 


n 8 


h 


1DD K-)^ 


... 


b-.^ 


■^; 


„ 4 







Q3 




^^pwppJ 


f» 11 


h 


... 


... 




■i9'»!3"'TO 


ti II 


^ 








PhnTpjl 


II II 


... 






3 


^vpij 


1. 5 




... 


ho 




Dntsp' 


II II 


3^Db 


... 


'ynro 


bb^ 


iH'r3\ 


II II 








a 


-1901? »»1 


II 6 

It n 


b 




... 




»j^ VJ?* 


II II 


^ 


{ 




} tei^ 




II »i 

,1 7 


h 


h 




^ 


"9VpV 


II II 


h 




on!? 


^ 


CIBTJ 


11 11 


h 


h 


... 


^ 


api?fj 


II II 


h 


... 




:: : 




II II 

II i» 


... 




b{ 


n»3 nni Dpi ^ 
>bw\ 




II 8 

II II 


b 


h 


... 


b 


"^W 


II II 


b 


h 


hD bni Di ^ 


b 


n"B7 


II 9 


K» 


... "...\ 


D^DD ^» 


] 


"918 


,1 10 


... 




^DJ 


K«5in 


II fi 






HD ntrnn 


) 


Its?*?'" 


II u 


■1BD3 h 


... 


... 


... 


Dn$^« 


II II 


h 









nntTT'Vi? 


V- 



482 



The Babylonian Codea* of Ifosea and Joel, 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

HosEA y)iy\n V, 5 — V, 15. 



BM. Add. 15251. 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



Abdmdbl Okiemt. 16. 



B.M. Add. 9S99. 



mi 



CH. V. 

V. 6 



u 6 



M 7 



M 8 

M 

M 10 



M 11 



„ 12 



n 13 



14 



15 



3? 



yea n» 



*>D»» 



%^ 



bn^ 



Vtsan' 



Vi 



h Ni b '» b 



100 i<i b 
*70 't(y bn "K b 



bm$ 

bii 
"hn b 'na nj 

VDJh{ 

ten 



bn*»b 
i 



npa^r 



TOO »n3 h\^ 



i?^ 



Dmmtej'i 



Sonmomna 



Th« Babylonian Codex of Hotta, and JoeL 



507 



MASSORAH PAKVA. 
H08EA )f^y\'n xii, 9— xiii, 8. 



JDOXAl>D.i65. 


B.M. Uau. 1528. 


BiLBTLONUK CODBZ. 


Pkiktb) Mamorab. 






... 






^i 


n« 


OB. T. 

zii.9 


-> 











Ti\ 


l» »» 


p 


} 1DB K1 O 





• 


?^) 


» 10 


... 


... 


• i 


Dm 


j on T 

1 




»» 11 
If >l 


D 


• ... 


•• 


a 


•pw no a 


fn?i8. 


,. u 


h 




^ 


Vd 


h 


0^ 

Djjinjin? 


M 12 


3 









n^n^ n» 2 




M 13 


h 






^ 


1DB3 n 


K»3^31 


M 14 


h 












np?>j 


»t n 


1 


... 






n 


Dn»"<P© 


M 15 


nD 


... 




nD 


na 


3*r, 


It u 


... 


b 





^ 


non 


xiil.l 


h 








|D »n3 n 


oe^y 


II 1. 


... 


p mD n 


... 





4Bpi« 


M 2 


... 









h'K 1DB3 n*K 


tm^_ 


M II 


h 


... 




PI^D 


Dm 3 




II 1. 


'7 






^ 


? 


•4r^» 


.. II 


n 


... 




7 


^ 




1, 3 

\ 



48 1 



The Babylonian Code.v of Hosea and JoeL 

MASSORAH PARVA. 

Hosea J^ttnn ▼, 15— vi, 7. 



CR. T. 
V. 15 



▼L 



/" '7 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



\\^2 hD \!h 



B.M. Add. 16250. 



bn^ 



^B")«^ 



njn pKi Ni h 



AKUNDlLOBimT. 16. 



\ 



n 



^D «i bn « h 
TBI «^ 



B.M. Am». M9§. 



be hi K^ 
3 






bn$h 



bfii 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



609 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea yttTIH ^dii, 8 — im^ 12, 



a>OBADD.465. 



p ^Di h 



3D ^D b^D 
1&K 



B.M. Hail. 1528. 



^ nn«^n 



^Di cr^^D n 



... { 



op pt n| 



BABTlX>IfIAM CODSZ. 






•■pryn na i 

ID ^1?' 



ty3 



bi no ni bp ^ 
bfi 



Pbwtkd Mamobau. 






n 






■iwp 






CH. V. 

xiii.3 

.. 4 



n 6 

M 6 

♦» 11 

M )« 

» 7 

»» »t 

M 8 



M 



., 10 



„ 11 

„ 12 



!i^ X 



510 



The Babylonian Codtx of Hotea and JoeL 



MASSOBAH PARTA. 
HosKA Tjf^oysn ziiii IS— xiv, 5. 





B.X. Add. 16251. 


B.M. Am». 16280. 


AnmKOnsinr.liL 


BJE.AMuttli. 


ajiii 


oa. T. 






h 






sUtU 


... 


-> 


.- 




.. 18 











... 




»i f» 


•■« ••• 


... 


... 


.~ 


.- 


.. 14 


2 


... 


«3:K1 BD31 3 


h 


-. 


II II 


... •.. 


h 


h 


«• 




II II 


... 


h 


h 


S^^ 




II 11 


n 


... 


T 


•l 




11 16 


... 


... - 


... 


•M ... 




i» If 


... 


h 


H 


^ 




II II 


... 


... 


... 


h 


«. 


II II 


1 





> = 


Vds 


- 


11 ft 


... 


... 


... 


... 


- 


II ft 










... 




fi ft 





... 


... 


... 


- 


XiT.l 











... 


- 


t» 11 


^ 


... ... 


h 


lom h 




ti II 


... 


^ 


h 


h 




»» It 


:> 




h 






.1 2 


... 





... 




- 


II «> 







n 


n 




ti 11 


... 


... 


... 


... 


.« 


11 8 


... 


... 


... 


bin 


- 


II II 


... 






m 


~ 


It II 


y 





r 


r 




It ft 





... 




... 




If 4 


1 


i 


9 


9 


- 


ft 11 


... 


... 


^D1 


^D1 




ti . II 


bp KinD K 3 




«3 


^3 


... 


ft 6 








h 


h 




ft It 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 



The Babylonian Codtai of Hotea and Jod. 



511 



MASSOBAH PABVA. 
HosBA jni^"! »iu, 12— xiv, 5. 



11 Add. 466. 


B.M. Hail. 1028. 


BASTLOXXAJI OODBX. 


PmmsD Mamo&ah. 













^ 


opi?t6 


OH. T. 

zilllS 
1. 18 




... 


^ 


... 


T3«f'P3 


l» >l 






3 


nan noni li 


01?^ 


» 14 


... 


h 


b 


h 


1?P5 


»• 11 




^ 




h 




»l u 

n It 






•«• ••• 


nne 


D'W 


M 16 




... 


^ 


b 


Knei 


»» II 




h 




e|l!?nK»-ip^31^ 


cniDng 


l> II 






... 


^0 3 


«?tv.i 


II II 


... 




hmh 


... 


mpt? 


II II 


h 




... 




UJ^ 


II II 


.- 






' b 


npT- 


II II 


^ 






b 


or^t? 


XiT.l 






, ^ 




nOT>? 


II II 


h 






... 


«?9n» 


II II 


h 


<7 


... 


^ 


vpvii7\ 


II II 


h 




\ 


b 


w,?i 


II II 


ho n^D 






... 


nj^t? 


II 2 




n 


... 


n 


njnpp 


II II 


... 




Dn^o 


... 




II II 
1. 8 


5«i iDa 


■ 








II II 






^ 


^ 


mpWji 


.1 II 




bph 


... 


S"5 !?yi 9 


3|"H 


M 4 







tel 


^D1 


«'t: 


II II 


^M^D 




b^« ID ^ 


^^^ 




11 11 
„ 6 


... 




P 13 ^3DD 


... 


«9P 


II II 



>i. V. 



^^ 



512 



Tlte BabyloHuiu Codve of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PABVA. 
HosKA ■^f^y^ xiv, 6— xiv, 10, 



CH. V. 


B.H. Add. 15251. 


B.M. Add. 15250. 


AKUmSLOUWT. 16. 


B.II. Abo. aiM. 


ajLHtf 












ziv.6 


... 


... 


b 


3 


... 


If »» 


... 




n 


1 




»» n 


... 




... 


*» 




i» »» 


... 




s 


<. 




11 It 


h 




n 


h 


TT^napE 


11 7 


... 




on K1 ^ID K 3 


*«$3 


M« 


II II 


... 


... 


... 


b^ 




i» II 


... 




... 


h 




If II 
II If 


.« 


... 


h 


... ... ^ 


•tAtdr 


If 8 


.« 


... 


bnt 


... 




ff fi 





b 





h 




II II 











... 


... 


„ ,1 


... 





... 


... 


— ... 


If II 

II II 


... 


3 




i^<. 


•~ 


II 9 


K3 D'9V8^ 









... 


II II 
II II 


... 


b 


h 


h 




II II 
II II 








s 


Vdi^ 


TX'bbi 


ff If 








h 


h 


\%'' 


II 10 


*-ii 


... ... 


i 


... 




II II 








^ 


"v 


... 


If ff 





^333 on : 


on J 


... 


OpT 


If ff 











1D£> 1 Da D3{ 


*in np: 
Dae 


fi f» 













The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel, 



513 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hosea J^tlTlH xiv, 6— xiv, 10. 



iidoiAdd.466. B.H. Hakl. 



Dnt 



?3 p 'TO 1 



^n^n on ^ 



Babtlohiam Codbc. Fboitid Masm»ab. 



bi nni 8r:n i> 



b^ 



iniKi 3 



BV'hl ^ 



^ 
^ 



naon 



b 

3i> 



Dnt 






1»bt:j 



bnpnvDnan 



vijipji' 
nin 

I'd: 



ziT.6 



II II 
,1 9 



10 



514 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoaea and JoeL 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel ^^^ i, 1— i, 11. 



B.M. Add. 16251. 



B.M. Add. 16250. 



AMniDBI.OftDDrT. 16. 



BJf.AliD.nW. 



BJLHi 



OH. T. 
t 1 



It >t 

.. 8 

.. 4 



.. S 



.. e 



.. 7 



.. 8 



.. 10 



„ u 






1DB K1 h 



N' 









%: 






\2roh 


... 


3 


3 


n 


n 


"> 


h 


h 


b 


h 


h 



«* 



p ^na n 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



515 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel '^mv i, 1— i, 11. 



OB Add. 465. 


B.M. Habl. 1028. 


Babtlomiaii Codes. 


Pbhitbd Mabmbab. 








fei^ 


b 


h 


b 




CB. T. 
L 1 

., 2 




h 


b 


h 


^ 


np'pg 


fi «> 




h 


b 


h 


b 


<-i»0 


n 8 




h 


IDDIO^ 


&3 


b-.^ 


^) iT0 10? 


ft II 




^ 


... 







"9T«!31TO 


II II 




h 





^D 


3 




II 11 
II 5 

II II 




33 ^D ^3 




ynnD 


3 




U II 

1. e 

11 >» 




h 




... 


... 


'a?? v}?> 


II i» 




h 


I 




} i?D1^ 




M 7 




h 


b 




^ 


"9VpV 






h 




on^ 


b 


tjeij 






b 


b 


... 


b 


api^ 






b 


: : 


: : 






H 11 




... 




H 


n'3 nm on^ b 


1 '^. 


II 8 

II 11 




h 


b 


... 


^ 


"^^O 


II »i 




b 


b 


ro bni Di ^ 


^ 


m?9 


.. 9 




N» 


... J 


D^Da ^» 


1 


"918 


II 10 




... 


h)2) 'yn hD 


!«DJ 


B«5in 


»i fi 




... 




HD ntran 


) 


«!«5h 


,1 u 




■1DD3 b 


... 


... 


... 


Dn?«? 


II II 




b 


... 








n-l^fT^Vi? 


V A 



516 



Tlie Babylonian Codeo' of Hosea and JaeU 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel '^MV i, 12— i, 20. 



L 11 



t 



18 



16 



17 



IB 



le 



sa 



%M. Alto. UVtU 



i>D HI tsn 3 a 



^M. Anfi. 15250. 



p*31D 



Vn tti^ on II 



AKDKDU.01UE1IT. i6, BM. Aiui. aa^d. 



m^*3 



:?D' 



tm 



^D ^ni on 3 3 



B,)f,a4: 






hi^' 






r*^ *nrD 3 
p *m n e«3in 

70^ a 



The BabyUmian Codex of Hosed and Joel. 

MASSORAH PAKVA. 
Joel 'jMl'i i, 12— i, 20. 



617 



Add. 465. B.M. Habx^ 1S28. BAmoNLur Codsz. 



Dn K1 ^D 2 : 



Don laoi 



mp Di^ « i 



p^3D» 



^D 



D^D3 p ^vy b 

*p ^33D 
h 

pn t^n 
^{ 



n3 on 



on 



Pbimtbd Mamosah. 



2 



^h n^na a 



}., 



^DOn ID 



i^m ^Di nriD a 



Dn:» 



he nni on d ) 



n^5in 

(B) ^«r^?\ 

n3tP ^DT5?P 

•ip»l\ 

"??^^: 

ansa 



OH. ▼. 

1. 12 



„ 18 



» 14 

,t 15 

i» »i 

II I* 

» 16 

tt II 

I, 17 



II 11 

.1 18 

II II 

»i II 

M le 

II II 

„ 20 



518 



Tlie Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 

MASSORAU PARVA. 
Joel ^m1^ i, 2ft— ii, 6. 



OB. 


T. 

20 


ti 


It 


M 


II 


ii. 


1 


If 


It 


l> 


2 



B.M. Add. 15251. B.M. Add. 15250. AmrMDBLOminr. 16. 



ytss; 



^D"ia ! 



I 



303 IDT !?J1 9 



DB^ Sy\ Sd 3 i DItJ' ^31 So n 



.1 3 



L. 5 

1 ,1 „ 



C*3« 



131 tr3« 



3 
DHI S 

n 
131 ni« ^31 : 

303 



B.M. Am. UW. 



BJLIc 



^3 n.» 



^5 n^-i03 : 



3 

Dm H 
n 

'333 2 



?0 7 



., e 






KjA 



lite r>(.ihill<>ni(Ui C(nli\r of JJo.^rtf a ml Joel. 



■)lt) 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel h\W i* 20— ii, 6. 



a«A0ji.iS&, 



LM. Haii» Itm. 



&4itirE£Hi^M Cddcx. FkorrXD H*-"**"iffi 



a*mni«3KiS 



3 

oni h 



yo3 J 



Dn^ 



■■■I 



Die? ^Di ^D 



j{ 






3D3 T3D 



yff 






h3 "Ml 9n 



3«T* iDKn 
113m 



rBT3 

DTD ini Dm h 

*^11» bl ^1D 1 

isDiB'psinon 



f iin3 n'K 10D 1 ] 

1| linKI DUB 'J 



I 



Dnn 



ft 

? 



pW{ 



1^ (o Him } ji 



D!9 
i^lign niHi 

Dt^ 

irr? 



n99^ 1311? 

n«iD| 
D*riR5* 

i>ip5 






L 30 



iL I 



41 



520 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSOKAH PARVA- 
Joel Vw u» 7— ii, 18. 





B.M. Add. 16261. 


B.M. Add. 16260. 


AmmnnLOunr. 16. 


B.]f. Ann. ttaej 


ULIw 


OB. T. 

U. 7 


... 


... 


1 


n 


... 


If ft 
If tf 


h 




^ 


h 




M 8 


... 




^ 


h 




If If 




... 


... 


^ 




II II 


t6n»bDnnD^ 




f 
1 




1 ■ 


II II 


... 




... 


... 


... 


II 9 


... 


... 


^ 


... 




If II 













... 


II II 




... 


... 


... 


... 


II II 


... 


... 


: 


a 




II 10 


... 




^ 


y 




If II 


... 






... 


... 


f. u 


)DD «n jnaa i 


yoan 








Dl 


II l» 
II II 
11 II 
II 11 








T 


2 
h 




II II 


^ 












11 12 


1DD «"i n 







i;na tr\ n 


... 


II II 
If II 
II II 











-> 


^ 


II 18 




... 


h 


... • 


... 


If It 


n 


n 


n 


n 


... 


If 11 


9 


... 


... 


'bi 


•" 


VI fl 


... 











.... 















Tlie Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 



521 



MASSOHAH PARVA. 
Joel 7HV % 7 — ii, 13. 



A. 


if»Ki|>0£ Ai>D, 466. 


n.M, 


HiLU. lA'^e. 


BMTl4>m4]t COMS. 


Pilimi» ILuMUB. ' 






















OV. T. 




„. 


... 


'" 






... 


nynVp ^r?^| 


il 7 




..* 


... 


... 




.. 


X 


»«fc 


it i* 




an htpi h 




b 




b^K p b 


h 


t^OIPl 


II 11 




.,- 




^ 




bW p S 


^ 


l^pi?T 


. 8 




■•. 




... 




- 


a 


^^3^?. 


m ti 




*_.. 




.** 






HB^ 


*6 


n 1* 




!> 




... 




. 


- 


M^W 


ri ir 




*•• 




... 




.. 


... 


^Wt 


u © 




1 




.,. 




.. 


.„ 


'^n! 


II fi 




.,. 




... 




^ 


... 


D^^nn 


II 11 




B^rra 




... 




.. 


% 


11113 


II fi 




1 


... 




... 


1 


- 0^59131 


n 10 




'" 1 ». 


... 




Dn t^bn 


.. 


OW 


If If 




1 


sn33 n 




nj te 


1?D2 C|l \ 


6tp 


.1 11 

II fi 




^.^ 




... 




„ 


... 


T^^O 


II II 




3 


"' 


... 




.. 


r 




If %* 
It II 




■<4 *■■ 




nn bi 1 




^ni !? 


... 


«^^* 


H IT 




{ 


TPJ? 


1 












03 ID© «"113T Ij- ^ 


.. 


,,. 


oai 


.. la 






n pia 


jf 












... 


... 


... 


* 


... 


... 


njriraat 


ti II 




onn 


... 


.„ 


- 


.. 


r*>3 Drift 


inc^ 


ft M 






: 


... 




h 
h 


n 




Tl M 

n Ifl 

If *i 




1 


.,. 


... 


■ 


■t ... 




ep?l 


If TI 




























rrr'DTDnainT 
















-IIDD^ }T3p lipj 








1 






\ 




Drj^l 


If fl 






( 




jTinB 1 p in 




\ 



522 



The Babylonian Coded' of Hosea and Joel, 



MASSORAII PARVA. 
JoKL ^^"^ ii, 14— ii, 22. 





B.M. Add. 16261. 


B.M. Add. 16260. 


Abckdbl Obimt. 16. 


B.M. Add. 9399. 


B.II.HUL 


CB. ▼. 

ii.14 








.•• ••• 


... 


M 15 






... 


... 


... 


„ 16 


131 id:: tdi 


} ^: 


m fe)i t; 


n 




11 M 






... 


»BT3 


... 


11 11 


... 




: : 


{ 




1. 17 

'1 11 


... 




3 


^ 




11 11 
11 11 


^D-ltD 


^DIO 


... 

J'DTD 


D 


... 


11 11 




... 




i. 




11 11 


... 


... 


i 


3 


... 


,1 18 




n 


h 







.. 19 


Sdi 3 


... 


i 


a 




M .. 






a 


3 




,. 20 


b'h "inn 2 




B«^ nna a 


^^few^nnaa 


irb 


11 11 


^ 




$ 


b 




11 11 




bn 3 


bn*. 


on 3 




11 11 
11 11 

M U 






Dm h 


DHI h 




., 21 

11 11 


N^ 










11 22 








Sd 


... 


... 


11 11 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


11 It 




"* '** 


... ... 


... 


... 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel h\^'\ ii, 14— ii, 22. 



523 



IIWB J^D. iSfi, 



BM, Hael. IfiZi. BjkiTLONUii C(tI»E:(. 



PkiictXD MAHOua. 



3 
I 

V 






p 'n3 ' 



bn b'*^ ' 



Itl ^D H 3 



on a 



bD3 







ivnn HK Dp*i n 
i 



n 
1^j 






on J 



P ni?' nx' 



M^ 



rnop 

«?? 

np^n 

ntDD3 



CO, T 

iL 14 

I, Id 



♦. 17 



II If 

.1 IB 

., 10 

M 30 



SI 



p. sa 



524 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 

MASSORAH PARVA, 
Joel 'jmI'j ii, 22— id, 2. 



B.M. Add. 15261. 



it 2a 



24 



»» f» 
26 
tt 

tt ti 
26 



27 

tt 
Hi. 1 



tt It 

2 



I 



^D' 



B.M. Ado. 16250. 



ABOUDBLOEiniT. 16. 



P7an^^™5iDin 



te 



on Ki ^D n ) 



B JC. Aim. MM. 



) 



teh 



n 



te 



ten 



h 
^ 



te n 






ten 

3 



n 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 



501 



MASSORAH PARVA. 

H08BA yoyyn x, 12— xi, 3. 



Add. 465. B.M. Habl. 1528. BABTLomAN Codxx 



PmWTBD IfAMOBAB. 









on T n 



p ^nai ^ 



n 
D*Da ho 2 

isrh nna n 



!?:*< 



f?D!? 



• { 



h2 *na b 
bni DP ^ 



yo2 






CH. T. 

X. 12 



18 



14 



15 



xL 1 



\ 



516 



Tl^ Babylonian Coihjr of Jffosea and JaeL 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel 'jmv i, 12— i, 20. 



B.M. Ado. 152A1. 



OB. T. 



18 



14 
15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



ao 



h0H)W\2^ 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



*P ^:3D 



ASUKDBL OAUMT. 16. 



hob 



Dm 



Sn K^ oni J l f?o nni on 2 : 



B.M. Am>. M09. 



^h2^ 



^h2-l{ 



WP3 



B.M.Btt 



7n^' 



ri 



?DnmD 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosed and Joel. 



617 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel Sw^ i, 12— i, 20. 



Ado. 465. 



B.M. Habl. 1&28. 



Babtlohiam Codbx. 



F&niTSD Mamobab. 



on Ki ho 2 : 



!?D 



{ 



2 



DDH 15D1 



p ^330 



*p ^3nD 

b 

4 









^ 



B^^hh 



11 DH^ 



riD on 



on 
2 



2 
bbl^ 



ht2 nni on 3 3 



n^^p^ n;»ririi 
(B) ^vr^?! 

•ip»l\ 
nfe'p-i 

nn;©p 

•IDf^?. 

3n?ri 



CB. T. 

i. 12 



., 18 



M 14 

,. 16 

i> II 

»i i» 

» 16 

t» If 

I. 17 



.1 18 



M 19 



V ''^ \ 



518 



Tlu Babylonian Codex of Hoaea and Joel. 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel ^MV h 20— ii, 6. 



T' 


T. 

20 


M 


ft 


11 


tt 


ii. 


1 


I» 


tt 


>t 


2 



B.M. Add. 15251. B.M. Add. 15250. 



VDs; 



^D-I3 



I 



DB^ ^3) So 3 



M 3 



U)^ Sdi Sd n 



ABUNDBLOmnKT. 16. 



303 131 !?pi 5 



3 

Dm S 
n 

131 ni« ^31 : 

3D3 



^3 n.8 



B.M. Add. ( 



3 

Dm h 
n 

'333 3 



DB 



^3 n^-103 



?D7 



n 



M 6; 



3 



KjA 



/ 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



505 







MASSORAH 


PARVA. 








HosEA jranrr ^u, ii— xii, 9. 






B.M. Uael. 1528. 


Babtlokiam Codsx. 


PSIMTKD MaMOBAH. 
















OB. T. 


... 


... 


... 


... 


TIBV? 


zLU 


h 


... 


... 


S 


n;V?i 


tl tl 


... ... 


Vd<) 


h 


^D^ 




tt It 


on^ 


Dn^ 


i^aqn 


Dn^ 


'J?99 


zii.1 






on 1^ 


Dm> 


nV 


., „ 


... 


hfi K) op K 3 


... 


^ 


T) 


tt .. 










^d; 


^ Dm J 


Dt^np 
mil 


tt tl 

tt 2 




... 1 


nna 


1 

/ 


inn?' 


It tt 
It tt 


1 


... 




... 


^7^^ 


It II 


... 


... 


... 


h 


3»"n 


It 8 


ID ^ro }tr*^ ^3 


... 


... ... 


h 


rrjin' 


It tl 

tl It 


... 


ID 


13 


"O 


anp^j 


tt tt 











3 


1993 


tt 4 

It It 

It It 











l»B» 3»n3 3 


i?;i 


,1 5 


oni ^ 




naon 


bni n^P IPf ^ 


njn'i 


It It 
„ 6 

M II 


^o ^h ^D 




h 




ntK^yci 


II It 


... 


2 


... 


r\\r\> ^K 3 


n.15l 


II 7 


... 


... 


h 


... 


I'aV'l? 


M 11 


•M •*• 


... 


... 


... 


pfcil^ 


.. 8 


tD 


tD 


9 


c 


aa^ 


It 11 


— •" 


... 


... 


nOKM '3D 3' 


•H}K'l 


I,, . 



508 



1 lit ISaby Ionian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Hose A JWIH ^i 8 — ^^dii, 12. 



OH. ▼. 

xiii.8 



4 
If »» 



5 

„ e 



»i »» 

„ 7 



M 8 



M H 

9 



B.M. Add. 15251. 



bp pr h 



nnw^n 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



} h nuK^n 



^Di K^2 n 



AmuHDBLOKixirr. 16. 



h nai«^n 



B.M. Add. M09. 









^11 



10 



« u 

., 12 






^3"i ^?^ ? 



^ 

K 
1 









Haibiidgb Add. 465. 



Ths Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA ycnn 3di, 9— xiii, 8. 



507 



B.M. Uabl. 1528. 



Babtlokum Codbx. 



Pbimtkd Mamobah, 



?3 



3 



^3 



:> 

3 



IDfi K-l tD 



■-{ 



Dm 



te: 



onT 



P 'HD n 



So 



nD 






•pw no a 



iDfin n 



ID 

Dm a 



TV 

DntPTfTP 
D^ljintpn 

HD"! 

D)nj;qi 
Dj;5^ 



OB. T. 

xii.9 



„ 10 



U 



M 12 



M 18 



n 14 



,t 15 



ziii.l 



„ 3 



^v -x 



510 



The Babylonian Codex of JBoeea and JoeL 

MAS80RAH PARVA. 
HosEA jram »iii 12— xiv, 5. 



B.M. Add. 16261. 



B.1I. 



.19280. 



IC 



BJLAmx 



oa. T. 
ziitia 

,. 18 
.. 14 



.. U 



xiv.: 



y 

3 

bp K) ne K 3 



*aiin BD31 3 



^0 3 



9 









bnn 






The Babylonian Cod«a of Hosea and Jo$l, 



511 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Rosea jycnr? »"> 12— xiv, 5. 



IIDOBAdd.465 


BJf . Hael. 1528. 


Babtlomiam Oodxx. 


Pkutsd Mamoiab. 












^ 




ea. T, 




... 


... 


nj«y 


ZULU 




... 





... 


DJ[J»6 


,. 18 




... 


h 


... 


T3W3 


»l »l 




... 


2 


nan noni b 


D19« 


.. 14 


... 


^ 


h 


h 


W 


»i »i 




h 


... 


h 


Dru 


II M 






- 


nnD 


o^W 


.1 16 




... 


h 


h 


Kn?! 


II 1. 




^ 




bo 3 




II II 
II i» 


... 




ho^b 




ntpp 


II II 


h 




... 


... 


«:ye 


II n 


.^ 






^ 


npp^ 


II II 


h 







i. 


am 
npT9 


xiv.l 

II M 


h 








wnpn' 


II l» 


h 


^ 




^ 


vpin^il 


• 1 l» 


h 




\ 


^ 


Wi??l 


• 1 II 


3 *y^D n^D 








n^iB* 


II 2 




n 


Dn^n 


«T 




•1 11 
II 3 


« ^np h2 


• 






<TW 




noxi 102 






. 










na 


k'^j? 


II M 




... 1 




J» 


npi 


• 1 II 




] 


h 


^ 


n9W?i 


.* M 




bpi> 




hp hvt ^ 


39"H 


M 4 




! 


ho^ 


^D1 


«'i; 


n ,1 


... 





b^« }o h 


9^^ 




,1 6 


... 




p 13 ^3DD 




"99 


II II 



Vol. Y. 



^^ 



510 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and JoeL 



MAS90RAH PARVA. 
HosBA S^ttnrf liiii 12— xiv, 5. 





B.M. Add. 16261. 


B.M. Add. 16260. 


AbdndblObibiit. 16. 


B.M. An>. tlM. 


BJLKjol 


OH V. 

ziii.l2 




P 


h 


... 




» 13 







... 


... 






3 


^ 


«3JK1 BD3) 3 


3 


... 


.> M 




^ 


!? 


^^h 




M .. 


n 


... 


T 


h 




„ 16 


... 







... 


J 


It ti 

»l M 





h 


^ 


h 
h 




• » 11 
1) ft 


3 


*.. 


^D3 


Vd3 


... 


xiv.l 


... 


... 




... 


... 




^ 


'"... "... 


^ 


IDHI b 




M »» 




h 


^ 


!? 




M M 


7 




h 






,. 2 




... 






... 


" " 






n 


n 


*D 


„ 3 


... 






bin 


... 


»» 11 


r 




y 


y 




»» »» 


3 


'? 


^D1 


^D1 




»i >» 


bp K1 riD K 2 




«f3 


^3 




„ 5 






^ 


h 




/ 


... 








... 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoaea and Joel. 



513 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
HosEA jrCTin xiv, 6— xiv, 10. 



S .AigmTPQE Add. 465. B.M. HabIn ] 



BABTLOIOAII CoDSX. PumTSD MAIW>»iH. 



Dnt 



bi nm K^n h 



bb 



JB^2 p ^HD 1 



^333 on a 



")• 



nniKi 3 



{Whi b 



na on 






Dnt 






X'tni 



bnp nv on a T 

»333 



nin 
D'3V8^ 

in? 

m 
Djrv.^ 



CH. T. 

ziT.6 



If tt 
„ 7 



n 8 



M 9 



„ 10 



514 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and JoeL 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel hw^ '» 1 — h H- 





B.M. Add. 16261. 


B.M. Add. 16260. 


ABiJifDB.0miBirT.16. 


B JL Add. 8199. 


BJLHai 


CB. T. 
L 1 


^ 


^ 


h 


h 




H 2 


^ih 


... 


ten^ 


fei^ 


BO 


>t It 


... 


h 


h 


^ 




„ 8 


... 


h 


h 


^ 


... 


„ 4 


1DD K1 ^ 





DBin^ 


D-.^ 


n 


i» i» 













... 


» ,. 









... 


... 


»i »» 











... 




„ 6 





2 


3 


n 




»i ti 











... 


... 


»f M 


... 


... 


pn3^ 


... 


.„ 


» e 


... 




2 


n 


... 


l> !♦ 


n 


... 


n 


n 




„ ,, 


... 




p 


^ 




» 7 


... 




... 


... 




M »» 


h 


h 


h 


h 




tt II 


L 




... 






II II 


^ 




^ 


h 




II II 

II 8 






^ 


h 




II II 


... 


... 


••• ••• 







II II 


... 


h 


h 


••» 


... 


II 


... 




^ 


••• 




M 10 


K^ 


K^ 


K» 


K^ 




II II 








^DJ 


p ^riD n 


"... 


„ u 


... 


... 









II 11 




... 


... 


••• 


... 


tt tf 


... 









- 






The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
HoBfiA ^^2^rt xiv, 6— xiv, 10. 



oKA^&.ies. 



B.M. Hau. l^2». 



Dnr 



r*^3 p ^TO 1 



[ 



r 



^233 on : 



6jiaTtrf>jiuir Cc»»x. 



bi im rn ^ 



hh 



IP'im 3 



rK"ni ^ 






raw 



FlUtnH HiMOBAB^ 






on I 






•333 



513 







^■©3 




mei 


o .» 


njews 


.. t1 




It T1 

Ik II 


vjjipjr 


II y 


'i7'\ 


11 K 


ntn 


11 1* 




" -^ 


«5?: 


It o 


I'p; 


fl 11 


IfT^n 


m li 


1^4? 


.. n 


nsi 


ti IT 




H l» 


'i:i'?V '}» 


»t tl 


«i«^i 


♦ t II 


BTiM 


*i i» 


♦jtjp 


♦1 tt 


tl^ 


II If 


i3n 


» 10 


en'.l 


tt IJ 


0^?1¥1 


IP l] 


B? 


4t 11 


D've*^ 


II tl 



514 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel, 



MASSORAH PABYA. 
JoBL ^tn^ i, 1— i, 11> 





B.M. Add. 16261. 


B.M. Add. 16260. 


ABiJifDB.0miBirT.16. 


BJLAi».Mt». 


BJI.HBM 


OB. T. 

L 1 


^ 


b 


h 


h 




M 2 


'mih 


... 


. hoih 


Son^ 


tao: 


»» i» 




h 


h 


^ 




„ 8 




h 


h 


^ 


... 


., 4 


1DD K1 h 





DDin^ 


DT^ 


DG 


IT l» 

»» »» 


... 


... 




... 


... 


II II 

II 6 





2 


3 


2 


... 


11 ti 
II II 


... 




p na^ 


... 


... 


11 e 


,.. 




2 


2 


... 


It II 


T 





n 


n 




II 11 






-? 


S 




,, 7 


... 




... 


... 




»i »» 


b 


h 


h 


h 




»» II 


L 


... 




... 




„ M 


h 




h 


s 




„ 8 




... 


b 


^ 




II II 


... 


... 


... 


... 




II II 


... 


h 


h 




... 


,1 


... 


... 


^ 


... 




II 10 


K^ 


K^ 


K» 


K^ 




II II 





... 


hoi 


p ^nD n 


... 


„ u 


... 




... 




... 


*t tl 












... 


tt tl 

i 




... 








... 






JmauMDQ: 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and Joel. 

MASSORiVn PARVA. 
Joel ^^y^ i, 1— i, 11. 



515 



« Add. 465. 



B.M. Hakl. 1628. 



Bastlohiav CoDKz. PmnrrsD IfAMOBAH. 






303 






TDD3 V 



1DD tO^ 



... { 



fin 



ysra 






7W 



Dn^ 



} 



ha bm tn J? 

7131 ya ?D 
TO vxnn 



3 



boi^ 



»7Mn 



!? 
^ 



K» 



tea 



"^^1 "iiw lo: 

t|BTI 



ca. T. 
L 1 

a 



II II 

II 8 

11 4 

»i II 



II II 

I. e 






9 
10 



U 



518 



The Babylonian Codex of Hoaea and J^oei. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel ^^y\ i, 20— ii, 6. 



i. 20 



ii. 1 

M 2 



B.M. Add. 15261. 



B.M. Add. 16250. 



yt33 :i 



"tnz 



D8r Sdi te a Difir ^31 ^o n 



AbumdelObdcmt. 16. 



3M m ^p1 9 



3 

Dm ^ 

n 

31D3 



B.M. Aoi>. 9399. 



BJLE 



^5 n» 



Dm S 
n 



M 4 1 



i>5 n^iDD 



2 



?d:> 



n 



KjA 



/ 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 

MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel '?mt» i, 12— i, 20. 



617 



piantiMBADD.465. 


B.M. Habi. 1&28. 


Babtlohiam Codbz. 


PmWTBD IfAMOBAH. 






... 




^D 


^D^ 


n^5in 


CB. T. 

L 12 


^ ^ 


... 


... 


3 


n}»f»ni 


11 »» 


«. 




... 


... 


n^!?9». 


II If 


h 


... 






n^^p^ ni«J?ni 


II »> 


^. 




... 


... 


n©i 


II II 


... 


... 


... 


... 


mani np? 


It »l 




} mp Dir K a 


... 


\irh n^n3 a 


maJDi 


tl II 




{ 


D^D3 p ^vy b 


} 


(B) ^)»^?1 


II II 


► 


i5^33D 


p ^J3tD 


T 


^;i?np 


II II 


... 


... 


... 


^DOn ID 


oi^J^? 


ft II 


... 




^ 


... 


^y^ w'a 


1, la 


... 


... 


... 


... 


MtP ^n-^ 


•1 II 


... 


... 


h 


... 


'0^1? '^If^ 


II II 


... 


... 


■pn j'^n 




^9« "WP^ 


II II 


... 


... 


... ... 




^WJ 


II II 


:i 


:i 


'{ 


i^TK ^Di nnD a 


} ^P»t\ 


II 14 


... 




... 


^8^313 


Dt»^ 


.. 16 


... 


... 


... 


ncrs n^J;2«T 


nb^?4 


M 11 


:i 









^•^W 


♦1 n 


... 








^a^A7 


1. 16 


^ 


... 


... 




^'IR^^I^ 


II II 


^ 




^ 


^ 


m}i 


1, 17 


h 


3 


... 


B^^ 33 3 


nnn^ 


II II 


Don laoi 


... 


11 Dn^ 


h 


Df'Db"1?P 


II II 


... 


... 





bbl^ 


nn^Dp 


11 II 


... 


... 


riD on 





B^^Ji 


If II 


... ••• 








3 


nWKI 


1, 18 


3 


... 





Dn:5 


«^.i 


II II 


... 


... 


h 


... 


^or?? 


.1 II 


3 


... 


... 


3 


"??^\ 


M 19 


..• ••• 


P 


on 


... 


npri^ 


II II 


:i 





a 


^D ini on 3 a 


ir^^U'^^ 



\ 



520 



The Babt/lonian Codex of Hotea and Joei. 



MASSORAH PARYA. 
Joel Vw^ "» 7— ii, 18. 





B.H. Add. 16261. 


B.M. Add. 16260. 


AxmmKLOunn. 16. 


B.1I. Aao. MW.; 


BJLHu 


OX. T. 

it 7 


... 




T 


1 


.« 


ft »f 


... 






... 




tt »f 


h 




h 


^ 




., 8 


... 




h 


h 




ft tf 


... 


... 


... 


2 




i» f» 


t6naobD3nD^ 





{ 




1 ' 


»» »i 
., 9 




... 


... 

h 


... 




»» i» 













•- 


i» »» 


... 


... 




... 


... 


II II 


... 




i 


3 




II 10 






^ 


1 




If II 


... 






... 




.1 u 


1DD K1 V02 1 


PMH 







a 


II 11 
It 11 






... 


:i 


... 


II II 
II II 


... 


... 


T 


2 

h 




II II 


h 













11 12 


)DD Kl n 







i^na Di n 


... 


II II 


... 




... 


... 


1 


If II 


... 




... 


... 


... 


II II 








? 




II 18 






h 


... 


... 


It fi 


n 


n 


n 


n 




If fi 


9 




... 


>^ii 


... 


ft fi 














... 








\ 


y 





The Babylonian Codex of Hosea attd Joel. 



521 







lilASSOKAH 


PARVA. 








JOKL 


Nj^V ii, 7— ii, 13. 






^kjamuMM. Add. 165. 


B.M. Bau. L&28. 




















CB. T. 


.,. 


>■■ «Tt 


"■ 


... 





n^p^P 'i;'?!*? 


a 7 


™ 


!■■ ill 






i 


'oi^ 


II 9¥ 


zn 3rn b 


^ 




hbn ]D h 


^ 


pO|?! 


*\ *■ 




!»! 




bW p b 


V 


t^pijl! 


. 8 




... 


... 


... 


a 


'w!?! 


It 1* 




... 


... 




flB' 


i6 


14 11 


b 


•" 


.„ 


... 





^m'- 


IT IP 


- ^ 





... 


... 





^PB" 


„ 


t 


»'* .»» 


... 


"b 


i.. 


1^ 


II It 
t1 tt 


m^2 


"" 


... 


... 


1 




fl It 
.t 10 


<„ 


... 




DH f ^n 


... 


c^?} 


II tt 


yD3 1 


lfP3 rt 


... 


... 


yon ^11 


njn^l 


tt u 


■ << **m 


»i^ 




HD ks 


... 


i^p| 


tt II 


>« 


M. 


,., 


... 


... 


1^0 


ti ti 


1 


: : 


... 


^Dl^ 


3 




tl II 

tt It 
II tl 


- ' 


x*y Mn ^31 ^ 


■ ... 










Dl IDD «-| 1D1 


... 


... 


B31 


It la 


hjDia 










,„ 


- 


». 


... 


... 


H^Dlt 


IT fl 


Dnn 


.,. 


... 


... 


r-^ja on n 


«^ 


It II 


H«* »■■ 


M» 




S 


... 


♦?331 DW31 


tt It 








^ 


nl 




.1 18 

fi II 


1 


'*" 




>.. 




cri)! 


11 II 








jnv^TDminT 






1 


1 

i 


\ 




tm. 


}» M 




1 




I'nriD 1 p in 




\ 



520 



The BabyUnaan Codex of Hoaea and JoeL 



MASSORAH PABVA. 
JoBX 'tM^s ii, 7— ii, 18- 





S,ll. Add. Ifi2ftl. 


B.Jf . Al»lk. 1^200. 


M^KtmtmuQmassr^. 16. 


B.1L Am. S109J 


ULBiM. 


CIS. ▼, 

U. 7 


*., 


' 


1 


1 




II It 

>i It 


... ^ 




^ 


1 ^' "t, 


# 


II 8 


... 




i 


^ 




If ti 




... 


.» 


3 




It IT 


tlh HiD bD3 HD^ 


... 


.... ^, 




1. 


,T & 


„. 


... 


«? 






TP IT 


... 


.„ 


4'* .1. 


.tt ... 


■*■ 


It n 


... 


... 


J 


a 1 




.1 10 


... 




I.' 


1 




It n 


IDD Kl PD3 1 


PD3n 





... 


G» 


tt .1 


*.. 




nnj 3 




^. 


*^ II 


.« 


— 


r 


h 




.1 .1 


h 





■■ 






t* 13 


IDS «i n 


,.. 




bna en n 




t. II 





-.. 






*D 


It ti 




I I 




> 




T. 13 




... 


^ 




♦,- 


11 It 1 


n 


PI 


n 


n 




n It 


P 


... 


..i 


*^3 1 


... 


II ti 





... 




... 


... 



The BabyUniian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 



521 



MAaSORAH PARVA. 
JciEL h^V "j 7 — ii, 13. 



CAMB«E]WE APS>. 4fi&. 


EM. BAMi*. 152S. 


Eauxoviaii CoAftL, 


PUHIB) HAMOUfi. 






.., 


.k-t 


... 


*♦♦ 


n9i;tbi? »r?^5 


iL 7 


.- 


». 


,.. 


3 


Msij* 


1. 1. 


an iP3 ^ 


^ 


bWp^ 


^! 


I^n??! 


If fi 


**, 


i? 


B^« p h 


V 


I'wnr 


M a 


.„ 


,.. 


... 


% 


'^3^! 


n » 


4»^ 


.,. 


,.. 


nr 


^ 


.r t. 1 


^ 





... 




4i;>f^. 


PV 17 


.. 










^191?; 


M 8 


% 


... 


„. 




^rv^ 


.1 H 


>.. 


,., 


b 




D^n^Cil? 


M .. 


pm 


... 


.., 


; 


^» 


M .. 


... 


*.. 


... 


-Ii 


1 - n^v}\ 


1. 10 


.,. 1 


„- 


on ]'hn 




f Qiji; 


.» .1 


|?D3 V 


jmn n 




PQ3 e|1 1 


iijn*) 


.1 u 


'" 


- 


n^ho 






" 1* I 


3 


... 1 


... 


1 ! 




" " 


..< 


.,.. 


b>!? 




«hi 


II H 


,., ■ 


Te-y nn ^21 1 


* 








OJ IDS ten 131 




031 


r^ IS 


n |D 13 








.., 




,„ 




nnro5t 


t» n 


on n 


... 


... 


e">3 DH n 


ni'^ 


m f» 


». 


,»* 


h> 




^?35^ D1¥5^ 


i» »l 


♦., 


... 


'7 




^ri^'^t^\ 


M IS 


... 


... 


... 


n 


mrn) jwri 


It II 


1 


... 


... 


nDom rnriD t 


OWl 


pi M 


















inrnDiornvnt 












nDOl I'D? lip: 






\ 




«.» ^ 


n^Don73feennB 


1 BIJJ^ 


II tl 








j*nn0 1 |D in 


i' I ^ 



524 



The Babylonian Codex of Hosea and JoeL 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel '^MV i^ 22— iii, 2. 



B.U. Add. 16251. 



ii.22 



28 



24 



26 



26 



27 



iii. 1 



b' 



teh 



n 



B.M. Add. 15250. 



p73n^nnD5)Din 



hD 



AmUUDBLOkUIIT. 16. 



on «i ^D n 1 



bnaoTH 
ten 



B Ji. Add. 03m. 



hon 1 



ten 

n 

h 



BJI.Bau.1 



«t3D 



The Babylonian Codex of Hotea and Joel. 



525 







MASS0R.1H 


PARVA. 






Joel ^t^^ ii, 22— iii, 2. 




pSnmiDQTAm.i&b. 


B jr. Habi^ 11S&, 


f^JkWtLOVUW OODEK. 








h 


... 


... 


^1 


wn 


U.23 


h 


... 


h 




i^n 


ti rt 


.„ 


... 


... 


jf* w 


. 23 


m:i%t^bh2 





... 


... 


n^5 


If ri 


... 


*.. 


... .M 


r 




fi 11 

It TP 


•" 


... 


.*♦ 


D^Dir noiii a 


ntJ-jin , 


n SM 


... 


.^ 1 


M* i*. 


»*■ 4^ 


■^ 


11 11 1 


,,. ..4 


... 


^ 


». 


«i^l 


1* 11 


,.. 


... 


*« 


... 


BiT^ 


ti 11 


^ ^^onn 




- 


... 


i»'i?!?giP^.;nn3T|ti3 


,1 2B 


„, 




1 ... 


... 


i"PC"!31 


pj 11 


3 


... 


te 


] 


'^'0 


pt tj 


^D* 


te^ 


... 


to' 


^DV 


.. 20 


,.. 


... 


b 





jn3^\' 


T1 tl 







{ 




} D#ril 


TP PI 


.*» 


... 


... 


c"^3 n 


nifijDS? 


tP It 


... 


2 


... 


... 


icbnAi 


11 IT 


h*Dn Sd :>3 


... 


... 





0^" 


Ti If 


.,. 


... 


... 


3 


"K *m 


n 37 


„, 


... 


... 1 





•mvm 


11 »| 


.*. 


... 


ba 


ten 


vm 


m. 1 


... 





... 


3 


T?"^?"^? 


^1 IP 


b 




... 


... 


W?J1 


TI it 


... 


... 


.„ 


... 


03'0J31 D?'a| 


11 11 


t. 


h 


om 5 


jiD^n* im h 


'po^rc 


11 >f 


^ 


... 




t!"^3 on T 


ITO'tlJ 


n I* 


... 


... 







W\ 


IP 2 


w'^ *" 




Q 


n 


fn?nrt 0'!?;3 


,. „ 


. » . 




.,. 


a» 




tP IT 
tl PK 

A 



524 



Tlie Babylonian Codex of Hotea and JoeL 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel 'jMl'i ii, 22— iii, 2. 





B.M. Add. 16261. 


B.M. Add. 16260. 


AMnuMLOmmT. 16. 


B Ji. AVD. MM. 


BJLBil 


OH. ▼. 

ii.22 







h 


^ 


,,. 


t> i» 


h 


... 


h 


S 




M 28 






^ 


... 


•- 




1 


... 


on K1 ^ n 1 


ten 1 




It It 


... 







... 




II 24 


3 

1 


^M"13 p^D 9 


1 


h 


- 


It II 




} 


S 




It It 










~ 


- 


II 26 

II II 


... 


... ... 


S 


"> 


•M 


II It 
II 26 

If If 


^D^ 


'^> 


i 
j 


i 




II II 










S 




II II 
II II 






3 


... 


... 


II II 




... 




... 


- 


,1 27 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


II It 
iii. 1 


ih 




3 


Vdt 


... 


If II 
II II 


... 


... 


3 


a 


... 




... 





h 


^ 




II II 
II 2 


IDDKin 


... 


... 


... 


• n 


« II 


n 


n 


b^DDT n 


h 


1 


II ft 

It II 


... 


*" 


3> 
ten 


»h 


- 



The Babylonian Codex of Rosea and JoeL 



525 



MASSOR.IH PARVA. 
Joel 'p|4'\i ii, 22 — iii, 2. 



IWS^PP. 46S. 


BJl. EUw. Ifi2i, 


EAUlUlirtAff OOE^EX, 


["XlHTlPlUCMKJ^tl. 






h 


... 


... 


^ 


wn' 




h 


- 


V 


V 

V 


ISJJ 


II n 


... 


... 


... 


II'V •»! 


,, 23 


bo^'hb^ 


... 








rrjisn 


ti ti 


*'* 


: : 


: : 


1 


TTTV 


It M 
■ t tl 


**. 


«i 


,.* 


... ... 




,, 24 

H II 


.»* 


^M 


i- 


.^. 


*P'«^1 


IT tt 


.** 


..P 


^ 


... 


mr^ 


♦ 1 U 


^j S^onn 


... 


... 


... 




.1 2& 

It It 


i 


... 


bo 


J 


•t'O 


t* »i 


^* 


ho^ 


3 


bv 




,t 26 


... 


- 


{ 




} DBi*^^\ 


If »i 




... 




r^sn 


ninjDB? 


ti II 




h 




... 


icb^Tcipi 


ti -t 


d:i ^ >3 


... 




"- 


D^ 


ti It 


■** 






3; 




t. 27 


... 




'^ 


in 


■vm 


iii. 1 


,. 







3 


■^■h^ 


M tl 


V 


■" 


"■ 


. .4 




II It ' 


""^ 


i. 


oni 7 


jidSt im i> 


i;io$p: 


tl M 


b 


... 


... 


B"^2 on T ^ 


nn^iq 


CI It 


.,. 


... 


'■ 





mi 


t. 3 




-" 


D 


n 


n^DPi D'p;a 


,. . 


- 


,.. 


... 


5' 




tl lit 

11 ir 



526 



The Babylonian Codsx of Hosea and Joel. 



MASSOBAH PABVA. 
Joel 7M1"i iii, S — ^iv, 4. 





B.M. Add. 16251. 


B.M. Add. 16250. 


ABQKDBLOBinT.ie. 


B.M. Add. n». 


BJLIa 


OH. ▼. 

iii. 8 


... 


... 




... 


- 


ft fl 


... 


... 


... 


... 




»» 11 


... 




tei S 


^2^hD^ 


*•* 


M 4 

>* ti 
II II 
11 6 


y 


tey 
ter 


3 

to 


h 

2 
H2 


... 


II II 
iy. 1 


h 




bnh 


n 


n 


»» II 










... 


- 


i» It 


... 


... 




... 


i 


•1 II 


'pa^K^ 


pnnrx 


i3 3'BV 


pa^Bv 


i 


II 2 

♦1 II 


^ 




bb^h 


b 




II II 
II II 
II II 
II 8 


h 


bom n 


i 


^ 
S 
^ 

J 


... 


II II 
II II 


... 




h 


^^ 




1. 4 

II II 
II II 







02 DB 'KT n 






II II 
II II 


^?^^ 




... 


:>| 


b&top 


tf 11 









... 


... 















The Babylonian Codex of Hoeea and Joel. 



527 







MASSORAH 


PAKVA. 








Joel ^N11 "ii 


8— iv, 4. 




»aKA£i>.4e& 


B.M. Ha^l. 155a. 


BABlLOSiLiM Copra. 


PlETitU) MAHOm^H. 






hb3 


■ ... 


.« 


... 


D*J>OtG 


iiL S 


.., 


.,. 




2 


iS?KJ D^, 


n *i 


»»» 


^ 


i 


bi ^ 






"■ 


tor 





hn^ 


KT3 


M 4 

IT T< 


1^ 




J* 


J* 


o^' 


u 5 


►D t?^h ^2 


: : 




^D1 ^ 




::: 


"' 


h 


D 


n 

3^ 


mjinn 


iT* 1 


3bi 




*^1^ 


1 


31?^ 


IT m 


"* 


- 


^ 




•vi«!-nB\ 




3 


bD3i n 




3 


m 


If tt 


V 


- 


mV'n hi b 






I, 4 


in ^h )= 




^ 





■it 


- - 


... 


- 


b^K)D,^ 


fDp P|pf 7 


■^v^ 


,. M 


■■ 







3 


D'^a 


\ ' > 



iToL. V, 



"^^ 



588 



The Babyhnian Codtx of Hotta and JotL 



ICASSOBAH PABYA. 
Jon. ^THt* !▼< 4— ir, 14. 





BJf. Add. 16261. 


BJLABi».litlO. 




BJLAM<Mllu 


'Rft* 


OB. T. 

tr. 4 


••• ... 


... 


Dnin 


mmm 


r 


ft tt 


... 


B^^abnh 


on^ 


onh 




It »» 


... 


... 




i 




n 6 










... 


- 


»i t» 
fi »» 


S 


... 




... ... 


"*" 


„ 7 









... 




II 11 


... 




... 


... 


_ 


II II 
1. 8 




Dnia 


Dn)3 






,1 9 

.1 10 


^ 




it 




•- 


11 TI 


... 






... 


... 


»l !♦ 
»l »• 


\ 




^ 


... 




.1 u 








... 




If II 


... 


\ 




2 


.- 


II II 

.1 12 


... 


^ 


^i«a 






II II 


>tr\i 


... 


^fiii 


2 




1, 18 


• ... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


It II 


bp3 


3 




3 




tt II 





... 




... 


- 


It II 


... 


... 




^ 


... 


n M 


toonb 





Dfi313 


... 


... 


It It 


*— ••• 


... 


... 


- 





The Babylonian Code^ of Hosea and Joel. 



98d 



MASSORiVH PARVA. 
Joel 7H1^ >^% ^ — ^^^9 1^« 



liraoiAi»u.4e^ 


B.M. Hail, 1528. 


BABfTUlinAJI COPEIh 


PKn-rm 1Ia»m>^Bk 






. 


on 3 


yiDf]! 


j^jyii Dm 3 


• D?^"?^ 




S 


... 


... 


^ 


•IDq&i 


t. IS 


, 


e^bon n 


H.. 


.,. 


D'3bn 


t1 .. 


1* tf* 


■id -+» 


... .«« 


1 


Dr!K3D 


tl It 


,. 


... 


..,. 


cjnT 


V3* 


o 6 


. 


V 


^ 


^i 


0'))!? 


t* il 


.. 


... 


' It. ....► 


^ 






. 


... 


POET 


... 


ni?<? 


It M 


KT^n on 1 


.., 




Dm 3 


o?h? 


It fl 


h 


^ 


V\ 


V 


D'*5?^ 


,. 8 


V 


*<« ail 


.1. .,. 


... 


nttntrjp 


.. 9 


. 


ter 


.•> ■*> 


^DT 


D'-rra^n 


., .> 


h 


i», 


i. 


.-. 


>hr, icT. 


II n 


"> 


... 


... 


^ 


ins 


n 10 


h 




... 


V 


a?'W 


>. .. 


* 


... 


^rt3M3 i?3 11 pn 


V 


a?'onp|m 


M It 




'.. 


... 


h 


D'n^i^ 


If tl 




t. 


... 


V 


r^nn 


»1 tl 


}^ ^nsi ^ 


^ 


... 


^ 


1t?!|)J 


It u 


. 


4^« 


... 


... 


mill 


.. ., 


. 


».* 


in m ^ 


nnsq im ^ 


nn^n 


«t ■< 


. ♦♦» 


*t« *>. 


... 


3 


niK 


M IS 


* 14. 


»,- 


>.. 


*Bn a 


^^'1 


tl »f 


3 


,. 





... 


^n^K' 


r, 13 




3 


j *> 


* 




« tt 

tl n 


mm m b 


1 




ip'C'ni ^n^ V 


^p^'n 


■ I tl 


D^p^n 










.. 


,,. 


.4* 


P1DD3 3 


D^^bg 


„ 14 


I* -** 


- 


teib 


■? 


Q^\bti^^^^^t\L. ,0 



\ 



580 



The Bahy Ionian Codex of Hosea and Joel, 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel Vw^ iv, 14— iv, 21. 



OH. T, 
IT.U 

,, 15 



I If 

. 16 



. 17 



18 



19 



SO 
81 



B.M. ASD. 16261. 



inwDa 



B.H. Add. 16260. 



iDfitnn 



10. 



n3 



n3 

^31 'h^ *fin n 
*fin on noriK 



rihi 



... { 









33 



»1 



*» ^-1 n 

3 



h 

pm3 3 
B-13 



The Babylonian Code,c of Hotea and Joel. 



531 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Joel hv(\'^ iv, 14— iv, 21. 



SOB Add. 465. 


B.M. Hail. 1628. 


Babtlomuh Codb. 


PmivTSD Maisobab. 
















oa. T. 


3 








1^X>i3 


iT.U 


... 








1 


d»3?b^ 


., U 


3 





on 






»f If 

„ 16 

n »» 


^ 






... 




If >t 
» f» 









^3 ^en ID 


n^qo 


ft ff 




niriB^a 




3 


twji 


ft »t 


h 




^^3« h 


... . 




tt ft 

„ 17 








%DDn> 


e?'Ci^ n\r\\ 'jb 


It ft 


1 KtD«5^^3 
P 


) 







0?»CI*>(? 


It tt 




... 


nsDn 


... 




ft ft 


^ 






h 


1B9! 


ft 18 


h 








a^^n^S^/i 


tt It 


h 






) 


?:jw 


„ „ 


1^T\\ K1 3 




2 


^ 


ni??'n\ 


tt ti 




1DD K1 3 




... 


onvp 


tt 10 

tt tt 


p ^3 n 




maw ^D 3{ 

hD bn 


nu»n e|iD3 




tf tt 

tt 20 
,t 21 

It ti 

L_-— i 



532 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



HASSOBAH PABYA. 





B.M. ASD. 16261. 


BJLAl».lMM. 


Aiii—lOinOT.lt. 


B.m.Mm.nm. 


BJLta 


t\ 






... 


... 


- 


. 9 


'MPC 'KT 


5)10 


'DDino 


BID 


11 


II t« 


... 


... 


n 


... 




,. 8 

»» fi 


... 


n 


n 


1 




ti ti 


'■i>D ytD3 K^ 


■teK^ 


WD3K^ 


jnlbn* 


7i 






n 





n 




.. 4 


yo3«fi^i 




yt33 1 


j»a fi->T 


9D3I 


II II 


... 


... 


^ 


... 




II II 


... 


*. 


t> 


'" 


... 


11 II 


... 




^ 




... 


M 6 


... 




... 


... 


... 


»l 11 




^ 


'^3 3 


ii.Dm>: 


. 6 


o 


^ 
b 


n 


1 

DD3 tch DT a^ 1 


M 7 

II II 
11 II 


yu3 1 


BTi»a> 


D0K-iyo3i ; 

... 

1 


1 
1 


VD30 


•1 II 


on 1 


... 


^^n on 1 

1 

! 


^3Dni 


6^3 on 1 


♦1 11 


... 








... 



Th« Babylonian Codea of Jonah. 



b^ 







MASiSORAH 


PABVA. 










Jonah n3V ij 


1-5. 7. 




on Asm. 466. 


B.M. Haju. 1628. 


Babtumoam CoDn. 


PBorTiD Mamobah. 
















CV. T. 


3 ^HD ^3 


« 






n}^» 


i 1 




1DD K1 




^'niD 


Dip 


H S 







"i>D 





n^i|!3 


II 11 




... 




T 


^ 


It tl 


ir^a n 


... 


9 


n 


nrrro 


II 8 








n 


nin? W^P 


II »i 






< 


^31 irt>D «^ 


n^ 






h^D^ 


Do^Di ^Kprn^ 


II II 






303 131 




n 




9 


:: : 


n)n] -ith 


M II 








y»3T jrna i 


njn') 


M 4 








^ 


^\m\ 


M „ 


h 


^ 


... ^ 


^ 


njrn 


«l II 


h 







b 


"Qyn^ 


„ „ 






1X1^1 




iin.«l 


» 6 


b 


^ 


... 




D'ri^n 


»i »i 






i^^ia^i 


DH^ 


iVpjl 


11 »» 


h 




... 






i» ♦» 
i» »» 






... 


^ 


33e«i 


II n 

l> II 


> 


h 


^ 


b 


DTP?.! 


II »t 


n 




n 


n 


3TI?!1 


II 6 


^ 




^ 


^ 




II II 
11 II 




iDD ev-i yon i 




y03 DTI 


ni?K»i 


,1 7 


t) 






... 


n^'95\ 


11 11 


ni^i3 










II II 
11 II 


t> 






h 


'P^? 


,1 „ 


•^^n on 1 


Dn^ 


V3Dn 


Dn^ 


1^9!! 


»i 1} 


nibi3 








" ni?i\i 


11 II 



534 



The BabyloniaM Codex of Jonah. 



MASSOSAH PABYA. 
JoKAB nj|"» i, 7-^, 14. 





B.M. Add. 15261. 


B.]f. Add. 11860. 


ABinDB.OHWT.M. 


BJE.AaA.9Mt. 


BJLIfli 


OB. T. 
i. 7 

M 8 


\C 









.- 


l» »l 





... 


... 


... 


« 


*» ft 


n 








n 




l» »l 










... 




M 9 


... 






... 


.« 


l» »l 




:i 


... 


... 


... 


»» f» 


1 


... 


... 


1 




M »f 






1 


... 




»» If 










... 


... 


ff ft 






... 


... 


- 


,. 10 







... 


... 


... 


tt ft 










... 


- 


ti ft 

»f ft 


... 


{ 


3 ID 13 DT 


1 




fi fi 


... 








... 


... 


ft u 


yai 3 





3 


Dnia 


... 


«• ft 
»t tt 

tt la 





^333 ^D K^ 


DD3 ^D : 


^b te «♦ 


... 


ft It 







OKI 3 






.. M 






H 


{ 


L 

ii 


M It 

tt 18 





h 


3 






ft ft 
ft ft 


:i 


... 


DD3 ^D i 


J 


«l*i^ Tas 


tt 14 


r\To i 


n n3 \[ 


B^3 n n3 1 

nK^3 


} 'n *n3 1 




ft It 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


It tt 







^ 


^ 


•- 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



535 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah rt3Y' >» 7 — i, 14. 



SADP.46&. 


B.M. Habl. 1528. 


BABTLOnAIf CODBZ. 


PmiVTSD M 4MOmAH. 




ea. T. 
t 7 






... 


h 


njl^ 






T 


n 


^?^ 


.. 8 




... 


V 




^MK^-HQ 


M It 


n 




... 


n 


^»1 


l» II 
1* II 






^ 




D|?*« 


.. 9 


h 


^ 


... 




^9i^ n?)? 


.1 11 




... 


... 


1 




II 11 
II 11 









nKlplDBI 


» 


II II 






... 


HKinK 


15 


II 11 






te 




<«T*i 


1, 10 


i^b:^ 




... 




DHfJ^Sfj 


II II 


rhiy 


... ,., 


... 


n 




11 11 
11 11 


... 


... 


on 




tn? 


II II 


-loma 





^ 


r^ysi 3 




11 u 

II l> 




^333 ^D «•» 




^r 


^n 


11 II 






^D 


3 




II 12 

11 II 






n3 DQ 


3 




11 11 

11 11 


b 






... 


'V?^ 


11 11 


h 


h 




... 


<-u[iri!l 


,1 18 


^ 




3 


:i 


i^i)it6i 


II 11 


l^n 







hD^ 


l^n 


11 II 






K3K 


KH 3^n3 1 


"W 


,1 14 


h 




... 


... 


nT3KJ 


11 n 



&36 



Tlu Babiflomatt Code* of Jonah. 

ALVSEORAH PARVA. 
Jonah njl'' i» 14 — ii, tf. 



I 



B.M. Add. 16261. 



c«. T. 
i. 14 



15 



16 



ii. 1 



3 

4 



Dm h 



^y^o yon ^ 



B.M. Ado. 16^60. 



o-::^ iv on h 



Kn^ 3 



Dm h 



^y^ob 



ABoaasLOBuar. It. 



^333 



^D^l 



Kn3 3 



Dm^ 



ii. p ^ro 3 i *p3 



no 
ii. bm oni ^ 



y^D yD3 ^ 

XI ^D X 3 

Dn 



B.]f . Aa*. MM. 



Km 



} om^ 



Dm> 






h'^vh yD3 ^ 

nni iwi in 3 
niD 

i. ^3331D^ 
0. Dni 3 



tJDan I 



yD3^ 

DBin-m) 
DfiiOTrn 



I 



p DD ^ n*nn3 

*nn ^^y 3 

^31 yt33 So ^ 
3 |D 13 131 in3 



on 



p *nD ^ n^nn3 

1^333 ^D 



3 
X3ni 



{rbonn 
Dfi)n3 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



537 



JtASSOR^iJI PARVA. 
Jonah n21^ w 14 — ii, 9. 



Ji>^iAiiD. KiA, 


BM. Djal. Id^Ji. 


BA&tLOllUJf C(»DkX. , 


rill!rTEI> MjlBAOKAU. 








K *n3 a{ 


7D3 


} tt Tn^ a 


K'Pl 








* 1 




} ^ 


n „ 


3 ion nb 




- 


... 


0% 


n 15 


in^j^on 


Dni ^ 




Dni ^ 


^n^Q!l 


»i n 


M» 




»** 




la^^P 


T, ,i . 


^mn 




bo 


... 


i«T!l 


,. la 


h 




,» 


*.. 


ni!i 


.. n 






■ i. bl,i 


n 


^D*1 


iL 1 


b 


V 


I Bfl' 


1 Dm i> 

1 




•» '* 


3 'HD n^3 






-,. 


nji^ 


.t 3 




^0^ 




'i?^D ynn ^ 


nn>*p 


,. 3 




»\ IDS HT K 3 

1DD IP 




[ on in 3 


^3;)^^^;ni 


t. 4 






I- 


T' 


^m 


► ■ 7» 


*J3niD^ 




*33ilO' 


one 


*553b*^ 


t, M 








'n"iT:3 irp 


1 ^i^ir^JiA 


,. 5 


«1'DK 








fl^piK 


Th t* 


1 









';^Bf» 


u e 






on 




*Wib^ 


II t* 


1 




^ 


T 


^1*? 


.^ f. 


n. 


M* 




S 


^3Vi?^ 


t. 7 


n 


p 'ns ^ 


n*nni 


p ^n3 *? 


g^ril? 


Tl IJ 


1 






3 


mvv^n^ 


., fi 


»nni 




H 


*333 ^D K* 

13TDninD731 

303 


KO^l 


.. .. 


•? 




h 




D'y^V 


t. e 



538 



The liabylouian Codex of J<Miah. 

BCASSOBAH PABVA. 
JoMAH njf» Ji» 9 — ui| 10. 





U. 


T. 

9 


i» 


10 


»i 


tt 


11 


U 


»t 


II 


iii. 2 


11 


II 


M 


II 


n 


II 


ti 


II 


tt 


8 


M 


4 



II 


II 


II 


6 


II 


6 


II 


7 


II 


ii 


II 


II 


II 


8 



It II 

II 8 

It It 

II 10 



B.M. km. 16261. 



IDfitnC 



B.H. Aad. 16260. 



AmuMBSLOunr. 16. 



r|TD 



3 



Dfimc 





nin^a a 





D 




n 
^ 




^ 
!? 




n 


^Din 


n 


1 


Dn rvw^ tei i 



3 



- { 

1 



'loMnw 



^n6n 



riic /}(f/>f/lo)natf Co(h',v of .To}i(ili. 



5:^1^ 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah njl*^ »» 9 — '^% 10. 



IJ^IP«XA]>]>.465 



t 



i6DB^S!?D 



p ^n3 b 



Tine^h^Dan 






naoa sni S 



B.M. Haml. 1S28. 



1D& triD 



... I 



'DtS 



'DTn 



Ba«tu>iiuii Codbe. 









PmnRD Mamosu. 



3 

3 
"IDIOI B«^3 n 

»3i7D? rwrv 



••tnh 

Dm n 
nfii 



up 
*^ 

PW!1 
i3Kit6i 



OH. ▼. 

ii. 9 
„ 10 



M U 

It t» 
ill. 2 



H 5 

» 6 

« 7 



>> It 

M 8 



i» It 

t. 

It It 

t, 10 



MO 



The Babylonian Codtx of Jonah. 



MASSORAH PARTA. 
Jonah TV!Y> ii>» 10— iv, 7. 



\ 



cm. V. 
tlLlO 



It. 1 



fijr. Ads. I&2ai. 



hna 1 



M 4 

■H If 

. 



*i 7 



\ 



^ can^i 



h 



B.M. Adp. 3A2£0. AklTlfCKLOMSKT, 16. 



a 



nrp3 e*^ h n3 ' 



It* 



l^pp nip3 ^^D^ 
Kin Bjnni 

n 



B.U. Asp. 9t99. 



MY 



BJi. 



n 






n^ 



*3n p 



'I 



The BabyUmian Codex of JonaJu 



541 



MAS30RAH PARVA. 
JoKAti ri2V "!< 10 — iv, 7. 



aA».iao. 


B.lf. HUL. l&2e. 


Bavtloiiiaw Coitm. 


pMura? MAMomiM. 






n 







n 


nf}/ nbx 


ilLia 






'to 




n^nj 


iv. 1 


... 




«¥ 


nnsKit 


Twn 


., s 




n 'n3 1 




rt 'ns 1 


"IV 


l> ^t 


3 






... 


rtV'! "i^^ 


II 


t6n 






♦,, 


K^^O 


>t It 


r 


.„ 




a* 


n?1 


.. M 


1 






2 


*nvi^ 


1» ■* 








riC*33 :i 


*W'^J? 


*r i» 


\ 




!3 


1 




'♦ 








,.. 


ini 


It i* 


nao 






.,. 




t* IT 


. ,,. 


ns t 




». 


D^^T 


fi 1* 






tt 


t: 


*I^P 


M 8 


2 






3 


ig^in 


. 4' 




... 




3 1 


^^^17 


Tl M 


3 




! 


n?? 


,. 




..- 




rjT*? 


^ 


1. 11 








n 




If ft 




n.. 




^333 n 


wn^ r\p\ 


If fi 


c^3 n 






.►. 


t^*?*i? 


1, 1, 






b 


? 


n;\^ b^ 


rf fi 


n 






,.. 


i^^jy^w 


IT 11 


^^^ 


' 


kj 


. 




.1 7 


b 






D'!^^s fon «^ b 


D'n^Kn 1^1 


f. If 


niSj^ 




n' 


n 




If 



542 



The Babylonian Codea of Jonah* 



MASSORAH PABVA. 
Jonah pQI^ iv> 6— iv, 11. 



B.M. ASD. Ifi361. 



B.M. ASD. IBUO. 



IC 



^lCAmo.Mm. 



01. ▼. 
It. 6 

„ 7 

., 8 



„ 10 



n U 



^^h 



\srh2n 



K Dm 



3 



h 

re 

2 



« Dm 



ho 2^ BQ^ni 



"hi on 1 par 
pai 

«Dm.m 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



543 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah nj)^ iv, 6 — iv, 11. 



1 Add. 4»5. 


B.M. Hasi. ]528. 


Babilomiam Codek. 


PBiirrsD Mamokah. 




CH. V. 












n 









I'iTipn 


iv. 6 


... 


Dn K1 te a 3 


boc'a^ 


on nni te a i 


B^9?l 


M 7 








2 




.. 8 

»» II 


h 








D^n^. ton 


It II 






^JDt^ 


ho^b 


HT^nq 


II II 


h 


h 




h 


n^P!i 


It n 


^ya a 






2 
2 




11 9 

II II 


c^^b^a n 






^sn pn^iD 




II II 




h 


onh 




jjpn 


,1 10 


K'^^a n 










II II 
II II 




\ h 


h 


p ^Di cr^ba T 

IDT P3 




II II 
II II 
II ti 
II u 


prni b 






nan pjr b 


D'PW 


II 1. 




K Dm 


VaK^T 


« Dm 


^an 


II 11 



»L. V. 



^^ 



&3a 



Tlit Babylou'uiH Codex of Jonah. 



MASEOBAH PARVA. 

Jonah rw U 14 — ««, tt. 





B.1C. Add. 15251. 


^JL.km.W»tL 




aic ii.wii 


ULU 


CS. T. 












i. U 




Mn3 3 


Kras 


itp^roa t^ 


1 


»» It 

., 15 










... 

no 


- 


»» It 


oni h 


Dni h 


Dni^ 


1- irDWt 
u-brriDm^ 


1 


ti ft 




... 


^ 


... 


-. 


.. 16 







... 





.- 


tt It 
11. 1 












II II 


... 


h 


h 


... 




It II 


... 




1 


1 


.. 


1. a 






... 


... 


». 


II ti 






h 




... 


It 3 


^oytDaS 


^oh 


y^oyoa^ 


h'^h inD3 S 


, 


.. 4 




1 


on 


nni iwi in a 


1 

t 


It ,, 




T 


T 


T 


1 


II It 




» 


{ 


1. ^3nniD^ 


}■ 


tt 5 


h 






h 




It ti 
It • 

II It 





... 





bo\^ 


s 


11 It 


... 


T 


T 


n 




1. 7 


... 


... 




S 




It It 


o^p IV on h 


... 


p riD ^ n^nna 


p ^n? S n^nna 




M 8 






^nn ^Sr a 


1 




ft ti 





*3« te ^ 


on 


nia!?D^K3m 




" • 





h 











The Babtfloimn CotUx of Jonvh. 



m 



MASfiOKAH PARVA. 
Jonah tXTS^ »» 14 — ii, 9. 



• A»D.4M. 


B.M. Basl. 1528. 


Babylomiam Codkx. 


PmniTKP MiWOBAH. 
















CH. Y* 




«^nDa 


tea 


} K Tn^ a 


KTi 


i. U 






{ 


^ytDOT^ 


} "^5 


»• II 






TKV ^3DT 




iDnn^s 










II II 

.1 15 


in:>^D^i 


Dm h 





Dm ^ 




II It 

II 11 


1KT1 




te 




WT!1 


,1 la 


^ 








n"^*! 


II It 








n 


'PM 


it 1 


h 


h 


DH 


Dmi> 




II II 


ro nb 










.1 2 




^ySo^ 




^yte yoa ^ 


ni^ 


.. 3 


1DD ID 


K1 IDS N"l N n 

IDS ID 




[ Dmn a 


':i^.'Wm 


II 4 






1 


n 


^C»}1 


11 II 


^:3mD^ 




^:aaiD^ 


DRD 


^«5b^^ 


1, 1. 






] 


^nna3 jd^d ^ 


I ^WTAA 


1, 5 






^niTJ3 )yp 




51^DN 








n^piK 


II II 


1 




Dn 






,. 6 

11 II 


"t 




"1 


T 


^^'l!? 


It II 








^ 


^^vpi? 


II 7 


1 


p ^HD ^ 


nvina 


P ^HD h 


^v^ 


II II 


n 






2 


n^synn? 


M 8 






tei 


'2^2 ho K^ 


I «j??»l 




Nnni 




IDT D^aiHD bt 


II II 






aoa 




^ 




^ 




D^TSW 


,1 9 



538 



The liabyloHiuH Codex of JotuJi. 



MASSORAH PABVA. 
JoMAH njV iJ, 9^ii, 10. 





, ▼. 




II 


10 


II 


II 


11 


u 


II 


It 


iii. 2 


II 


II 


n 


II 


II 


II 


ft 


II 


»t 


8 


II 


4 


" 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


11 


5 


II 


6 


ti 


7 


II 


ii 


II 


II 


II 


8 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


9 


II 


II 


II 


10 


II 


It 


II 


It 



B.M. kOD. 15261. 



B.1C. Add. 16280. 



iDfitno 



ft ff I 



«|TD 



AmijianLOuE»T. 16. 



2 



Dfitno 





niiT3 2 


ID 




ID 


^Bnn 




n 


1 


iDTnn«!^ 


ten 



3 

-{ 



itxivnv 



fi*ID 



^^ n 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



547 



MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Jonah X^Ti^ ii> 4 — iv, 2. 



IA1H>.466. 



B.M. Hael. 162S. 



Babtlohiam Codiz, 



PsmnD Mamokah. 







•vjn 


OH. T. 

ii. 4 




» 6 

•» If 




.. 8 
» 


npv«?l 


n 10 


io^^ njn; rvvpB 


M U 


MP 


iti. 2 


^n 


.. 4 


ni5(jD'i» 


ti II 


■>9»<*) »T1 


II II 


«n?Bii 


,. 5 


■>Mn 


1, 6 




» 7 
•1 ft 


"i?II?? 


II 8 


«?^,\ 


II .1 


DWI 


.1 


BW^l 


1, 10 


rtyi6\ 


II II 


nnf 


iv. 2 


»> 


II II 


•^9^ 


II i» 


'i?V1» 


1. II 


n^rfie 


II II 






pn^tD^Di ^ 



|in»w ID 



pnao^oniDnn 
pn:tD^Di3p^n 



^Di ^"ipa ^ 



pnDD^Dnp^n 






* Dm pan n 



... I 



nn Dmi Dm 
:d^di riD \ ItD 



B^ba n 



a.^roi 



...{ 



b^Di 



*Di n«npa i 



^^ \ 



540 



The Babylonian Codtx of Jonah. 



MASgORAH PARVA. 
Jonah n3)^ "«, 10 — ^iv, 7. 







B.U. Add. 16251. 


B.U. Add. 188M>. 


ABO'HIMIL OUBfT. 16. 


B Jf . A9D. 9m. 


11. ■■ 




ULIO 


n 


n 


n 


n 


„ 




tv. 1 


... 




... 




.- 




M 8 






... 


KV 






If II 


n TO 1 


... 


ntrpa b6 h ro 1 


p^rai 


' 




II II 
II II 
II II 
It ti 





... 




1 






II *» 
II II 


?. Dn5\ 


1 

n 


pp nip3 ^3bS 
Kin pjiini 

n 


i 

f 

n 


mnrfc 




M 8 














.1 4 

II i> 








n 
3 






II 5 






h 








M e 

• 1 n 
II 11 


nJnjB^nnDn\n^^ 








^31 




II II 

II II 


^ 




h 








11 II 

II 7 














II II 








^:Mb 






i» II 


n 


n 


n 


tei n 






M M 








^ 


7 



TlAff BabyhmoH Codex of Jonak. 



Ml 



MAS90R1H FARYA. 
Jonah toV »"» 10— iv, 7. 



■ Am. 465. 


B.M. HAm&. 1088. 










n 


... *.r 


... 


n 


n\?yi6^ 


iiLlO 


... 


... 


Vd 


... 


n^j 


tr. 1 


... 


... 


«v 


nn&KY 


-ivfn 


H 9 




n^roi 


... 


r\>TO\ 


m 


H It 


:i 


... 


... 




Mm 


ft 11 


vhr\ 











vihq 


»t tf 


y* 







r 


n?! 


ff l> 


y 








:i 


'WVi 


ft M 


... 


... 


... 


qfi^sn 


»jjy5? 


If II 


1 





^ 


T 


n*in nps db to 
ma 


l» H 

II It 

•f t» 


nao 


ns V 


... 


... 


tMrn\ 


tt • It 

tl tl 
II tl 







w 


W 


'J9P 


tl 8 


3 


... 




3 


ao'ijn 


1. 4 








3 


l^nil? 


fi II 


3 




... 


... 


n?? 


11 5 






... 


WT^ 


^ 


It It 






... 


«? 




It 6 

It It 






... 


^333 n 


D'rl^jn^h', 


tl It 


B^^a n 


... 


... 


... 


J^t'i? 


tl II 






h 


:> 


nj^'j* iw 


II It 


n 






... 


l^'iJ*PO 


tl II 


•-^1^5 




te 


... 




tl II 
t. 7 


^ 




... 


B'sj^wnw^ 


B'riSsj !e»i 


ft It 


ni^lE3 


... 


n 


n 


rti?j8 


It It 


... 







mno^itt^ 


"TtW^ 


It It 



542 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 

MASSORAH PABVA. 
JoKAH TVn^ iv» 6 — iv, 11. 



B.M. AlH>. 16251. 



B.M. Add. IS280. 



.IC 



BJI. 



01. ▼. 

It. 6 
» 7 
,. 8 



10 



U 



tel^ 



\Srh2n 



« Dm 



on ini te a i 

2 



b 
re 

2 



h 
h 

M Dm 



a 

Da 

a 



^^a on n pae^ 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 



543 



MASSORAH PARVA. 
Jonah pfJl^ iv» 6 — iv, 11. 



c Add. 4»5. 


B.M. HAmi. 1528. 


Babilomiar Codek. 


Pbihtid Mamobah. 
















CH. V. 


n 








l^'?'B>n 


iv. 6 




on K1 te a 3 


^OK'a^ 


on nni te a J 


^y*.i 


M 7 








2 


19)1 


M 8 

M II 


^ 






... 


O'rt^^ lop 


.. .. 






^»^ 


^i!? 


nrnq 


It l» 


h 


h 




h 


«i^p?i 


M t. 


n^aa 






... 


«TO 'Uto 


tl II 








ns 


D'il^T!?**'! 


M 9 








3 


30'nn 


II II 








3 


l^-n-JC 


II II 


B^'pn n 








!iFi?n 


II II 








'DT pn^n 


'^n-io 


II II 




h 


DH^ 


... 


5Pn 


,1 10 


K^^a n 






... 




II II 

II n 




\ h 


h 


p tai C«^3 t 


'3< 


II II 
It If 

II u 


psj'm h 






nST J'B' •? 


tl'pw 


II n 




K Dm 


Va «^T 


K Dm 


tal 





►L. V. 



^^ 



The Babylonian Codex of Jonah. 

MASSORAH MAGNA. 
Jonah n3V '» 2 — ii, 1. 



545 



■Add. 466. B.M. Hael. 1528. Babtlokum C!odbx. Peimtid Mamobah. 



pn^D^Dinpnn 



P1"I0 






30^01 nen ID ^n 






3D^D1 D^ 



D^inKinKlTKI 



pn^D^Di a 



3D^D1 i ID ^n 



D^Di fct^-pa i 



^aOT WDT ^ 



c»P 
rpiDD 1 



CH. ▼. 

i. 2 



„ 

n 12 

„ 13 

II II 

II 14 



ii. 1 



552 lenno-ScimOj or Mikosfti ; Ark-Shnnea of Japan, ■ 

when the wind blows, caueiiig the clappers to strike^ thtis 
pmducing an agreeable effect when there is a number of 
thera. On the upper side a amall bird is perched on each ; 
tliese are not unlike doves ; quails are favourite birds with 
the people of that country^ and it may be these birds which 
are intended. Kaempfcr describes these shrines as having 
** a gilt crane on the top,** but those I have seen were suiv 
mounted by a cock. This is explained from Shtntoism being 
founded on Hiin-worship, and the c-ock is a worthy wor* 
Khipper* being usually the first to announce the eai^ly dawn 
of nii^ming. 

The outer gateways are a very important feature in all 
Japanese temples, both Buddhist and Shinto ; they are 
erected f^n the approaches to temples as 8€)mething honorific, 
at wealthy and well frequented shrines numbers of these 
peculiar gateways have been erected, it will be seen from 
the drawing that they bear a strong family likeness to the 
Fallows of the Chinese. They are called Tom, which is said 
to mean "Bird Rest** and that they were so called from a 
dove resting on the fii^st one which was constructed. Their 
original signification is difficult to arrive at, for they ai-e no 
doubt very ancient, and many ideas are now connected with 
them, and their supposed power of conferring purification on 
those who pass through is too remarkable to be omitted; on 
this account it is considered necessary to wash the hands 
with water before doing so. One of the brass ornaments^ 
and which is repeated many times on this ark, is a circle, 
containing what might be described as three notes of inter- 
rogation, or a trefoil of decorated Gothic. It is called mitz- 
tomot/e^ or the three foinoi/ea ; but what tomoye means I have 
not yet been able to discover. It bears such a strong resem- 
blance to the Chinese Yin- Yang^ that although the one is a 
dual symbol, and the other triple, I can hardly doubt but 
there must be some connection. 

It was not my good fortune to see any of the ceremonieB 
with these arks, but I have seen a picture where one is 
carried on men's shoulders, and a surging crowd around, 
evidently pushing, while the shrine sways heavily to onu side, 
and the crowd are tlnrowing what seems to be pieces of 



J 



The Bahyhmcm Codex of Jonah. 



547 







MASSOBAH 


MAGNA, 






Jonah n3V ii, ^ — iv, 2. 






B.M. Habi. 1529. 


BABTLOMlAlf CODSX. 


















CB. ▼. 


jinjD^Di T 


pn^o^Di T 


Md^DI *T p *Tn 


... 


-^w\ 


ii. 4 


lin^o^Di T 










^1«W 


» 6 


... 


... 


pn^o^Dnpin 


^D1 ^2 T 


^h^ 


•» ff 


... 


... 


... 




wyow 


„ 8 


... 


... 


... 


... 


.Kir^i?:jn 


1. 


... 


" 


pmowapTn 




npv^B^ 


„ 10 


... 


... 







TO^S njn; rrfp^ 


.. u 





... 


... 


^Di r|n 


wp 


m. 2 


... 


... 




... 


V. 


,. 4 


... 


... 




... 


nq^ dV 


fi ff 


... 


... 


... 


* *p1DD * 


T(?K«J KT?*.! 


If If 


... 




... 


... 


«n?B!l 


If 6 


pn^D^Di 


... 





« 


^^?!l 


„ 6 


... 


... 


nn^D^Diipin 


« T 


psfjn 


fi 7 


... 













II II 
1, 8 


... 


... 





* Dm pen n 


o^,\ 


If II 


... 




nn DTOi Dm 


... 


om 


1, 


... 


{ 









.1 10 


... 


... 


... 


B^ba n 3^rD i 


"W 


iv. 2 


... 




r 

L 


b^Di 


>> 


If ff 

It II 


> 







*Di nxnpa i 




II II 



554 Tetuio-Sania^ or Mikmhi ; ArkhShrines of Japan* 

people danced with raiieic, and to which ofierings were 
made, and they called this shrine their Khuda or "god." 
Afghanistan and the Himaiayas are a long way from Japau, 
still these ceremonies will show that portable shrines or 
temples had a very extended acceptation in the ancient 
world, relics of which only exist now in out of the way 
quarters. 




THE STteLE C 14 OF THE LOUVRE. 
By 6- Maspero, 

Mmd Ui May, 1877. 

The etile C 14, published by Lepsius (AuBwahl, taf. ix), 
and Prisse d'Avennes (Monuments Egyptiens, pi, vii), has 
been often alluded to, but never translated. It was found 
in Abjdoe by Th^deiiat du Vent, sold to Coueinery, and then 
to the Louvre, Charapollioii, struck by the conformity of 
Style which it offers to the stele 45 iu Turin, ascribed it to the 
XXIst Dynasty, and tried to discover on it the names of king 
Sraendes and king Psousennes (Lettres k M. le due de Blacas, 
deuxifeme Lettre^ pp, 114-118), De Rouge thought *'it might 
be considered on the whole as being one of the master-pieces 
of Egyptian sculpture" (Catalogue des Monuments Egyp- 
tiens de la Salle du Rez-de-chaussee, 1849, p, 47, and Rapport 
adresse k M* le Directeur-g^n^ral des Musses Nationaux> 
1851, p, 17), and his opinion was fully re-echoed by Orcuili, 
The fact is* the first draught of the hieroglyphics, which 
was done in red ink, and remains to this day visible, ie 
exceedingly fine, but the carving, although very elaborate, 
is by no means excellent. 

C 14 was ereeted for a certain I a^^^va Iritisen^ in the 

reign of Mentuhotep, Rd-neb-kheru (Xlth Dynasty). Iritisen 
and his wife 8 ^ ^ Hapii^ are figured twice on it. First, 
in the lower part, sitting together upon one seat, the lady 
with one ami lovingly put around the neck of her lord, the 
man raising to his nose an ahbastron full of perfumed oil ff. 
Before them is a low table, piled with every description of 
victuals ; over them a legend — 



Si^II%vt?t 



Oo 



A 





nn 



y^^^^^^ 



Funereal meal of bread and 



&io 



THE TENNO-SAMA, OR MIKOSHI ; AEK-SHKIKES 
OF JAPAN. 



By William Simpson, 
Mtiad Bih Man-K 1677- 

When in Japan in 1873, I chanced to become acquainted 
vnth the cnrious fact that in some of the religious cereinoniea 
of the country a shrine ie used, which is carried by lueans 
of staves on men's shoulders, in the same manner ass the 
Ark of the Covenant is described to have been* As these 
shrines have many pointfl of resemblance to the Ark of the 
Jewish Tabernacle, and as they do not seem to have been 
yet described, a short account of them may be of value ta 
Bibhoal siliolars. 

The name given to them is Ihmo-Sanm, which may l»e 
translated ''Heaven's Lord'*; they are also called Afikosht ; 
mt, is /' precious •' or ** honourable/' XtwA/*, is seat. 

In construction these shrines are miniatures of a Japanese 
temple ; there is a small square cella, mth a large over- 
hanging roof J the eella has folding doors on each of ita 
four sides; round the whole is a miniature wooden fence, 
through which there is a gate of approach to each door. 
Temples in Japan are all made of wood, and a particular 
kind of tree is sacred for this purpose, and I understood that 
this wood was also used for the const ruction of the Tenno- 
Samas. The temple of Solomon was built principally of 
wood and bronze, tbe eai'ly Greek buildiogs were also of 
the same materials, and this condition of architecture ia 
still to be found in Japan to-day, and many of the temples 
are very beautiful specimens of work* Brass or bronze is 
largely used for binding the wood together, as well aa for 
ornament. t 



The Side C 14 0/ the Louvre* 



557 






fj'^'rlln^ P "^^ — '* Proscyiieiii to Osiris 

lord of MendeSy Khent-Ament, lord of Abydos, in all his 
places, that lie may give a funereal meal of bread and 
driuk^ thoueands of loaves, liquors, f>xeiu geese, linen, 
clothes, all good and pure things, loaves without number,* 
beer^ spirits/ cakes of the lord of Abydos, white cream (?) of 
the sacred cow,' on whicli the Manes* hke to feed,* for the 
devout unto Osiris and Anuhis, lord of the burjHng grounds, 

the chief of artiste, the Mg 3 *^^ Iritisen," 

The word 3 . . ^ is derived from 3 ^ 3 by addi- 
tion of the formative ^ II, so that n ^ M?j is ifie man of | 

the man who cuU (lit., scrapes) the hieroglyphics and 
engraves the scenes on the walls of tombs and teroples. In 
one of the versions of Sineh*8 life (Inscriptions in the Hieratic 
and Demotic Characters^ pi xxiii, Ostr. 5629, line 2)^ it is told 

*'^^''<^ln\'S'?n^l^. "*'^^ chief sc^lpt^r 



IP J I for ^jL^lpJI^ - without wekomng." 

' Sense d<>abtfiil, probsblj from | j inccde^eertj fcrvere, 

' The cow lia« a sun-difik, Q, between the homi, in the ongin&L 

* The sign before the ^^ is a TBriant of ^ which is found often in hiero* 
gljphical texift of the XI-XTIIth ]>jtiaBiiet* It is deriTed from the hieralio 



form of 



«*=»■ QTV for 4- 0JV hj a niisiake of tlie scribe in the tranBcription of 
the hieratic origioal. 



558 



The Sale C 14 of the Louvre. 



will carve in his tomb/' Iritificn was more than 3 pjA . 
he drew or painted, Mg as well as carved, 3 and gave 
hhnself in consequence the title of l&R 3 '^ 5?) "scribe- 
carver," or more properly ** draughtsman and sculptor." He 
was very proud of his skill, and not shy of praising himeelf. 

The last ten hues of the inscription are filled with 
enumeration of his own vii^tucs, and to this vanity we ardl 
indebted for the knowledge of what was required then from 
an Egyptian artist. 



III 









^ 1 



^i=°rPP^i:n-^r(^'"'"')'S: 






?"TMkfl1=r*:T^''^--)ra 



M«^/yHA AWVHA 






' See on the formt Le Page Benouf, Gnunnrnr* p. 24-27. 

* There U before fe^ the sign wliich haa been explained in note 4, p. 6S7. 

' Mistake of the eeribe for ^ 



^ Miit&ke of the acribe for 



H%.^\ 



lU 



f 



TennO'Sarfia, or Mikoshi ; A rk-Shrineit of Japan. 551 

Some of these arks have small fij^ires of a deity within 
them^ and they no doubt belong to the Buddhist faith. Tlie 
primitive religion of Japan is Shintoism^ and its temples are 
marked by the absence of idolatrous images. Lately Bud- 
dhism lias undergone something Hke dis^establishment, and 
Shintoism is now proclaimed as the only religion authorized 
by the State. There are three emblems which are common to 
a Shinto temple t these are a Mirror, a Sword, and a Jewel ; 
some accounts make it a Casket instead of the last-named 
article, but the Casket contains the Jewel ; as the Mikado 
as Emperor is e.r-ojicio a god, the Tenno-Samas sacred to 
him contain these three symbok: they are the insignia of 
his rank ; they are called Miiakara. Mt^ is rendered as 
** three," and takara^ as ** precious things." Satow's transla- 
tion is very slightly different ; he puts it, " Mite-gura is com- 
pound of the honorific mr, corresponding in meaning to the 
Chinese go^ te, a contraction of tae, an archaic word for 
cloth. This is the derivation given in the Wakunkan." This 
word also means the Gohei^ and the Gohei ia also at times 
rendered the Jewel; but the Go A^* is not a ** Jewel"' in our 
sense of the word ; it is a slender wand set up on end, to 
wliich is attached a piece of cut paper, which hangs down 
symint^trically on each side. This emblem is frequently the 
only object to be found in the sanctum of Japanese temples. 
This curious symbol of worship is said to represent cloth or 
clothes, and that hemp was one of the primitive offerings of 
an early age, and the paper now stands for the hemp. The 
Mirror, one of '* Three Precious Things," is always round, 
and is* according to Japanese authorities, a symbol of the 
sun. There is a legend that the fii'st miiTor was made by a 
mythic blacksmith, the counterpart of Vulcan no doubt, and 
iron from the mines in Heaven was procured for the purpose. 
In addition to the mirror in the cella, there are twenty-four 
small round mirrors on the outside ; they are placed on the 
folding doors, tliree on each side, one above the other. 

The corner ridges of the roof are elongated, and turned 
into what might be termed the horns of the altar, fi-ora each 
is suspended a small bell, as in Chinese bells on temples, 
there is a piece of thin flat wood suspended, which is moved 



552 Tenn&'Sania^ or AFdmahi; Ark^Shrines of Japan* 



when the wind blows, csaueing the clappers to strike, thus 
producing an agreeable eflFect when there is a number of 
them. On the upper side a email bird is perched on each; 
these are not unlike doves ; quails are favourite birds with 
the people of that country, and it may be these birds wliich 
are intended. Kaempfer descrihes these shrines as having 
" a gilt crane on the top,'' but those I have seen were sur- 
mounted by a cock This is explained from Shintoism being 
founded on sun-worship, and the cock is a worthy wor- 
shipper, beiog usually the first to announce the eai^ly dawn 
of morning. 

The outer gateways are a very important feature in all 
Japanese temples, both Buddhist and Shinto ; they are 
erected on the approaches to temples as something honorific, 
at wealthy and wl41 fi-equented shrines nimibers of these 
peculiar gateways have been erected, it will be seen from 
the drawing that they bear a strong family likeness to the 
Pailows of the Oiinese. They are called Torii, which is said 
to mean "Bird Rest," and that they were so called from a 
duvc resting oo the tii^st one which was coustructed* Their 
original signification is difficult to arrive at, for they ai'e no 
doubt very ancient, and many ideas are now connected with 
them, and then* supposed power of conferring purification on 
those who pass through is too remarkable to be omitted; on 
this account it is considered necessary to wash the hands 
^vith water before doing so. One of the brass ornaments, 
and which is repeated many times on this ark, is a circle, 
containing what might be described as three notes of inter- 
rogation, or a trefoil of decorated Gothic. It is called mit^ 
tomoi/e^ or the three tomoyes; but what tmn&ye means I have 
not yet been able to discover. It bears such a strong resem- 
blance to the Chinese Yin^Yang^ that although the one is a 
dual symbol^ and the other triple, I can hardly doubt but 
there must be some comiection. 

It was not my good fortune to see any of the ceremonies 
with these arks, but I have seen a picture where one is 
carried on men*s shoulders, and a surging crowd aronnd, 
evidently pushing, while the shrine sways heavily to one side, 
and the crowd are th^o^ving what seems to be pieces of 



I 




I 



lenrii^Sai/ia, or Mikmhi ; Ark-Sknnes of Japan, 553 

paper in tlie air, bauiiers arc bt-ing carried, aud numerous 
liands are hoUUng up fans, which are being waved tu wards 
the sacred object. 

There are seven of these shrines io the temple of 
Hachiman at Kamakiira ; they are liaid by some to be State 
Noptmam, but as tliese shrines are connected with the deified 
Jlikadn, they are most probably Teuno-Samati. or ^Ekoshisy as 
well as A^oritnans, This is confirmed by a statement of 
KaempftJi's ; he says, *' The Mtko»hi themeelvea being eighL" 
From tlila it is evident that a certain number, it may be eight 
as Kaempfer puts it, or seven as they are stated to be at the 
temple tif Hachiman, are connected with the peculiar rites 
and ceremonies which belong to them. 

1 may also mention tliat I fomitl a ttjy shop in Yokohama 
where small ones were s*tld as toys fur children. I also 
fon^d that small models could be ^ot, and I brought home 
two of these. One, a very beautiful model, I got made at 
the request of the Rev. W, D, Parish, Rector of Selmcston, 
Suffolk, in whose possession it is ; aud the other is in the 
Museum of the Andursoniuti University, Gkisgow. 

The many points of resemblance between these Tenno- 
Samas and the Ark of the Hebrew Temple are so evident 
that they require no insisting upon, I cannot pretend to 
explain how such resemblances have come into existence. 
The geographical space between Palestine and Japan adds 
much to the difficulties of the problem. The question r-f 
race is also another of the knotty considerations involved. 
I ^vraild suggest that the suljject is worthy of further con- 
sideration, and I would refer readers to Be!lew*8 Journal of a 
Political Mission to Afghanistan in 1857, p. 49, where he will 
find an account ft-om one of the Afghan Tawanckks^ or 
histories, which recoimts how a tribe called Bani-Ismel has 
an ark called the Tai^ftt'i'&ikina, made of Shamshad w^ood ; 
on it were figured all the prophets of God, and it w^as the 
omcle of the tribe. I would also refer to an article written 
by myself, descriptive of what I sa%v, an<l published in Good 
Words, m September, IHiJO, w^hich describes some very curious 
ceremonies in the Himalayas, where an ark-like shrine was 
carried w^th staves on men's shoulders, round which the 



554 Tenno-Sarwh or Mikoehi; Ark-Slirins^ of Japan, 

people danced with muBiCf and to which ofierings were 
made, and they called this shrine their Khiula or **god.'' 
Afghanistan and the Himalayas are a long way from Japan, 
atill these ceremonies will show that portable ahrines or 
temples had a very extended acceptation in the ancient 
world, relics of which only exist now in out of tiie way 
quarters. 





5S5 



I 



I 



THE STfcLE C 14 OF THE LOUVRE- 
By O. Maspeho. 
E€ttd Ut May, 1877. 

Tee Bthle C 14, published by Lepeius (Ataswahl, taf. ix), 
and Priese d'Avennee (Moininients EgjptienB, pL vii), has 
been often alluded to^ but never tranelated. It was found 
in Abydos by Th^denat du Vent, sold to Cousinery, and then 
to the Louvre* Champollion, etruck by the confonnity of 
fityle which it offem to the stele 45 in Turin» aecribed it to the 
XXIflt Dynasty, and tried to discover on it the names of king 
Sraendes and king PeouBenoes (Lettres k M, le due de Blacas, 
deuxifeme Lettre, pp. 114-118). De Rouge thought "it might 
be considered on the whole as being one of the maBter-piecea 
of Egyptian sculpture *' (Catalogue des Monuments Egyp- 
tiena de la SaUe du Rez-de-chauss^e, 1849, p. 47, and Rapport 
adressi^ k M. le Directeur-g^neral des Musees Nationaux, 
1851, p, 17), and his opimon was fully re-echoed by Orcurti< 
The fact is, the first draught of the hieroglyphics, which 
was done in red ink, and remains to this day visible, is 
exceedingly fine, but the carving, although very elaborate, 
is by oo means excellent. 

C 14 was erected for a certain I '^^^^^ Irttisen^ in the 

reign of Mentuhotep, Ed-neb-kheru (Xlth Dj^iasty), Iritisen 
and his wife 8 yv r^ H^ipu, are figured twice on it. First, 
in the li>wer part, sitting together upon one seat, the lady 
with one arm lovingly put around the neck of her lord, the 
man raising to his nose an alabastron full of perfumed oil W. 
Before thera is a low table, piled with every description of 
victuals ; over them a legend — 



oi^H^^-? 



^ e ^ 



ira™'jiirp-™T^ 



^^ 



n\Ti 



' Funereal meal of bread and 




The StiU C 14 of ifie Louvre. 



1 



liquor, thoiisands of laavee, liquors, oxen, geese, all good 

aiid pure thingfi, to the pious Iritisen; his pious wife who 
loves hira, Hapu/' In the inidtQe register, they are represented 
etaiiding. Iritisen holds in the left hand the long stick of 
elders and noblemen, in the right the «=>^ seeptre; both 
are making fi-ont to a proceBsion of their own fiLmily. 

^j|^*|^^_i|P*^^ "HiB son, his eld 

who loves him, Usortesen '* heads it ; then follow — 

^^ n^ Q^l *^"°^ p^L ^ 1^ n 1 " ^^ ®*^^' ^^^ loves 
hira, Mentuhoiep,'' and ^^ ^^^ M »c-^ ^ — ^ ^ ^^ J 
**hia son, who loves him, Si-Mentu" ; immediately afte 
whom we find a lady ^^ ^ ^ Z ^\. ^^ ^ 

(sic for "^), *Mns daughter, who loves him^ Qiw/' and 

^* [ flfl I fee iw!!! I " '^^^" ®*^^' ^^'^^ loves her, TrmnrW 
There is every reason to think that Si-Mentu had married 
his sister, and that Temnen was las as well as Qim'i 
child, Usortesen is abont to sacrifice a goose to his father, 
according to rite, and Mentuhotep bears an ox-thigh. 

The inscription begins with — 

mc^i^cM cms] 



I- 



unites both lands^ the lord of diadems, who amitea both 
lands, Idng of Upper and Lower Egypt (son of Ka, Mentu- 
hotep), everliving; — his true servant, who is in the inmost 
recess of his lieart, and makes hie pleasure all the day long, 
the devout unto the great god» Iritisen." 

The foiinula of proscynem contain 8 some uncommon 
variations of the usual text. (Line 3 :) 1 ^ A fl J) '^^^ M 



The Sale C 14 of the Louvre. 

5. 



557 



^iV'^'pSi i^f f ^"^^ **Pro8cyiiera to Obu'Is 






lord of Mendes, Kliout^Ament, lord of Abydoe, ib all his 
places, that lie may give a funereal meal of bread and 
drink, thoufttiuds of loaves^ liqiiore, oxen, geese, linen, 
clothes, all good and puj-e things, loaves without nuraber,* 
beer, epirite,* cakes of the lord of Abydos, white cream (?) of 
tlie sacred cow,^ on which the Manes ^ like to feed,* for the 
devout unto Osiris and Anubis, lord of the buiying gi'ounds, 

the chief of artists, the ttg | "^ ^ Iritisen." 

The word 3 ^ is derived from 3 ^ 3 by addi- 
tion of the formative <^ M, so that d "^^ is the man of 3 

the man who cuts (lit., scrapes) the hieroglyphics and 
engi*avee tlie scenes un the walls of tomlis and temples. In 
one of the versions of Sineh's life (Inscriptions in the Hieratic 
and Demotic CharacterK, pi xxiii, Ostn 5629, line 2), it is told 



'vw^ I P J I ^^"^ ^-^ i P J il . " ^^^^^ reckoning." 

' Sense donbtful, probably from | I inctU^Mcerey ferteft. 

' The cow li&fi a sun-disk, Q, bctweeu the homs^ in the original. 

^ The sign before the ^fe* is a variBnt of 0> which is fonnd oJ^en in hiero- 
gljpbical texts of the Xl-XlIIth Djnoitici. It is deriTed from the hiemtic 



form of 



for i I 
the hieratic origiool. 



bj a mistake of the icnbe in the tranBcription of 



SS8 



The Side C U of the Loum^e. 



will carve in his tomb,'' rritieen was more than 3 r^ - 
he drew or painted, jfi as well as carved, 3 aiid gave 
himself in consequence the title ^f fag 1 ^ ^ " scribe- 
carver/* or more properly " draughtsman and sculptor/' He 
was very proud of his skill, and not shy of praising himeeU'. 

The last ten lines of the inscription are filled with an 
enumeration of his own viilues, and to this vanity we are 
indebted for the kno%vIedge of wliat was required then from 
an Egv^itian artist. 



O 4 O I 



^d^/vwk jv^w^ 



m <. ,„ (Line 120 rO 



* See on tlae form, Le Page Benouf, Onunnmr, p. 24-27. 
' There is before ^^^ ^^^ ^i^ which hiia been eiplained id note 4^ p. 557. 

• Miitakc of (he icribe for ^ 



* HiiUke of the •cribe for 



likl^ 



\\\ 





7"/^^ Slile C 14 €»/ thf Ixmvrt*. 



559 



m 



(Li„el3=) ™n<^l'j?^T 



^-fl 



/^ 






(LiaeU:) vT^l^:^^ 



u. 



CD 



Iritisen begins by telling ** that he knows the mystery of 
the di\nne wonV" and that **he is an artist wkilled in hia 
art/* The three following verses are intended to support this 
general assertion of excellency. " I know," saith he, ** what 
belongs to it, the sinking waters, the w^eighings done for the 
reckoning of accounts, how to produce the fonii of issuing 
forth and coming in, so that the member go to its place." 
Ever^^ word, when strictly analysed, seems to yield two 
different meanings* In a material sense, Iritisen is only 
thinking of his personal ability in drawing scenes of civil 
and domestic life, the ming and sinking of inundation such 
as 18 often represented on the walls of tombs, tlie weigliing 
by scribes of tribntefi brought by townspeople or husband- 
men, the motion of a man through the various stages of 
walking, so that each individual member be not out of line, 
but sit well in its place. In a mystical sense, the whole is 
an allusion to various chapters in the Book of the Dead, 
Chapter ex, for instance, is a picture of the Egyptian 
Elysium, with its fields of wlieat and barley, its canals and 
pools of fresh water filled by the celestial Nile. Chap- 
ter cxxv has a descnptii)n of how they weigh the heart of 
nian and reckon luniian deeds before the iidernal jury. The 

" performing of rites which cause the dead to issue forth and 
come in, and make every member go to its place,*' is a sum- 
mary of more tlian twenty chapters (xxi-xxx, lxiv-lxx\i, 



Tot- y. 



36 



50n 



The Siile C 14 of tfte Lonm*e. 



cxvii-cxxvii, &c,), in wluch the Osiris ia ordered to enter 
several placea and to come out of them at his liking, and 
has the use of his members given back to him, so that every 
one of them be not taken away from him, but *' go to its 
place."* ' 

**1 know the walking of an image of man, the carnage 
of a woman, the two arm« of Hor, the twelve circles (eerchi) 
of the blasphemei*8, the contemplating the eye without a 
second which affrights the wicke<l, the poising uf arm to 
bring the hippoputamus low, the gouig of the rnnuer." If 
we take the material sense, this second ver^e is only the 
contiimatioii antl development of the last sentence in the 
first, Iritiften tries to particularise some of the shapes he- 
was able to give his figures, the peculiar bearing of a stJinJ- 

ing statue ^ ^ ^ l| the carriage of a walking woman m 

Then,, parsing to divine subjects, he could make the two 
arms of llorua, paint tlie twelve circles of the Egyptian 
Hades, through which Ra has to wail during the night, from 

the moment he disappears into the Ro-Peqer ( 
*^^ V A '^^^J' ^^^^ *^^* Abydos, to the moment he arises 
again in the east, represent the scenes of adoration to Ra» hi 
which the actors were spirits in human shapes, with heads of 
hawks or jackals, and cynocephaH* The last two mentioned 
would refer to hunters pm'suing the hippopotamus and to 
rmiuing men, or to Horus poising tlio javelin before killing 
tlie hijjpopotamug, and to Ra, *' the runner which no one is 
able to catch in the morning of his bii'thSi*' If w^e take tlie 
mystical sense, we must apply for mterprctation to the fujie- 
real papyri which bear the titk^ of " Book of knowing what 
there is in the Lower World," good speeiineos of which have 
been translated or published by Dr. Birch and M. Pierret. 
Then the ** walking of an image,*' the '* carriage of a woman,*' 
and the "two arms of Hor," would be the transcription m 
w^ords of the picture whicli represents two human arms belong- 
ing to an invisible body, and holding various figures, the most 

conspicuous of which are a standing mummy c^ ^\ o tj 
and a woman M The twelve hoin*s of night, the adora* 



4 



The Sak C 14 of the Lofu-re, 



5li] 



tions of Ilk by Oaiiis, would be alhided to in ^vhat follows, 
yi n g -^ would be refeired to the Suu, as in the first 
interpretation. 

For the last verse, " I kno%v the making of amulets 
[which enahle] ua to go without any fire giving its flame, 
and without our being washed away by water;' we could 
Biippose that Tritisen yiraises his skill in devising real amii- 
rlets to preserve the living from real flames and water, or 
pretends to know the charms that save the dead from the 
flames and waters of the underworld. 

Both meamngs being admissible, I think that both 
meaning's must be admitted at unee. I have often remarked 
that Egyptian writers deliglit iii ambiguities of diction. 
They were fond of putting words that could be interpreted 
in two diflereut ways or more-, and took care that every 
sentence foUowiug these words might be construed with one 
of the meanings as well as the other one. Iritis en tells us 
at the liegiuDiiig that he is initiated '* to the mystery of the 
divine word,'' and tlxat he is an artist : the same words are 
used all through the inscriptions to express both facts. I 
have tried to transfer the double meaning of t!ie original in 
our modern tongues, and to give a translation which may be 
interpreted both ways. 

"I know the raystei-y of the divine Word, the ordinances 
of the religious feasts, every rite of which they are 
fraught, 1 never strayed from them ; I, indeed, am an 
artist wise in his art, a man standing above [all men] 
by his learning. 

L *'I know what belongs to it, the sinking waters, the 
weighings done for the reckoning of accounts, how to 
produce the form of issuing forth and coming in, so 
that a member go to its place. 

2, ** I know the walking of an image of man, the carriage 
of a woman, the two arras of Hor, the twelve circles 
of the blasphemers, the contemplating the eye %vith- 
out a second that aflrights the wicked, the poising of 
ann to bring the hippopotamus low, the going of 
the nmuer. 



562 



The SUle C 14 of the Louvre. 



3. "I know the making of amulets, that we may go 
without any fire giving its flame, or without our being 
washed away by water 1 

"Lol there is no man excels by it but I alone and my 
eldest legitimate son: God has decreed him to be 
excellent in it ; and I have seen the perfections of his 
hands in his work of chief-artist in every kind of 
precious stones, from gold and silver even to ivory 
and ebony ! 

" Funereal meal of bread and liquors ! Thousands of 
wine, loaves, oxen, geese, linen, clothes, all good and 
pure things, to the devout Iritisen-the-wise, son of 
dame Ad." 




563 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



COJTDENSEB REPORT OF THE PROCEEDIKaS DURrNQ THE 
FOURTH SESSION, Noyembeb, 1875, to Jult» 1876. 

Tuetda^, Kovemher 2. 1875. 
S. BiECHi LL.B., President, in the Clmir. 

The following Candidatea were nominated for election at tli<* next inc<«tiug .— 
H- Sver Cuming, F.RG.S. ; H. B. Edwarda ; W. GoU^ni«M?heiI* (St. Petera- 
biirpli) ; Rev. Isaac" Hall (Beirut)] A. C Hnmilton (Tnnbridge Wella) ; Bef. 
Prebipndarj Huxtablei M,A. j Ifrs. Lot»e, Richmond Gurdena, W, j Rev. 
Edmund McCUure ; Mrs. Willijim Morris ; O^^o.St. Ckir, F.R.Q.S. j Geo. Fydell 
Rowlfly {Bri^btoii) j R<^t. W, Turner (Edinburgh); W. Woodnmn (Morpeth) j 
Henry Wright (StafTonl House). 

Tho Proaident neit ofTered aomo introductorj rEnmrka, Dr. Birch said the 
B*Ticiel J now numbered 4CKJ rotMubi^rs, and that its iucceBS was due to the energy 
of the Society und the piirt it pluyed in pyblie education, etpedaUy bj it« 
energy in an age of uniTersal education. He staled thut |i»Teat att-ention wiw 
paid to primairj education, greater to Bceotidary edueatiitn, and some to what he 
would tiU tertiai-jr education, not onlj the diirusion of what was known, but 
fseteaTehet into the unknown, The Societv had iwsumed a high |>osition, if« 
f Tmnaaetionfl being not only enriched by Enghah but Foreign contributors, Ue 
gpoke also of the goc>d it had done by patronising the Eecortb of the Paat, and 
that it had fulfilled to a great degree a function only performed abrooii by 
official aasistiineet the zeal of private individuals liaving l>een eeconiied by the 
ProfeB^aora, who bad given gmtmitout* iiiMt ruction to young f^ersoria dcHiroua 
of lenmins the Egyptian ami Aanyriiui lungutiges, w}iile tlie general public boii 
plae^ befire them the Eewrtb of the Pa^t, publiafhed under the ausjiices of tho 
Bodetj. In conclusion, he urged on the Ntioiety to iucreiific its numbers, aa 
it would then he able to publish a quartorly journal, and give tho valuable papers 
euntribnted to its Tranaactious at an earlier period. 

The following papera were then read i — 

T, Oh the Ei/^pHan Mvmmp in ike CoU^Ho» of Mis Qr€urt iJke Puke of 
Butht^rlnnd, By S. Birt^h, LL!D., F.S.A.— Dr. Birch gave an account of the 
different proee^aes of embalming, and the prevalent oniaments of coffins and 
eartona^efl or outer wraps of mtimniieB, whieh Bpi>eAr to have come into use at a 
later period of the art, and to liave auperaeded the more elaborate decorations of 
wooden coffins* The e&rtonage of the Duke of Sutherland's luummy and its 
decH>rfttions were treated mythologicallj, and »ome explanation given of the abort 
inaonptjons whteli accompanied ita rt?preflentationa. Homo account was alao 
given of the bandages of tlie mummy, which wa» referred to a late age, on 
account of the manner in ivhich the paintingi^ and inacriptioua were executed, 
rendering it prolmble that the body was embahned long after the XXth Dynasty, 
A tracing of the eartonago made by Mr. Bonomi accompanied tho paper atkd 
deacription, 

n. Some Osieoloffieal 2fo{€t on the tame Mummtf. By Professor Flower, 
F.B.S. — This paper waa a detailed report by the eminent" oateologiat of the 
condition of the skelet'On of the mummy deacribed by Dr. Birdi, from which it 
wai shown to have been the skeleton of a man in advanced jrean, of abort 



5(>4 



Condensed HeporU of the Proceedings, 



pUture, i.«.» 5 feet 4 incbei ; the left ulna hail b«en ^ncttired neur it« lower ooil 
ftt some period long before deatb ^ tbe boiiea of tbe trunk and le^ showed ttncm 
of ebronic rbeuiiiatio dia^ftse^ tbe lunibar rertebne being partlj &nkjla>9ed ; irbat 
ieeth remained were in good conditiorit »nd the ftboulder» were distiDguishcd bj 
tbikt remarkable tquareuosa of form wbich wa« cbaraoteneitiG of t^ KgyptiAit 



lit. Oh^erttationg on ike proportions of the ahooe SJtetef^n* Bjr Jo«ef>li 
Botiomi* — Mr. Booomi made eome obwrrations on the remarkable chancier 
of thi^) Kgjpttmn specimen ; amongBt these is the miaiureiueut of the aho>: 
which he found bo be one inch and three quarter* wider titan iu may i 
akeleton of the some heigltt in tbe collection of the College of Siirgeona. 

rV* On tome Fragment* of the Bahylonian Account of ih« Ortaliof^ 
Mr, G'eorge Smith. — Owin^ to rhe pressure of bis manj engagements prior ia 
hii departure for Mciopotamia, the subject of this paper wa» Terbally delivered. 
The t«it of the tablote had been set up, with a slxort acoount of tbe aame, and thej 
will appear in the next part of the TranaactioDs of the Societjj Vol. IV, Part 2. 



Tmada^t December 7, 
S. BiECH, LL.D«, F.S.A-, Presideiit, in the Chair. 



1875. 



Tbe following candidates were nominated for election ; — Key* J, Edliii 
Carpenter ; Rev. George Crewdson, Kendal ; Rev. Joseph C'Ockr&Uf Tyldealej ; 
Rev. J. E. Dttvi», Malrern ; W. J- Hajwomi ; Mrs. Hus*eT, Horst-grpfn j 
R. F. Hiitchiii^on, M.D. ; IL C. Lerander, Universitj College^ W.C. ; Jo^uh 
Smith J D, Mariihiill j J, N. Fownes Wise, M.D., Bengal ; E. B. Tjlor, F.bA 




Mr. Bonomi exhibited a fine elueler of Dates from Egjpt, and §&▼« 
aooouot of the Date Palm, Ptio?tnix Dactjlifeni, and drew some sketches showing 
th« method adoptetl hy the fellaheen of elinibing uj) and trimming the Ireea. 
Mr. Bonomrs reniarkii were further ilJuiitrated bj a coloured drawing of the Pfttiu 
in fruiti contributed hy Pn:ife«sor Dunald&on. 

The following papers were then tead ^- 

I. On some new HamathUe Inaeriptione ai Ihreeg, near Karamam^^ By 
Rev. J. E. Davifi, ILB.M, Conaulur Cliaplain at Alexandria. — The inscriptions 
which formed the eubjcct of tliin paper are carve*! on the side of a rtK'k by the 
shore of the river Ibrt^ex, and thoj form piirt of two large bas-reliefs, in the 
stjle of Sassanian or Aasyrian art, Tbe »(ubjeet of the first bas-rehef is a royml 
male figure, vested in a fringed and embroidered garment, and wearing a ounieal 
bartied head-dress i in his left hand be liolds a tall mass of wheat, and his right 
resti on hi» hip, a large grape vine laden i*ith clusters of fruit is twined around 
bis body, and the stem of the pliint ap])ear» to i&sue fniim the ground a Httle 
behind the right leg, which pnrtlj conceals it. The other bas-rehef repreaenU a 
smaller and nearly siniilarly attired muJe figure, having one arm and hand up- 
raised in an attitude of praise or venemtion. llie dn ss of both the figuiva is 
elaborately ornanienled, and presents many peculiar details of omajnentatioii. 
The inscriptions which accompany these ancient sculptures are nearly ill^gihtff 
from the action of time cmd exposure to rain and damp, 

I I. Kofhe of o verif Aneient Comet, from a Chaldean Tohlet. By H. Fot 
Talbot, F.R^S. — ^Tbe learned Assyriologist considered that the Comet, which 
formed the tmbjrrt of Ms paper, appeared in the reign of Nebuchadnexiar I, abotit 
B.C. 1150 ; the folloMriog te a tranelation of the inscription which describea it .— 

** 1. The star is hairy ; its orb is like a shining light, 

and it has a tail receding from it like a creeping scorpion, 

a great star from the northern horiion 

unto the s-outlicrn horizon, 

exteindrs its niea&iire like a creeping (toorpion^s tail,) 

Thif on the ftice of the tablet (wm wntten) 

At the tmie when Kebuehadneizar had marched iuto Ihc hind ofElutn.^ 




Condensed Rtport of the Proceedings. 



565 



r 



III. 0» Bahfl<mian Auipurtf^ b^ FiffuriM and Gtomei rival Sitjm, 3y Rcr. A. 
H, Sajree, M,A,^ — Jiwt ils aatrcjlo^j implies a Bcii?nce of natronomy, bo h ftjafem 
of au^Mirv based iifon geometritial figures ho plica i» Bcienre of geometry. Iii Lliia 
paper text? were given, witb trttrisliterfttioDe* BTid tranjiJjitioiui, of two cuneiform 
tableN* originallr it would seem wHtlen in the Aecadian langnaget whieh fiiTuiftli 
Iho augural expLanaiions of certain gfoiuetrical iigare^. One of theie tablet* hna 
been pubUMhcfl by M- Lenormftntj tbe oilier and lou^^er one was now giycn for 
the fir*t time. The uuthor of the paper referred to the aituilar pseudo-Kcienoe 
wbich «tni flouriihes among the Climeee, and inferred tlint a BU|>er»tition pre- 
yaded nmoii^ tlie Accadiana like that called y«»7-#Awi by the Chinefle, which 
Uflumcit an inherent gootl or bad luck in a place or itituation. He abo suggested 
tb&t tbe Greek belief in the magical properties of numbers and geometrical 
HgureSt found for iuBtanee in the fra^pnentB of Pbilolaua and among the Thera- 
peutsi, went back to a Babylonian origin % and det-ennined for the first time the 
AMyriau ideographs for ijeomftrical fiffure^ fine, and arc. Some of the figures 
mre probably derived from the measurement of the sly. It is probable that 
the ** Babylonio* ntimercm ** of Horace referred to geometry as well as to 
aritbraelie. At the end of the puper translation* were given of the Aceadian 
tables of square and cube roots from Senkereh, remarks made upon the sexa^ 

'mid system of the Chaldeans, and notice taken of Professor Cskntof^i discorery 

r the Assyrians had formulat<''d TT ^ 3. 

IV* On the Assifria» BfUef it* the Immortality of the Soul, as lUuntrated b^ 
the 12M Ixduhar Tablet. By William Boscawen. — In this paper the author gave 
trannlations of l\w tii'^fflh Izduhar legend and other text«, showing the eiistence 
of the belief in the immortality of the soul amongst the Assyrians, The good 
hnTing their rtnvard in the happy Jietds, the *' place of the herocH," the '* resting 
plare of Kergal " (the war god), *' reclining on couches/* " drinking pure liquors, 
and " feeding on rich food*," The warrior wa« there surroQiided with all the spoil 
which he had gained in battle, and his captires were paradi'd before him, Tlie 
wicked were consigned to the " land of no return/' the dwelling of Ninkigal, 
*' the house whoso entrance lias no exit," where " much dust is their food» their 
nourishment mud/' where they '* dwell in darkness." Mr. Boscawen Gompai^ 
these account.'^ w'ith the Greek Eltftian fields^ and with Axdeti, and ehowed the 
Stutent influence in their conception. He also pointed out the curious parallel 
between the raitttng of tlie soul of Meahani, the seer of iBftuhar^ and the raising 
of Samuel hy tlie witch of Endor. In the ap)>eudix were given some hymni 
to Marduk the demi^urgus^ and philogical notes. 

T. Ort the First SnlUet PapjfTHs, By Prof. E. S. Lusbington, B.A.— Tliii 
pa.p#r contained a careful examination of the test of the pnpyrua in question, 
ana it will appear, to>?ether with exegetical no tew, in the next number of the 
Transaolions of the Sodely. 

VI. On Two Andtmt Maps of the Mofy Land. By S. M, Drach, M.A.. 
F.E.A.S,— One of the maps is a black block print, with the names of the Jewish 
patriarchs, docf&rit of the latD^ prophets^ Ac., arranged in an architectural plan 
uoimd a supposed repri'sentation of Solomon's temple^ apparently (or a Mizrach 
or " East '* Kiblah, lis used in all Jei^h boujei. The other is a far more 
elaborate MS, in colours^ with eitplanotions in the square and Jarehi-seript 
Hebrew, nimilar to many mediieTal maps with large views of the prineiptd 
towns, tombs of saints, doctors, &€„ and bordered vsith Scripture phrases, pur- 
porting to haTc been drawn up by one Lnria (query of the famous sixteenth 
century Cabalist fiimily) after the earthquake at Wephat. Mr. Drocb recognij^et! 
this map aa similar to that printed upon sundry canary-colored handkerchiefs 
bouglit by him two years ago at Berlin, whi^rh were probably prepared for the use 
of the Pobsh Jews. The authenticity of the sites on these map^s is of course 
queftionQble j but even the dome and spires of the Christian Holy Sepulchre are 
prominently exhibited. The two maps were lent for exliibuion by the ReT, 
GreTille Chester, who purcluwed them at Tunis. 



56G 



Condeuiteii Report of the Proceedings, 



S. BiRcu, LL.D.» F.S.A., PrtMidexi^ in tbe Chur. 

The foUowiuf? Candidfttef woro notnmAted for elprtion : — WiUiajij Bi-ran 5 
Archibald HaniLlton» Bromlej, Kent ; Ber. W. Mend Jones, Kill Yaitl ; Be?. 

Edward White. 



The Council and Officer* of the Society for the ensuing 
elected. 



did/ 



Tbe Law* of the Society, as prepanwi and reTiB4?id for the fourth time by Ibe 
Conimitt«o of Laws« were presented* confirmed, and ordered to be iMued. 

The Secretary read a report of the condition of tJie Society, showing ati 
increase of eighty •three members during the past year. 

The Preeidcnt dcHvt^red a short anniTorsary addreM, in the course of which 
he announced that the AMtyrian and Etfj^ptian CUttaef would be resLuned, in 
February, at the Rooms of the Society, the Rev. A. H. Sayoe taking the AaeyriaTi 
elase, and Mr. P. Le Pago Reiioiif the Egyptian, while he would btmself give a 
series of analytical lectures on ** The Ritual of the Dead." Admisaioa free by 
tickets, aa before. 

A letter from Mr. Fox Talbot, giving an account of Prof, DelitxsdiV 
Asayriechc Lese^tiicke, with a translation of the preface to the same, wa« rettd 
by the President. 

I. 0» an Ancient Insc^npiion dfMcotfered at Ephestu. By C. T. Newton, 
C.B,, D.C-L,^Thi8 inscription wan found inciitcd upon a curved stone^ which 
bad apparently formed the base of one of tht* pillars of the moet ancient Temple 
of Artcmift at Ephesua. The characters belonged to an alphabet which is at 
present unknown, bnt which presented some reMemblauceB to the Phoenician, and 
whit'h waA cTidcntly one of tne many local alphsl>cts of Asia Minor at tlie time 
of Criesufl. 

II. On a Nem Capriole InMcrtpiion. By D. Pierides.— Tliis new text is a Ttrj 
short one, consisting of thirteen letter?. It is engraved on two golden armleta 
which were recently discovered at Kurion, and which, in tlie opinion of 
M. PicriiicB, (hitc from the 5th century B.C. The following is a Latin tFanfilAtioD 
of the inscription: '* Etcandri Regie Paphi." 

III. On fh4^ Creation TabhU and th^ Firtt Institmtion of (he Sahhath. By 
H. Fox Talbot, F.R.S. — ^This interesting paper was a translatiou with notes of 
two of the newly 'discovered tablets which now go by the name of the Creation 
Tablets, and of which the text was presented to the Smiety by Mr. Geo. Smith 
in NoTember last, previously to hia departure for Mesopotamia. Mr. Talbat*i 
UttnaJation dilTers iwmewhat from thnt given by Mr. Bmith in his Babylonian 
■iGOOUiit of Oenesisj and it is as follows : — 

TABLitT I. 

1. When the upper region was not yet called HeaTen, 

2. and tlie lower reeion was not yet called Earth, 

3. and tbe AbjBs of Hades had not yet opened ita armB, 

4. then (he chaos of waters gare birth to all of them. 
6» And the wat-ers were gathered into one plaee. 

6, 1^0 men yet dwelt together, no animals yet wandered about ^ 

7. none of the gods had yet been bom^ 

8. their names were not spoken, their attributes were not ktaown. 

9, Then the eldest of the gods, 

10. Lakhmu and Lakhamu, were bom, 

11 . and grew up . . * . . * . » 

12. Aseur and Kissur were born nextj 

13. and lived through long periods* 

14. Anu 





Condentted Ueport of the Procetdin*j6. 



567 



TjtflLET V. 

1. lie c'oiiRtmcted dweUiiigs for the ^revX godi. 

2. He fixed up euustelliilioiii^^ wbo»e figtirei» were like aiiimal^. 

3. Ho made the Yf ar, into four quarterft he divided it, 

4. fcwelve months hts p.HLftblishetl, with their con*telhition9 thre« bj three. 

5. And for the days of the year he appointed fostivak. 

6. He made dwelljngs for the phineU, for tbeir rising aud »ettiiig ; 

7. And that nothing «hould go ami^B, tind that the course of none ahonld 

be retarded, 

8. he placed with theiai tbe dwellingii of Bel and Hea* 

9. He oi>eued great gates on every side, 

10. He miKie atroiig ibe portaU on tbt* left hand and on the right. 
H, In the centre he placed luminaries. 

12. The moon he appointed to rule the nigbt, 

13. and to wander through the night until the dawn of day* 
I'l. Everj mouth without fail he maiie hulif ajtsemhhf dajs. 
15, In the beginning of the month, at the rising of the night, 
18. it shot forth ita bonis to illuniiuate the hcaveo«* 

17. On the smsenih da^ he appoinUnl a boly day, 

18. and to eeaae from all hu.4inef<» he roiumanded. 

19. Then arose the sun in the horizon of heaven in (glory). 

The translation wba accompanied with notes, and it will appear together witb a 
critical analyaiA of the text in due eour»e in the Transactions of the Soeietj. 

IV. On (he Kumbent qf ihf Jewx in all Ages. By the Rev. Joaiah Miller^ 
M.A.^^Tbis paper traced the varying numbers of the Jews by the light of the 
ancient Bible tisstimony, as given in fragmentary atutementjj and in cenau&ea and 
enumerationt of countries occupied in the time of Abmhamt the aojoum in 
Egypt, the £iLodua, the Kings, the Captivity and Return, some ftatistitial diHi* 
euJIiet in the aacred narrative being met in tJie euuree of the argunjenfc. Later 
atatiatictd facts to the beginning of the tlu'istian era were given from Joaephua, 
Philo, Dion Cassius, Strabo, and the New TeBlament. For further particulant 
reference waa made to Moses of Cborene ; the doubtful statement* of Tacitua, 
Diodorujj Siculuft, and Benjamin of Tudela were criticised, and u»e waa made of 
Baanage, Gibbon, and other liifttoriana. Some peculiaritiea of Jewiab atuti^ticB 
were giren, with proofs from the motlem authorities, and also tables from eenaua 
retuma, and inquiries when visiting the countriea, allowing the present numbers 
of the Jews in all places— ^ witb the total a little over seven milHone. In wn- 
clnaion reference waa made to the preKcnt. rapid increaae of the Jews, and the 
difficulty of accounting for their fewnese. 

V. On a Grammar of (he Himi^arHh Language. By Capt. W. F. 
Pridcaui, R.E.— This elaborate paper was practically a complete grammar of 
the Himy antic language, which bad been eompiled by the learned author from 
the Bludies of MM. Oaiandcr, Ewald, Levy, and Gil^ermeister, und which be 
had corrcctefi and supplemented by bis ovm reaearehes into the lariona pub- 
hshed and unpubliahed Sabean iuHcriptions, wbi^^-b amount to many hundreds in 
number. A liill ayllahary of the Himyaritic characterB wbs given, toilet her with 
an analysis and Traniiation of many new texts, which will apj^ear in the Xransac* 
tiona of the Society, 

YI. On the ChtM^u Account of the Tower of Babel. By W. St. Cliad 
Boscawen. — In this paper the author gave a translation of the iotereating frag- 
ment diacovered by Mr. George Smith, and pointed out its importance as 
illuatrating the Biblical legend. Tlie most important jiortion of the iiiscriptton 
reads i— 

Hia heart was eviL 

The father of all the gode ho turned from. 

Hia heart was eviL 

Babylon corruptly to sin went. 

Small and great he mingled on the mounti 

Babylon corruptly to sin went. 



568 



Condftmed Report of the I^roceedintjs. 



SiTuill ntid groat be mittgliHl on the mound. 

Their aironghold (tower) ench daj thej fbandfld. 

Their stronghold in the Dight 

entirely be made an end. 

In his anger also a command, ah oatii he pottf^d fortb 

,.,,.. to »cfttter Abroad be tet hij face. 

Ho g^re ft commftTid : make thou stonnj tbeir counriL 

The progress \\i*. impeded. 
Tlie infcription then n^Utes the overthrow of the tower by violent wind*, 
the Inioeiitations of the ItfibytouiunB. The paper wwn accompanied by thtf 
ciinetfonn text and philological notes on the iEa4^'nptiou«. 

VII, RemarJctt upon a Hieroijli/pMc In^friptiom of Darin* id El^KkarffeA, 3} 
S, Birch, LL.B.^Thia inscription, consLsting of fortT-sii line* of hieroglyph*, 
has been found amoopst the tmper« of the late Mr, Hay, of Liuplum. It wiw 
copied by him from tlie sontti-wcst wall of the second chamber of the temple, 
and oonaiet* of the adoration of the male? and female genii or personificaliont of 
the four elements t-o the god Amen Ka, lord of Ifab, on the Oaaia of Ammon. 
The iuscHpHon chieQy turns on the varioui quahties, types, and ebajBOt^l* of 
Amen Ka a» the chief arid princi{>al god, there being, unfurtunatety, no paftku- 
]jyn gireu of historical importance, althoue:b the name of Danus, probably the 
fir«t» \t sereral times mentioned. It ii», }iowevcr, a great addition to th* bymiu 
of Amen already known. 

VIII. Note on the Oheluk at Zanihus, 'Bj 8. Birch, LL.D.— The piiper on 
thii subject referred to the Gtreek and LyciAn inscription < ' 'hern face of 
the obelisk, published by the Inte Sir C. Fellowes and umidt. Th« 
northern fa*-'-e wo* considered to be justly placed last bv i..... ,c, a» from the 
£rftgmeni» diatxivcred since that publicalion it is clear that Ihc inscription really 
commenced with the ttoiiihern face* which has ahun[v prinafu prinaf^iu'j * , . . , 
Arppd^ohe ferffiM»p, ** This tomb made ...» son of Arpagus." The north sid* 
is consequently the entl of that inscription, the first twenty Uties of it clewing th& 
Lydau portion, and utates that the * itek/ in Lyeian, *ttala, wna * ereet«d.' Htatm^ 
by the eon of H&rpAgtis, who is styled, atnong»t his other titles, tte-Farza :jfo- 
tOBdgy * atjd ih Persifln lord,* as well as Mwiffeke : ante : se gotcede, ' governor of 
Mjsia and lord/ The twelve hexameter hnes of G-reek wliieh follow are fup* 
poMd to be m\ adclition to the Lyclan alter its teniunntion, and are from line tX 
to 92 inchisiire. The new point of importance in the prt^ecnt paper is the 
diseovcrj' that the following thirty-four lines of Lviiftn are a paraphrase <* 
translation of the tweWe lines of Greeks This is proved from tJie following 
considerationB : firp^tt tliat tlic&e thirty-four lines hiiTC hct^n divided into twclTe 
Ijortions by a curved line, thit», ^. Eleven of these diiriaionB remain, and the ta«t 
word of the L'scian, ehe^f^Ma, of coiir&e, required no such 3, as it terminated tlte 
whole. The additional proof is found by comparing the Greek tenth line r "Htf 
killed seTcn heavy-armed soldiers (*tiwX*rac, hoj>litas) in a day.** These haTe 
been restored as Arcadians by Boeckb and Schmidt. The Lyeian lines 58-59 
end,fo«pore* : ophsex : Mekatese : Arppaffos : ute : fflr/)?/«fe, where the word o/?A!»f 
is evidently the Lyeian Imnecription of hnpUta^. The whole is consequently « 
pHrapbTAse, not a literal translation, nearly tliree lines of Lyeian being required 
to explain otie Greek, and the geniu^i of the language requiring the name of 
Harpagos, mentioned in line 25 of the Gret k, to be inserti^d here ; if, indeed, the 
Greek does n'«d Arkat^tt^, which Ai*i"* not i*r an. nnd iiltliontrb the Greek is re«tore*I 

ERTAAE OnAJTAZ KTE1NEN EN HMEPAI APKAAAZ 

ANrAPASli ^^^*''''<^ ^^ ^***^ room entnigh for andras at the end* 



« 



Tuesday, Ftlrnar^ 1 , 1876^ 
S. BiBOH, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Tlie following Candidates were duly nominated for election in Manch; — 
Bamuel A, Binion ; Rev. C, Camahers ^ ^[iss Frrcmnn ; Knssell Martiueau, 
M.A.; Hon. H. Kocl \\ aldcgrave ; Kit.G. \V. Wrii^htsou, M.A. 




Contlenseil Report of the l\ocfedin<fii. 



569 



His Eicelleiicy Safvhcfc Paahfti of Coiittftntuiuple, was olect«d ao Honorary 
Mpruber of Ibe Society. 

Signor Ruggero Bouglii presented to the Societj» on tbe piirt of the Itali&n 
Govemment, i^ number of st»uiipiiip of Aetiyrian Inscriptions belonging to the 
reigns of Assur-imxir-puJ Atid 8*?nmtcbertb, from tabjet:^ in tlio Tatican and 

The following pttpers were then read ; — 

I. T^e EeroH in Heav&n ifarhflaied from a Cuneiform Tablet. By H* Fox 
Talbot, F-R-S. — This valuable and singular mythological text ifi one of those which 
haa just been pubbi^bi*d by Prof. Delitzseb in his Left^^stiicke, and it presenti ft 
retn&rk&ble sxiaiogy to tbo war of t ^le Dragon du^irib^d in the Book o( BeTcl&tions, 
and to ceHojiL pamfige* in the Book of Job and the apocryphal work called the 
Book of Enoch. Tlie learned author of tlte following iraii»lftiion ai'coinpanied his 
paper witli b number of pbib>logical obricrvations and an interlineation of th€> 
cuneiform teit with appcntlieet* nnnoitcd. 

(The iirst four lines, and probably *p re ml more, are broken. They related, 
no doubt^ that a FcstiTal of Pmue and Thanksgiving was being held in HeaTeiij 
when tlii& rebellion took place). 

5. The Divine Being spoke three times the commcncemDnt of a Fsaltn. 

6. Tlie god of holy Aongs, lord of rL-Hgion and worship 

7. Seatod a thousand dingers »ind muaieianM : and est^ibHahed a cboral band 

8. who to his byniu were to re8|X)nd in trmlritni'ie& ...*-.,. 
S), With a loud cry of eonteoipt they broke up bis holy song 

10. Spoiling, ionfu&ing, confounding, his hymn of prai*e. 

11- The god of the bright erown resolved to frustrate the rebtllion 

12. sounded a trumpet blast which would wake the A&sA^ 

13. which to thoae rebel angels prohibited return, 
I'k Ho stopped their ^errice, and nent them to tbc god» who were His eiiemie«. 

15. In their room he created Mankind, 

16. The fir»t who reei^i^cd life, dwelt along with bim. 

17. May he gire them Btrength, never to negleet his word, 

18. following the Serpent*8 voice, whom bis hand» bad made. 

1^. And may the god of divine speech eipcl from bia live thuiiaaud that wicked 

Thousand 
20. who in the midst of bis heavenly Song, had shouted eTil bhuphemies ! 
2L The god A«}iur, who had seen the m^iee of ihofle giodii who de»evted their 

allegiance 
22. to raise a rebellion, refueed Ui go forth witb tlicjn. 
Thc5 remainder of the tablet {9 or 10 lines more) is too much brokeu for tranfilatton. 

II. Kmf to the Qenealogie Tahh cf the Firtt Paifiarcha in GtnesU, and the 
Chronoloffff of (he Septua^int. By Victor Rydbcrg. Frmn L* L*S, Comherti^tfe*ii 

nch MiS. TrnHxialion of the original SwedigA Brochure and Noieg. By S. M, 
'llrach , — M. By dberg believes in no reliable Hebrew chronology before King fcsolonion 
and post-regnal periods. For subsequent renfMrfn* he Tokea the Hebrew HB aa 
the more primit ive dorumerit : deems th«^ Coinite and S^thiCe genealogiei* identical, 
throws out Solh and Knos, thus niaking the antediluvian period 1461 year« 
(Sotbii') J atth*3 end of which the Nile-dwellers feared a national Divine retribution 
for good or bad through the height of the Nile-tlottd and intensity of epidemics, 
being taught that the course of Si ri us in Egj'pt*e vague year would indicate the 
interval, Tlnia the pjTamids were built by giant extortionate Phoraohs, glorifying 
their own B*he8 and negating agriculture: the dit-nstrouft end of therr Sothic 
period, rebuked their sueeesaorR (o directing the inundation by irrigating 
channels. Moses appeared also near the end of one of these Sothie periodB, 
thereby predicting the tonjpreeiied disasters (plagues). M. By d berg tries to 
prove that the after life ot three eight putrinrt lis equals 4027 lunar years, or 4ftOO 
solar years (ratio of (fil8| to (jlO), known to Chaldeans and Turanians ; also 14*j1 
phifl 4027, or 6408, ia one fourth of Annuit Magnui (prece^pion at 50".) He 
thii* plftccft the exile of Adtun 3b92 B.C.,eiMctly where Manetho pktcw Ihe fiiit 



&70 



totideuised Rfpori of the Froctie limj^. 



hum»u Fliamuli M.imt;fl : shut^a thnt Knooh wii« the Hr^l pt-ticticAl ii£tfutiom«r. 
He then ittatee the Alexaikdriaii Jews rivalled tIii? Greeks in wealth, inflitent^t ill 
tkunt of knowledge ; the priest* let th**m all (like Mauetho) learn their hiero- 
glyphic ai^oretu ; that in order to keep up their paternal feligion in their Hebrew- 
lorKettiiig oHspriiitfp the*e Jews got tlie Sanhedrim depututian to translAte the 
Bible in (Iruek. liut that the*e LXX piaus Kubhis, linding tliat the advent of 
Jot^h to the Mosi«uic eiodua waji pttrpamel^ absent from the Egrptiaii records ; 
fttid fearing the rile «dumuy of the Jeiv» being an ouicajtt nice of lepi^rs hended 
bj a rene^ule prie«t, wi/ftdlj^ added liJO years to t^ach patriarch's life ; niakiiig 
the adTent of Joseph mitl Jaeob tii the time of the nalivo-re*-pecled Paleatine 
Hjeftoe »hophflrd- kings of Ileber's raec, which dynasty waa expelled «/'/«' Joseph's 
death by a native patriot, who thrn roiideinued i\w Hycsoa* Hebrew kindred to 
■laTcry'a rigoroua labours. Thus the Aleiandrian Jew eould point to the enviom 
Greek* their own glory of old on the Nile. M. Rydljerg fixe* Enochs date about 
3400 B.C., and tjikes Bunsen'a Kgypt as his text book ; there ia a long extract 
from Biot» 

III. Wkif is Forhj-thtf^e a Baml BibUcal Number i By S, M. Drflch, F.R,A.8. 
—The BiblicaJ frequency of the number 43, and ofH^ inuhijilea {4^, 215, 65. 30\), 
uho of 427, or y of 2i>9t Ic^ti nie to eouipare these luni-isohir evnodicals. Now 43 
time* 3fi5** 5»» il""^ 12' an? IS.TOS'* lO'' 15"« M* ; and 531| tiine9 2y^l2»* U"2» 88, 
are 15,705'' 9** 4°* SfJ'* which aolar excels of 4266 seconds ia eight seconds per 
luoation. Mm 427 ycjira are 155,958*1 i^h ^n. 24*; and hmii lurjations 
155,968^ 16"> 28" 4iJ*, or a luimr excess of S"* SO" 16» ; add thrie© first to 
second. 129 + 427 or 556 yeara (--Liyj_) {» 203.074^ 19*^ SS"* 12- ; 1595^ + 52811 
or 6876i lunations (673 ^ Imiar years), 203,t>74'« W^ 42°' 10», Solar exce«a 
of 13"* 02« ia ^ flecouds pflr hinntion. N«t<> 532 is 19 x 28 ; 5000 w h 15,708; 
62Sliis^of6& square j 573 ia tenfold radius in degrve* of circle. Hrki'kyan 
Bey (Eg. Chron. xixiii) stated 4tKJ4 tiiucd 365 le*8 7 time* 70 day^, or l,40u.97O. 
is 40OO years of 365'^ 5^ 49™ 12". M. llydberg*3 deduction of' 195-6 years, or 
200 ^ to 203 :^ lunar yeaw, is 2424 months* or acts as 300 years on the eight 
patriarchal 800 ^eara plus 24. Bemaxk the saper-poiut^d Deut. xxix, 29, *' and 
the rerealed thing " in numerically (2) 310 or 1450 o.c, the Rabbina*0*her 
dcflth-dat« of Moaes ^ that iohu bahu (Gen. i, 2) 18 411 plus 19« or 430 : that 
Vaifshohehu (Gen. xxxiii, 4), super- jwin ted i» 427. M. Rrdberg's 6I08 is 
8 K 9 X 89 J Me 480O : 4947 is 1^00 : 1649 or ia 40 square plus 7 squa^re- Perliaps 
these niimbers may nnravel thcmselTcs bo the experts of Archaic writinga. 

The following gentlemen took part in tlie di9cns*?ion which ensued:— Sir 
Hcnrv Eawlin^on, Dr. Birch, George Smith, Kev, Dr. Rule, J. Park Uarrison, 
RichftVd Cull, ReT. J. M. Rodwell, S, M, Drach. Kev, T, M. Gorman. 



I 



Tuetday, March 7, 1876. 
S, BiBCH, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The following candidate were duly nominated for election in April : — Mim 
Gertrude Austin (Wotton-under-Kdgc) ; His SxoeUency Sir WUham Gregt>nr, 
G.C.S.L, C.B. (Colombo) i Rei'. Herbert James ; Rev. A. V. MiilinK^^u 
(Constantinople); C. Rohart (Pari'<) : Sam. Gurney Sheppard ; Rev. A- W. 
Streflne, M.A. (Corp. Chris. Coll. Camb.) ; Rev. J. E SomerTille, M.A., B.D. 
(Brougbty Ferry) ; Rev, E. N. Willsou, 

M. Edouard Naville of GeiicTa, and M. Paul Pierret, Conaerrateur Adjoint du 
Mus^e do Louvre, were elected Honorary Members of the Society. 

The Imperial At^wlemy of St, Petersburg presented a complete set of tho new 
aeries of its Transactions to the Library of the Society. 

The following papers were then read : — 

L 0» ih^ MaiHtmiiia of th^ Afttttrian Monntnenta^ (Part I). Dameitic 
J/tf m ma h. By Re ? . William H u gh bo o , M . A . , F. L ,S , —In this paptr the author, 
all^r alluding I0 the interest of the lubjectf spoke aleo of its dimcmty, for uunei 




I 



I 



Cottdemed lifpnrt of the ProeeediHffx. 



1 



alono oft^n faOed to oouFey a dofiiiit^e raeaiiing Animab itmj be represented \x\ 
throe wajsi^l. By pieUiriftl or aeulpturftl r«pi"eafiiit4ifcioti ; 2. Bj deaeription ; 
3. Bj picture ftiid duacription combined. 

Applying hia remarks to \he iinimab fiirufftd or mentioned on the Assyrian 
TnonumeTits^ he stated thatt tho p iotorml or Bciilptural represent it ion* were §o goofl 
ad in most cases to apeak for themtelrea. Of roprci^entfttion* of animaU and 
description founded on a jsoologleal ha^ia, tbt> monumt^nts afford no instance. 
There may have been Assyrian Aristollea vrho wrote on naturiil history, but 
their work* have not been prestTved, Tbe bilini^iud tubletn containing tin? Udmes 
of aniniab, trees, stones, kc, ehow a sort of natural order, which tlie aeribe 
obeerved for convenier»e« sake ; but these tablets were only part and |Mre©l of 
AsjiurbanipaFs p^nd idea of forming a comph^te roraparatife dictionary and 
grammar of Uie Assyrian and Aceadian lanf^iiageft. Mr. Hoiigbton referred to 
the prevalent custom amongst the Aoeaclians of naming animals from the 
countries from which they camt* j thus the hor»e was the *' animiil from the 
East " J tho wolf, *' tlint froin tbe bighlands." Tb*'^ third method of repre- 
nenting animals hy sculpture and description combined — the most certain of all — 
though frequently to be seen in ilie hieroglyphic system of tbe ancient Egyptians, 
was not adopted by the Assyrians, 

In all attempt* to diseover the name of any particular animab the Astsyrian 
word muint bo compared with some similar word in Ilebrtnv or otber cognate 
Semitic language, since an identity of word often irapbeft identity of meaning. 
Sometimes again the context would alford a clue. In tbe bilingual lists the 
Aceadian equivalent to the Assyrian name often threw muoh light i but unfor- 
tunately tbt'se tablets were often broken. 

Tbe domestie anhnals known to, or employed by, the Aj»syrian»» were oxen» 
sbeep, gotttsj^mels t both the Artibiau and Bactriau species)* asftps, borgea, mules, 
and dogs J on each of these subject* Mr. Houghton spoke at some length. Only 
two kinds of dog appear oo tho senlptures — the large mastiff n^ed io the ehaaa 
of the lion, wild bull (the r^m of the Hebrew Bible, fi*nu in Assyrian), wild assei, 
&Chj and the greyhound. On the question aa to the domestic cat being kjiown or 
uscil by the Assyriana. Mr. Houghton, in bi& own mind, was satisfied a negative 
answer should be given. As there was. an iTitereonrse between tbe As.^yrians and 
Egyptians, from early times, he adniitted there was no <3 prhri objection to tbe 
belief that the Egyptian cat, which he considered the origin of dome^>tie eats 
wherever found, might have been tntrodueed into Assyria, but Mr, Houghton 
thought it improbable that the cat was domesticated, seeing timt in other countries 
it was long before it was introduced. The Egyptians preferred to keep their cats 
to tbemsehee, to nourish them when alive, and to embabn tbeir saererl bodies at 
Bubaitis or elsewhere when dead. ^'Tbe Wild Aninmls of tbe Assyrian Mony- 
mente*' will form tbe subject of another pa|>er by the same gentleman. 

II. The F^ght between Bel and fhe Draf/on, and the Flaminrf Smord tvhieh 
turned evertf wat/ (Gen, iii» 24), Translttted from a Chaldean tablet by H. Fox 
Talbot, F.E.3. — This is one of tho most Btriking narratives! of the Chaldean 
mythology. It is found on a Cuneiform tablet which is much broken, and of 
which th© translation is as follows : — 

1. [broken.] 

2 and with it bis right band he armed, 

3. His flaming sword be raised in his hand, 

4. He brandished his lightnings before him. 
6. A eurved scymitnr ho carried on bis body. 

6. And he maile a sword to destroy the dragon, 

7. which turned four ways ; ao that none enuld avoid its rapid blows, 

8. It turned to tbe South, to the North* to the Ea.st. and to the West. 

9. Near to hia sabre he placed the Bow of his fatber Ann. 

10. He made a whirling thunderbolt, and a bolt with double flames, impoflstble 
" to extinguish t 

11. And a quadruple bolt, and a septuple bolt, and a bolt, and a bolt 

of crooked fire. 



O I I 



Condensed Ilepi*rt of Ute ProcfeJinff9^ 



1 2. He h>ok the tUunderboltfi vi^liioli he had made, itnd there were ■ereii of 

them 

13, to be i^lioL at the dragon, and lie put thoin into hU qiilTcr behind Uitn* 
1 L Then the lord of the itorni miscri lib grcttt sword ; 

15. He mounUed his Chariot, whoie nAtrio wua *' Uesirayev o£ the Impioua^,**^ 

16. he took hie place, and lifted the four reiiu in hU hiiiid. 

[The rest of this portion of the mscriptbn i« broken ofl*,] 

Bel now oflTera to the Dragon to decide their quarnd hy single oouibat. whicfc 
offer the Dragon ikceepts. 

1. iJVhy *«ekeM ikou IkuM^ to irritate me with btaflphcmie«? 

2. Let tlij armj withdriiw : let thj ohiefi stand aaide t 

3. Then I and thou (alone) we will fLnlth this quarrel. 

4. When the Dragon hciird thiB^ 

5. Stand book ! »be said, and repeated her command. 

6. Then the tempter ro»e watchfully on high. 

7. Turning and twinting^ ihe tliifted her »tandiiig point, 

8. She waUdied his liflrhtning* : *Iif' provided for retreat. 

9. The warrior aii^ijeU sbpiitlied f heir swords. 
10* Then the Dragon attnekt^l the juat prince of the godB* 

11. Strongly she joiDi?d in the trial of battle, 

12. The king drew hi» sword, and dealt rapid blowa. 

13. Then be took hia whirling thunderbolt, and looked well behind Aiid beCbf^ ' 

him : 
11. And when the Dragon opened her mouth to iwaltow him, 
15. He l^mig the bi7lt into her, before she eould ahut her hps. 
1*5. Th*i blazing lightning humed up her inside. 

17. He pulled out her hcurt ; her mouth lie rent open ? 

18. He drew hiB f ale A tor* ^ and cut open her belly. 

19. he cut into her eh est nod eilraeted her heart, 

20. he put HU end to her, and dei*troyed her life. 
2L Wlieii he knew !*be was dead, he boiisted over her. 

22. After that the Dragon their Leaier wag ulain 

23. her troops* took to flight ; her army wa« scattered abro^d^ 

24. arid the angels her alliest who had come to help her, 

25. retreated, grew quiet, and wont away. 
2(k They fled from thenee, fearing fur their own lives^ 

27. and saved ttieinselres, flying t4> placet beyond pursuit. 

28. He followeJ them, their weapons he collected t 

29. They were gathered up like a harrett : in great heaps pA«;y teere 4fafWj 

30. A erowd of people full of UBtonishnieot 

31. its renmin* lifted up, and on their shouldera hoisted. 
33. And the eleven tribes, at^er the battle, 

33. in great muUil ude», coudng to «6e, 

34. gajied at the monstrous serpent 

35. . . 

36. And thg god Bel 

(The rest of the tablet ia lost.) 
The following gentlemen took part in the discussion which eiuaed :^ — BeT. 
Albt. L5wy i Prof DonaldMm ; Bev. Dr. Ourrey ; Rer. W. Houghton ; and 
the President. 




ft. Bmcir, LL.D.j President^ in the Chair. 

The following CaodidatM were duly nominated for election in May: — 
Dr. J. E. Cranage ; W. H. Eddie, J,P. ; Herbert Freeman,^ A.E.I.B.A., F.S.A, i 
A. Hymen Joseph ; Rev. Prebendary Seurth, M.A., F.S.A. ; Ber. Canon 
Ridgewiiy, M.A. ; Joseph Sidebotham, F.R.A.S.,Bowdon ; Miss Tucker, Bedford. 



Coiideused Report of the Proceejintfu. 



573 



The following piLpefs weft; then reik I :^ 

1. hJifar and Izdubar : heirtJ/ ih« Sixth Tablet of the Isduhar S&riet* Tmui- 
lated by H, F, Tulbot, F.R.8.— Tbt* fifth litdiibar tahiet appears to be mostlj 
lost, but the end of iis story occupjci the iir^t lew liuea of the aixfch tablet^ aud 
tberefore it i^i necessary briefly to tidvt^rt to it* 

One of the lidvenLures of OdjAaeiis related by Homer in his rettirn to Ithncft 
diBguised as s beggar. Lsdubar, Avhost* wundoringa recall those of Oilys^^oiia, 
B^ema to have adopted aome isiuidar disguise, whieh lie now ihrovis oli' and 
rc«fuiniMi liifl royal rank. 

1. . t he hod thrown oflT liia tattered garments : 

2« His pack of goods he liad laid down from hie buck : 

8. £A« hadfiung off} Mb rags of poTerty ; and elothed bimst'lf in a dress of 

honour : 

' 4. [mih €t royal roAe] he covered himielf : 
5> and be bound a diadem on his hrow. 

6. Then Isbtar the queen lifted up her eyes to the throne of Ixdubar : 

7. Kifts me, Iidubar ! she Stiid : for I will marry thee ! 

8. Let u» liTe together, I and Thou^ in one plaee : 

9. thon ehalt be my huabaud, and I wdl be thy wife. 
It*. Thou #halt ride in a Chariot oT lapis la/.uli and gold 

11. whose wheels are golden jiod its puh* resplendent. 

12. Sliining bracelets thou shalt wear every day. 

13. By our bouse the Uedar trees iu green vigour shall grow t 

14. and when tliou shalt enter it 

15. [ruppUant} crowds ithall kiss thy feet ! 

16* Kings, lords, and princes shall bow down before thee ! 

17* The tribute of Mb and plains they ahnll bring to thee aa ofierings : 

18. Thy flocks and thy herd* ahaU all hear twins : 

19. Thy race of tiudes ^hall he mugnifiij^ent : 

20. Thy [iWwm/^/MJ in the chariot raee shall he procliiimod without ceasing, 
2L and among the chiefs thou slmlt ne^er have an equal! 



22. [Theit Isdubar] opened liis mouth and spoke» 

23. land gaitf] to tslitjir the Queen 

24. ILtidtji ! full well^ I know thee by experience t 

26- 8ad and funereal [« th^ dwelUntf plttce .■] 
26. Sickness and Famine [mtrround thtf palh :] 

27- l^Fahe «»</] treacherous is thy erowu. of divinity ! 
28. iFaor and v}orlhU«6] is thy cr^vh uf royalty ! 

The meaning of all this, (oa appears cjuite plainly from the Second Column) 
is that Ishtar was^ like Hecate in the Grrefk mythology, the queeu of witeheraft, 
the emeh the merciless. 

In Column 11 l^duhar goes on with his reproaches. '* All that ever you 
have lo?e(h vou have next hated aiui destroyed: pobimed inul bewitched I And 
were I to marry you^ you would treat me just as you have treated them ! " 

1* Wttiliiigs thou didst make 

2. for Tarxi thy hiuiband 

3. (and yet) year after yetir with thy €np» thou didst poifon him I 

4. Thou hudst a favourite high-tlying Eagle : 

5. thou didst strike 1dm (with tliy wand), and didst breiik his wing^ : 

6. Then he stood fofet in the forest only fluttering his wings. 

7. Thou uBtlst a favourite Lion, full of vigour : 
8* thou did»t pull out his teeth, scTen at a time ! 

9. Thou hadst a favourite Horse, renowned in war : 
10* He drank a draught, and with fever thou didbt poison him 1 

11. Twice seven hou^^ without ceasing 

12. with burning fever and thirst thou didst poison him ! 

13. His mother the goddess Sihii with thy cups thou tliJet poison. 
14* Thou didst lore the King of the Land 



574 Condemed Report of the Proceedings, 

15. whom conlinuftUjr thou didat render ill with thj drugs 

16. thouf^h every daj he oflHsrdd libations and SAcrificeft. 
17* Thou didat strike him (with thj wand), and dld»t chAngis kiin into 

Leo|mrd ! 

18. The people of hi* own Cit j drove him out from it, 

19. and hu own dogs tore him to piecee 

20. Thou did«t love a Workman — a rude man of no inatruction, 

21. who constantly received hia daily wages from thee 

22. and every day made bright thy vesseU. 

23. In thy pot & savoury mess tliou didst boil for him 
21. (saTinjr) *' Come, my ftervant, and eat with na on the Feaat^Daj^ 

25. and give thy judgment on the goodness of our potherbt" ! 

26. The workman replied to thee 

27. Why do»t thou desire to destroy me ? 

28. Mother [ thou art not eooking ! — I will not eat ! 

29. For, I should eat food bad and oeciLTsed 

30. iind the thousand unclean things thou bast poiBoned it with. 

31. Thou did*t boar that answer [^and weri enraged] 

32. Thou did^^t strike luni (with thy wnnd), and didst change him into tt piUar; 

33. and didst place him in the midst of the desert ! 

3i. I have not yet said a crowd of thingj?, many more I have not ndded I ! 

35, Ladj* ! thou wouldst love me — oa thou haat done the otheri ! 

The following gentlemen took part in the discussion which enaued i—W- 
Botcawen ; B. Culft Rev. Alb. LGwy i Prof. Donaldson ; Rev. J. M. Rodiwll ; 
Rev. Basil H. Cooper ; RcT, T. M. Ghorman ; John E. Howard j Dr. B^ch, 

11, Ofl ths Trrtiar^ Ra^e. B\ Rev. II. 8. Warleigh, M.A.— Tim paper wm 
controversial, and the following were the author's coiicluiions : — According to Ibe 
Geologists, certain works of art are in exisiteuee, which prove that man muathftTe 
been living as far beck as the tertiary p^riofl of the earth's crust ; and EgyptoldgwU 
adlrm, that the ad^^need state of early civihication and art. prove that man wa» 
made more than 0000 years ago. On the other handt some tht^oJogijuu »y that 
man was not in existeimo tiiJ the present era : and that therefore mankind 
could not have protluced these work;*, nor t'ould they he the subjects of tliis 
allegeil civilization. 

These worka of art, however^ do exist, and they were made during the 
tertiary period j but other manufacturers, beside* those of the human race, nay 
have produced them. 

The Bibh* mentions a race of intelhgent and bodEy erect beinsR, aa exiatiiig 
before the tertiary perioti, who were capable of making the«e worku of ari» ax^ 
who were in circumstanres which would call for their production. 

The historical fragments whieh speak of this race are Gen. ri, 4, and Num. 
liii, 33. Thepaasagea which allude to it are Gen. i, 28, iv, 14-25. 

ThuA it 18 evident that a ]wwerful nice, not of human origin, existixl m the 
time of Adani, that it was of immense antiquity, and that it was not extiacC in 
the dav» of iloscs. 

This race might be colled Genus Terliarium ; or it might rfveive iU Biblical 
appellation J Ha Ncphilim — The Nephilim. 

This nice may have lived in a highly civilized state in the valley of the Nile, 
and have left, the stoinip of their |x>wep there j and some of them may have 
emigrated northward ana built the giant cities of Banhan. Per^uip^ some parts 
of ancient mythology relate to them , and indeed the discoTeiy of such a race 
throw* much light on many obscure subjects of study, and at iwiy rate if proren 
on one pointy support the harmony of Science and the Bible. 

The following gentlemen took part in the discussion which ensued :— i>r- 
Birch \ Rev. Alb. Liiwy ; Prof. Seager ; E. B. Tylor ; II. H. Howarth ; Eev. 
Jos. Killer j B. G. Jenkins ; Mr. Boscawen ; Rev, T. M. Gormau ; E. R, 
Hodges i Percy Reed j Rev. H. 8. Warleigh. 



I 




Condemed Report of the Proceedings, 



575 



SrB Cbarlss NiCHOLS02ir, Bart., M.D., F.a.A. 

the Chair. 



Tvesda^, May 2, 1876. 
F.R.S.L., Vice-President, in 



The following Candidates were uominatpd for election in June t^ — R, Trott- 
t Fisher; T. G, IrTine, C.E. ; C. James LTftU, Asitist.-Seo. H.M. GoTemmcnt, 
Cftlcuttft ; F. B. Mocatta ; Theophilus Fin'clie* ; Ect, J* A. I, Eoberts, Bothal j 
Her. J, Cyprian Ruat, Soham. 

The following paper* were then read : — 

I* The Bafjif Ionian Codex of ffoiea and Joet^ now at St. Vetertburg, data 
016 A.D., compared with the Mastoretic text of now accentuated. By Rev. C. D. 
Q-inaburg, LL.D. — Dr. Qtnsburg shows thiit this MS. exhibits phenouiena wliich 
[ havfi not b&en known to exist in M3S. of the Old Testaraent up to the discovery 
rof this coder. Thesa consist (1) in tha disposition and readings of the text and 
iHie Massorah ; (2) the vowel-poinU, which are not only different in form, but, 
I unlike those of the ordinary MSS. and the received text, are placed above the 
I letters J and (3) the form and disposition of the tonal accent*, which are Ukewiso 
different from those commonly to be met with in the M3S., and adopted by 
Jews and Christians in the printed edition of the Hebrew Scriptures, Dr. 
Ginsbur^ confines Idiuself in this piiper to tl»e pbeuoraena comprised in the first 
class. He shows that the letters He, Zain, Yod^ and final Nun are here 
dilTt^rently formed, that thick dots are used between the words and otherwise t 
fill out the line to its proper leugtli, which gives the text the appearance -i' 
marking ofni&sions^ &c., ic. The sectional divisions of the t*xt are ditrerent from. 
tho#e in the received tcit. Hosca is divided into 18 sections, 11 oj>eu and 7 
olos«d, whilst Joel is divided into 5 sections, 3 open and 2 closed. From tho 
Table of Various Readings, Dr. Ginaburg shows that the MS. has 94 variations 
^-63 in Hosea and SI in Joel, more than refer to the plene and defectiTc mode 
of writing, aud that 27 of these readings have been corrected by a second hand. 
Of the readings, the following are the most noliceable* Hosea ii* 22 in the 
Hebrew, ii, 20 in tho English Bible is, " and thou shall know that I aoi the 
Lord/' initoiid of " and thou slialt know t!ie Lord." Hosea iii, 1, is, *' according 
io the loTO of the Lord towards the house of Israel," and not '* according to 
the love of the Lord towards the children of Israel," aa in the received text. 
Hosea ii, 2, "and t!u^ new wine ^hall deceive them,'* inntevudoi ''' xkall fail in 
Aer/' Of linguistical interest is the fact that we have hero in two passages tho 
old form t^*\rT i^*fd for the feminine (Hosea ii, 4 j Joel ir, 1), thus aflbrding 
additional evidence that it was epicene originallyt that it was used so throughout 
the whole Hebrew Scriptures, and that it was only gradiialiy dbplaied from tho 
prophets aud Hagiograplm by the hit«r form, t^^n* ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^* *^i»* Pentateuch, 
which was regarded as pccuhariy sacred. From the Ma?eorah Papf a, which is 
given between the two columns aud the outer or edge margin of every pagCi we 
hare several readings not included in the printed Miis^Hoi-ah. by the name of keri 
or kethio. Thus against the words, ** and their st^ff ^1Vj*TOl) declareth unto 
them" » (Hosea ir, 12), the Ma^florah remarks read, *' and from Hf« 
voice {l|^^r?^1) deelart*d He unto them*'* The Massorah on Hosea and Joel 
contains 31 riihrica ; but these contain nothing new ; all of them ariot coulained 
in the printed Massorahs. 

The following gentlemen took part in the discussion which ensued i — Rer. 
Albt. LOwy, J. W. Bosauquet, R. T. Caatleckary, Rev. J. M. Rijdwell, Sir Cha». 
Nicholson, J. G, Irvine, W, J* Cock bum Muir, Prof. Seager, and the author of 
the paper- 
Owing to the lateness of the hour, the followinj» papers were then taken as 
read, and they will appimr with Lllustratioas in the July part of the Transactions 
of the Society. 

II. Oil ike Interpretation of the Hatnathite iMcripHont. By Rev. A. H. 
Sayce, iLA. — This paper consisted of a series of conjectural sugt^estions as to 
the origin und phonetic values of the Hamathite hiero;*lyphic8 found at Hamath 
and elsewhere. After giving an account of the iuscTiptiona, tho author endea- 

ToL. V. ST 



576 



Condensed Report of the Proceedings, 



voored to identify some of tlie characterst more particulftrlj one whtcb t^ms to 
b^ a di;t{?rminaiive ^jreOx of countriee and ciii^fs. He also utleiiipii>d t^ refer the 
invention of the Uamathite writing to the IIittit<?», froui whom it was borrowed 
bj the neiglihouring Si'mitio tribes ; the Hitlites thcm*elTe5, acconiing to the 

tteatimonj of ttieir proper numcs a^ found on the KgJ^'pLJan and Ajsrrian tnonu- 
metita, beinjy a noti-^emitic race, lie further compared the characters of the 
Kjpriote syllabarj with ihe Ilamttthite hicrodyphies, and came to thccouelusion 
that the Jbrmei* were deriTod from the mtter. A h5t of the Hamathifo 
hieroglTphie* drawn up hy Di*, Hajt^a Ward waa appended t-o the paper'4iiid 
accompanied bj tbo corresponding KjprioJe characters. An attempt wii» also 
miMle to explain the uamoi* (aleph, befh^ itc.) given to the letters of the L'bccriicijui 
aIphabt'^t hv tho Semite's after they had borrowed it from Egypt, by supposing 
tliem to have been already familiar with theae nanioe through the medium of the 

f Hainathite lueroglypbics. It was «hown that the Phoenician alphabet was 
really Hr^t need by the AramteanB, and the latt4?r may be ftuppa!»ed to buTe 
ifcdopted it in place of the moro cumbrous Haniuthite, just as tho Greek 
inhabitants of the Archipelago adapted the aimpler FhoBiiidan alphabet in plat^e 
of the Kypriote. 

IV, Some Obserrnfiottx on the name of an Epttptian Do^. By Prof. Q. 
Maspero, Pam, — In thift paper the leainicd Egyptologi^^t identified one of the 
doga mentioned in Dr. Birch's paper •' Ou the tablet of Auteiaa/' ivith the 
Abakrou dog of the Berber racea of ^ubla. 



Tuoida^^ Jum 2, 1876. 

8. BiBCHj LL.D., FtS.A., President; in the Chair, 

The following candidates were nominated for election by the Council t- — The 

Marqiiifl of Bute, K.T., &c. ; Dr. Hyde Clarke, F.R.a.S. ; Mrs. Gorrloo Forlong ; 

i William Htane, F.K.CS.E. (Cinderford) ; Rev. Dr. Knowle», M.A., F-S.A. 

friuibridge WelU) ; Hon. Cohn Lindsay j Rev; Q, F. Lovell, M,A. (Vice -Prinoi pal 

St. Edmund's llidl, Oiford) ; R<fV. j/j. Mobb (Somerton). 

L Chrofwlogical Rf^marks of% the Histortf of Esther and Ahatuerut or*AtoMMm 
and T<tnu-Axarcx. By J. W. Bosanquot, F,R.A.S.t TrpoHiirer. — It is assumed 
that the chief object of this Society in to ill u?l rate Biblitnil History by historical 
docuuientfl and monumenltd records, Mr, Bowinquct point* out four great 
diflicultiea amongst many, which at present stand in the way of reconciling tacrvd 
history with the monuments :— - 

1* Many discordant opinion* Imve been put forth ooneeming the diite of the 
reign of ShalmaneiEer the Assyrian king, whose annak are i«scril>ed on the 
Black Obcliak in the British Museum, who fonglit with Ahab, Benluidad, 
and HajEoel, and took tribute of Jehu, king of Israel, none of which fall in 
with Viwy acknowledged system of Scripture chronology. 

2. There is a dilFcretice of opinion botwtH'ii high ant hori ties concerning the date 

of the death of Apries, or Flmrnoli Hophra, king of Egypt, wlio wa* put 
to death by Nebuchadnezzar al Tahpanhes, or Diiphniet about the time of ifc 
total eclipse of the sun at that spot, in the 27th year of the reign of 
Nehuchadnesizar, 

3. The years of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar are TaHousIy filed by difTcreut 

antlwrities. The authority of tlie C»non of Ptolemy is usually followed. 
But Ptolemy had no astronomical d«ta by which to fix this riMgn. 
4* It is found impossible to fix the time of the reign of Esther and Ahasuenas — 
which IN the main subject of Mr, Ilosanqucta paper — witlxin any dt^gfee of 
certainty within a period of ItX* years. 

Mr, BoNinquet argues that the chief cause of all these difllcult ies, and the greiil 
stumbling biwk in the way of rightly underst-nnding the history of tlie Old 
Testament, is the seholaslic fiction of the reign of a king of Media styled Darius 
Medus, wliose first year is placed in H.c. 538. He identifies Dariuji the Mede 



I 

4 



Condensed Report of the l'rocenlw(fs. 



577 



I 



witli Darius sou of Hj9tiwipe»» who ummed 'Atosjua or Estlier, danghter'in'law 
of CVrus 1, and thus briugs dowii tliu date of t!ie evpnts in the reign of Diirius 
the Mede from B.c, 538 to 493, a diliertnee of m^itrly Uulf a eoutury. Tlio 
result of thia altenitioti of dates is that Mordecait Esther, Daniel, ZL^rubbabel, 
Hag^i Zeck&nahj E^ra, Neheujjwh the &ot\ of Hfiiihalinh, were all Hviug aimul* 
tjujeooiily ftbout the lime of tlie ikHiiculion of the tet^oBd temple of Jerusalem in 
B.O* 485| wbich la^reea with Jcwiali trudilioa, wlierj Dariue and Artaierxes (thut 
is Duriufl and Xerxe«, who liiid just been ii.^Bociat(^iLl with his faihir on the throoe) 
confirmed the dix;ree of C'j rtuj »tm of Cmnbjse*, ia&iied in B.C. 513, that the 
temple should bo built. {Etm ri, 14.) It follow* of neceseitj that Cjrufl king 
of Babjion must Imye been the bou, not the father, of CambTrseft king of 
Bftbylon, and thnt Cyme II and Duritin son of lljatatfpca were oontemporarf. 
Mr, Bosonquet Bupjx>rts tliia position on thij following e?ideuce : — 

1. Tlie direct evidence of Xenophon^ that Cjma (KoreAh), son of Camhyses 

kiTig of Bubvlon and of Mandano daughter of A^tjages^ reigned at Babjlon 
after hh futher'i death, and therefore in the reign of Duriujs. (Trans., 
Vol. I,p.2i^k) 

2. Of Herodotus, that Aetyages bis grandfather married in the year of the 

eeUp»e in B.C. 585, and that the Cyrua who conquered him in B.o, 560 waa 
not tht?refore Cjrus eon of Maudane. 

3. Of Cte^LEB, that it was the father of Camhjiee king of Bttbjlon (Kai-Khoeru) 

who conquered Astyagea, before Combjaed reigned, and therefore not the 
son of CanibjseB king of Babylon. 

4. Of the inscription on the brick from Senkoreh, tbftt "Crms son of Cam- 

by ees " repaired the temples at Babylon, and was therefore the Cyme who 
reigned at Babylon. 
6. Of lie rod ut us, that the body t>f CN^ruB father of Cambysea waa left unburied 

on the Held of battle, when fIghUng with the SeytliianF. 
C. Of Arrian, that the tomb of Cyru5 at Pasurgadie contained the body of 

'* Cytu* Bon of Cambyae*/' 
7* Of ift^gniithenes, that when CyruE (son of Cambysea) had appointed Nabona* 
diu8» the last king of Babylon, aft niler over the proviiioe of Carmania, 
Darius drove him thence (Trans., Vol. I, p. ISO) y and again, lliat when the 
la«t of the kings of the iliHlet* (cftlled by him Aspaiidn,. perhaps Itffcndiar) 
died, " Cyrus and Darina ruled OTer the Persian empire for thirty -six 
yean.*' (Trans., VoL I, p. 262). 
8. Of Lucian, that Cyrus ^univf^d hij eon, the king Cambyaea, and died, bb he 

supposed, at the age of one hundred jtmra. (Trana., VoJ* Ii p. 207,) 
9 Of Clement of Aleitandria (Trans. Soe. Bib, Ar<-h., toI. I, p, 250), that 
Babylon waa ovfrf brown in B.C. 510, that i& in the reign of Darius ; and of 
Oroaius, that about the time when eon«iils began to nde instead of kings at 
Borne (b,c, 510), Cyrus conquered Babylon a second time, that is in the 
rvign of Darina. 

10. Of Jolnmnea Xfahilas, wlio recorda that Cyrua perlahed in a naral war 

between the Persians and Samiaua, not earlier therefore than the time of 
Darin a, whom ho calls eon of Cyrus. 

11. Of Joaephua, copying from Bero«ns or Megnathene^, that Cynia and Dariua 

cinne t<jgether agaiitj^t Nftbuaudelus, or Nabonadius, the laat king of 
Bubylon, and overthrew him (Ant., i, li, 2)y and how frc»m the captivity 
of the ten tribes (that is in b.c, 606) to the first year of Cynw, there were 
counted 182^ years (that is 69G - 183=-b.C. 513). 

12. Of tlkc Bcok of Daniel, that ** Daniel prospered in the reign of Darin** and 

in the reign of Cyrus" (ti, 28); and ligain, that "in the thini year of 
CVruB '* (B.C. 511), '* the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood liim 
(Dauiel) one -and -twenty day«/* or years, that in till e.c, 401 ; alao that he 
** remained there with the kings of Persia/' that is^ with Cyrua ftud Dariuf| 
then at Babylon, in B.c, 511 (x, 13), 

13. Of the contemporary saered historian Ezra, who relates that about the time 

of Zerubhabel (ax. 611), or third year of Cyrus (Koresh), when Damera 
release from Babylon was opposed by the ** prince of the kingdom of 
Peraia,'' the building of the temple of Jerusalem was also atoppedj and the 



578 



Condensed Export of the /Proceedings. 



d<wree of Cyrus »at at nought, "all the dny» of Cyrus, eTCti until the 
(soooud year of) the reign of Dariun/' tlmt is, till Darius at about siity* 
throx? ycfti-s old, tn BC. 591, luid taken tlio kingdom^ or empire, jujii 
twenty-ouc yeura after the coutett bad ariseQ between these kings, a» stated 
by DaBit'l (Ejtra iv, 5, 2 4). 

1*1. The i?vid^iice of the BabyloBian contrac't tablets, or tribute tablets of llie 
roigns of Cyrus and DariuB, i» not yet sufEcieutly conaplet<? to place tbeae 
coneluf'ioiis beyond the reaoh of controversy We hare, howerer, in tho 
the British Museum a aeries of sit tablets, among others, reachiBg to the 
seventh year of the reign of CyTus, B.C. 507, that is, of coup&e, oi Cttus 
son of Caniby*cs, who repaired the temples of Biibylon, from which it 
appears that lie wiw 6rbt styled '* king of Babylon " on the 28th day of tho 
month Adar, u.c. 511. We have also tiihlets of the twelfth and thirltfenth 
years of XJariiift* tliat is, in B.C. 510 and 509, on the first of wluch he is 
styled *' king of Babylon," on the seeond merely *' king of the countries/' 
which Sfi?iiw to eontlrin the statement of Daniel and Megptistbenes that both 
these kings were acting together at Babylon about the first of these yean, 
m,c, 510, 

Mr, Boeanquet, baring remored the fictitious king Darius Medus tnxm 
sacred history, then tidtea the Mlh year of Ueickinh, B.C. 689, as the key date of 
Scripture Chronology, ua fixed by the solar eclipse netir Jerusalem in that year, 
aiid shows how any child may theu count without ditKcuHy from the birtk of 
Christ upwurda to the fourtli year of Solomon, B.C. Oyii, as the time whf n the 
foundation of tht? first temple was laid. He then examines tlie second diflicully, 
viz., that which rekt*>B to the date of the dtath of Pharaoh Hophra, in the 27th 
year of Xebuohadneixttr, Uophm's death is usually placed in the year B.C. 570, 
and there is no reason to doubt thiit that wns tho year in wliich he was first oTer- 
tlirowa by Ama«is, and confined 1x> his own palace as prisoner, Nererthelesa it it 
shiiwTi fram Herodotus that he was not put to death at tlus time, and from. 
Ezt^kiel and Jeremiah it is shown that he was put to death at Tahponhes or 
Dsvphnie about I he time of a t-ital frolar eclipse at that place (see Etekiel 
xxi, 18, xxxii, 6' 11) in the 27th year of Nebuchadnezzar. Now the only total 
' folar echpse between the year bx. 580 and 553 wMch will meet the words of 
Exekiel, by creating darkness at Ttdipiinhcs, is that of the 1st November, B.C. 
&(ifi, whieh is the 27tli year of Nebuchadnezzar counted from bis defeat of 
Pharaoh Necho at Carchemish, in the year of the fall of Ninereh. Tliis astrooO' 
micul reckoning of the time of Hophra's death by means of the eclipse of 
November, B.C. 556, is in perfect harmony with the reckoning of the death of 
tTeroboam II. kintj of Israel, by means of the total eolar eclipe of June, B.C. 
7<>3, rucordcd by the prophet Amos, and also at Nineveh. Egyptian chronology 
now falls in eiactly with Assyrian chronology as set forth in Smith's History of 
Assur-haui-pal, pp. 249, 254, as follows : — 

Pharaoh Hophra reigns 25 years from B.o. 655 to 579« 

Fsammuthis „ (4|) 5 ,| ^ 579 to 583. 

Necho „ (161) 16 „ „ 583 to BB9. 

Psftmmctielius ^, 64 ^ „ 599 to 653. 

The Dodecarcby 15 „ ,, 653 to 668. 

These 15 yeors of dodecarcliy (or eikos-arehy) of Diodoms Siculus, it is aaauxned 
fire deriTed from the pEu^sage referred to in Assur*baiii'pal, leading to the year of 
that king^s accession in BC. 66S at the close of a soss of 60 years. 

From thence are counted ... 7 sosses =? 420 years . from 668 to 1087 
From the nee are counted ... 2 ners = 1200 ,j „ 1087 to 2287 
And Iroui thence 33,4«0 suns, or days = 93 „ ., 2287 to 2379 
the year of the deluge, both according to Berosus and Moses, 

By this arrangement of Scriptural dates the rei^rn of Esther and Alia«ueruii 
fnlls naturally into the time of the Captivity at Babylon, nnd the ilenth of 
Mordecrti about the time of building of the second temjde, where Josephu* places 
it. Lastly, the rcijju of t!hidmanezcrt the Bluck Obelisk king, is tuijuftted, a« 
first poiulcd out by Dr. Hoigb, by placing the revolt of Assur-daT-pal or 




Condenned Report of the Proceeding*. 



579 



Sarddnfipaliifi 67 jeara before the First Oljinpiad, aa recorded bj Abydennn, thai 
19, in B.C. 843, aft^r which the appoinlriieut of uTinual afchona c^iaeed for 20 
years, till the rei!itoi*at ion in B.c, 823 bj Whumnfe-PhuL Ajid ihub the jceri of 
defeat of Ahab, Benhftdftd and Hazael, and t.he tribute paid to Shalm&jitjzer, fs4l 
ill eiftctljr with the jears aa marked in Seripture History- 

Tkis paper w^ illustrated by tlie exhibition of two large maps of Hebrew 
ftnd Aesyriau chroiiolog^v, and photo -lithographa of the mouolithf of Assur- 
nuirpal and Sh&mns-Fhul. 



Tuesday, July 4, 1876, 
a. BmOH) LL.D., D»CX., &c., Preaident, in the Chair. 

The following Candidates vf^th nomiasted, and by sj^eeiaJ rote of Council 
duly elected Members of tbo Society : — Rev. Cauoo Collins, M,A. \ Rev, 
Edward Lawson, M,A. ; Rer. Thos, Paley, B.D. ; W. Harry Bykods. 

The following papers were then read : — 

I. Note* on Cypriote PaltBOffraphtf. By D« Fieri ties CLamaoa). — ^This payier 
consisted of three communieatio us to the President of the Society, deacribing nine 
ditferent Cypriote iiiscriptioos which had been diPCOTered during the recent 
cxeSivatioTis of General di Cesnola. The inacriptions were chiefly of a voiive 
character, and contained seveml proper naniea, together witli a few Tarianta of 
the Cypriote character* already known. One of the most curious objects deaeribed 
by M. Pieridea wna a smidl seal representing a stag or raare auekling her young 
one* In the field of the aeal were a few well-detloed Cypriote letters, of which, 
together with those of tlic other eight teits, the author of the paper offered a 
tranaliteration and a tranalation. 

II. Note* on Assyrian Rdiyion and Mytholoyy. By W* St. Chad Boseawen. 
—In this paijer the author pointed out the close parallel between the Jewish 
oode and the Assyrian as to the effect of prayer as an antidote to ain. Extraots 
mere given from Tarioua Asayrian tablets relating to the treatment of penitents, 
and as to the times and plaoea of prayer. Some of the moat important portions 
were — Aa iiluatratiire of St, Luke lii, 52, 53 :— 

(A.)— When a man with his god quarrcla (lit. hreake away). 

When a man with his father ijmirreb. 

Wlien a mother with her da lighter quarrels. 

When a daughter with her mother qiiarrebi. 

When a man with his betrothed quarrelfl. 

When a virgin with her betrothed quarrels. 

When a brother witli liis brother quarrela. 

When a friend with his friend quarrels. 
The duty of prayer waa fully aet forth in the lines below, showing that 
** Wateh and pray lest ye enter into tempta-tion " was a rule with the pious wor- 
shipper of the groat gods • — 

(B).— 1. Pray thou. Pray thou. 

2. Before the coueh pray* 

3. Before the throne pray. 

4. Before the canopy pray, 

5. Before the Hading the building of lofty head, pray, 

6. Before the rising of dawn pray ! 

7. Before the fire, pray ! 

8. Before the light of dawn, pray ! 

10. By the tablets and Papyri, pray! 

11. By the 

Retebse. 
(C).^L By the aide of the river, pm^ ! 

2. By the aide of a ship, or ridjng in a ship, or learing the shipi pmy ! 

3. At the rising of the sun, at the setting of theiun, pray ! 



580 



Condensed Report of the Proeeedhiffs, 



A. To the God» of Heftven, at the alUra on earth, pmy ! 

5. On coming out of the city, on entering the citj» pmy I 

6. On coming out of the great gate, on entering the great g»te, praj I 

7. On coming out of the house pray, on entenng the hou&o, prsy ! 

8. In the place of judgment, pmy ! 
9^ In the t«mpk^ pmv 1 

10, On the road, pray ! 
Tlie remainder of this curious liturgy ia a species of litany to the tmtous 
godst and elmnents of Aflayrian beUef, to pardon tho ^innor. Tije Inat lines of thia 
tablet are provided with spaces in which to insert the name of the person uaitig 
the aerrice. The last line roads, ** To remote hia sin let him say this," The 
pAper was accompanied by an appendix, giiring the cuneiform textj with 
philobgica] and other notes. 

The folio mng gentlemen took port in the diacnssion which ensued : — 
R. Cidl, F,8.A.j E. R. llodgcsj Rev. Albert L6wy j Rer. Josiah Miller j 
Rov. William Denton; Prof. Seager j Rev, J, M. EodweD, 51, A, ; and Dr, Birt*h, 
who, tn answer to a question from Mr. Cull, deecril>cd the met bod by which the 
Cypriote langnage was deciphered, nud the test« by wliich the accuracy of the 
translations were nAoertained* 



581 



INDEX TO VOL V. 



Abakrou, "Spotted Spbitix" (an Egyptinn dog so named), Berber 

(Abalkoor) g^yhouud .„. .... .... .... .... „,. 127 

'Abd-ShaniBi boh of Hijadhim's cndowmont, refreslud fixim droughty temp. 

Samaha-karib, son ol TuHba'u Kurib* aoo of Fudlnlum, feudal lords 

of the Belli MiLrtbadim 390-396 

Abtl-IstBr, son of Ilubalid, servant of g;odNarfttn-Bin .... „., .... 442 

Abimok'k, a lady of thi^ Benu Marthtidiai, daughter of 'Auan^n^ cndowi tablet 210 

Acx!adiQins, named animals from their plao4S of ejcportatiOD.... ...» ..,, 36 

\ Aoradiau namc^s of Asftvrmii anim»ds .... .... .... .... 367-383 

Acti^>n and bis dogs, bi» prototypu' in Tebtar .... .... ..., 100-102 

Adam, Ludolf » Etbiiipic ttymolo|ry of the narae as mejining " grace " ..„ 86 
„ Count de Gobelin's etymology of tin* name, Mondo PrimJtif» " bus- 

batidman" 86 

„ and Knosh, Bonaen's utymology of .... .... .... 83 

Afghao^B Tawarickh on Bam-Iftinierfl ark of Tabut-i-Sukina of Sbamaliad 

worn! » .. . „ .... .... 553 

Age of tbo irorld, 6408 yearn = Sotbiac -f lunar period .... .... .... 72 

AhEtsueniA (Tanti*A*are») and Estber ('Alossa), cbronoU>gy of. By J. W. 

Bosanquct 1. .... 225-292 

Aimwortli (in Cbesney^a expedition of 1838) describea a lion found at 

Klmbour 323 

„ k'«>pMrd found at .Mor'asb .... ..., .,,. .... .... 326 

Aleppo, n HaTnatbitv inscription discovered at. By R<jv. J. E. Daviea ...» 22 

a Hittito town .^. .,, 28 

*AlbAn ben Martbadim dedicated a tablet t« ll-Makah 206 

Amar-Agu, Aoeadiiui king-god of Ur and Nipnr .... .... .«.. .*.. 442 

Amencmea, M:inetbo's king, temp. Exodun.,.. .^, .... .... ...» 79 

Amenopbis' year, 1322 B.€,, ends a Ssotbiae cycle „,. .,.. .... .... 71 

Amen Ra^s generation from cycles, and not corporeal, be pervade* hea%'en 

and eartb and its creatures .... .... .... *... .... .... 206 

AnimaU (domestic) r»f A«Hyrian nculptnre. By Rov. W. Hoaghton 33-64» 368-383 
,, (wild) of Asayrian sculpture .... ..,. .... ..,♦ 319-383 

Anmirom Alislam, eon of Hawtif, Atbt, Db4 Nabyiln» endowmenti booty 

from the Nababim 391 

„ bun Shammamt dedicates tablet for bis safety in MaliAu distritit, 

and for Baving him from general maasacre in the land by violent tribe 

ofAaad .,.. .... 224 

Antef-An IVa dog "Spotted Spbinx," tbe Berber gi-eybonnd 127 

Ann ajul Annatu, tbe parents of Isbtar, wrbo aoeuseB bcdubar of intuiting 

her .... .... .... .... 100 

ApU Tablets IV- V, from Mariette'a Sernpenm de Metnpbia 251 



582 



INDEX. 



Apries (Hot>hra). king of Egypt (according to Speaker's CownictjtiirT^ 

Ezekkl) .... .... .,.; 250 

Arabic griimmar, when iiUied to Sal>amn ,.. .... ..„ „., „„ 423 

Arumasau Atjtioch, the diannel of the Greek a-endinp letters ,... .»«. 30 

„ scftl. Bv Cajita'm Pniienux. -65 x '45 x '3 inch. Bkuhtb- 

bath.*Abd-Ypkb (Moon, or Jt-rah) 456-i58 

Ark9» Jiipunes*?, cjirried by i*tuve« on ineii*^ Bboultiers like the Jewish nrk 550-552 
Aru, 9cr))t'iitj earliest Cu§hites, now the Agau and Bih^n folk .... -... 178 

Ab'mI Fa uk am An, ftervaut of Bin Martha di in j dedicates tahh't for ntftl© 

cbiUlri^n, liarvest^ protraction of feudal lord« from loss, enchantu^ent» 

and cftlmnpy, and saittcring of thpir foes .... .«, .... .... 216 

As'ad Yahasinan Wn Yaha'an endows Dh{[-Sfiman't with imnge, 'Atblar 

and Hanhas, ll-Makali, Dbnt-Hiinaim^ Dbut Ba'dantiii 
Asahn^ kin^ of fiuzaiu tribute of seven hi-huniped canieb 
AflKfl, fle»ti of wild nsses priced by the old Persinns wbove venison.... .... Z80 

Asitlf and Kissur, Mcond-born deities „„ .... .... .... .... 428 

Aj8Siirbanip«r6 wietbod of lion'kllling .... .... .... .... .... 324 

A89nrnai£i[i»b futtlierof Shalmanezer 11 (Black Obelisk), solar Eelipse 903 B.C. 27—16 
Aasnniatairpar<i olMiHsk, recotiQts the fauna killed In the Hittites* 

land in extenso ..,. .... „,. .... .... ... 322, 353-367 

Assyrians acquainted with the monkey .... .... .... .... .... 321 

Assynun maiuinallii as represented in scnlpture. By Rev W, Houghton 

33-^4, 311 
„ monrtrcb-* kept menageries 
Astrology, jndiciab originally eoDnccted starry movemetiU with salient; 

political ebanges on earth „.. .... .... .... ,... .... &i 

Astronomical calendar of sacred history, 907-818 B.C. .... .... 280-291 

Asn* king of Goran's Iribnte to Shftlmaneser, two donhle-hnmped ca«iels 47 

'Atossa (Esther) and Tauu-Axarea (Ahasneras), chronology. By Mr. J. W. 

Bosanquet .... ' .... 225» 292 

Awsum, son of Kur, preserved, temp. Nahata-il, ton of *Atnina-&mir .... 395 
Ailznm and Zuid-ilat^ and Sa\l-ilat of Yafadh, temp, son of Wahaba-il 

Yckhaz, king of ^aha, in name of Dhat Ba'damin and Dh^'SamATrt 402 

B. 



Biihel, Legend of Tower of. By Willi am St. Chad Boseawen .... 303-313 

Babvloni&n Codex of Hosea and Joel» 916 A.D., Masaorab^ Tabic to. Bv 

Dr. Ginsburg , 129-170, 475-549 

Babylonian Cylinders found at Knrium, CypruB. By Rev, A. H. Sayce 441-444 
Bfthylon*8 regal anuais lOOO years before Solomon, and astronomical before 

Dehige .,,, .... .... .... .... .... .... ..... 65 

Bahal Ahsan and Eabahnm Yatal of Abnat, endowed pavilion of Kaukaban 418 
Bakashath, tlangbter of AMYrkh (s4Tvautof the Moon, or Jenth), a male 

moon-god .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 467 

Beavers fonnd by Cliesney's expedition „„ .... .... .... ,.,« 831 

Behistnn inscription quoted .... .... .... .... .... .... 237 

Beka, intizndant of Egii'ptian public gmnaries, mortnary st^leof .... ,„, 461 

„ an Egyptian deisjt .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 4SA 

Bel and the Dragon and Flaming Sword. Translated by H. Fox Talbot 1—21 
Bel and Hea appointed to direet the movements of the planets .... .... 427 

Bells in old Japanese temples struck by the wind .... .... .... .... 652 

Beluzar or Belcsys or Belocbus supposed original name of Shamas-Fbul, 

B.C. 825 .... .... , ,.„ ^.. 291 

Ben Asber and Cairo (Karaite) Codexea .... .... .... .... ,.„ 130 

Boni' Mart had im, grciit Salm^au clan .... .... .... .» 381—402 

Bciii-Mflrthadim tablets, dedications to 11 Makab 203-224 



ixnEX. 



583 



Beni-Yehafra* endowniefit .... ,.,« ., ., Hbil 

Biazi^ star of, tbe chcetnh (according to DeUtza^jh) may be 327 

Bioi-Chjimpollioii, 1505 solur yearn cquiil 1506 viig^ne ye*rs, coinicidf' with 

3285 B.C., 17&0 B.C., 275 B.c, „.. .„ 74 

Biot-CLainpollion» 1505 ia 5 x 7 >« 43 ., 87 

Birch, Dr*« HUggests AsaurbanipaKs Itiunder t^ be M, Pierideii' Eteanelroa 

of CypruiB.... .... .... ...» .... ,... .,„ ' .... fi9 

„ iinrollg Stafford House Mummy, 15Ui Jtily, 1876 „♦, 122-12t> 

„ the Darius iiiBcription at El-Khargeh, by .... .„. 2y3-3t'2 

Bitfiaggathu mid Bitzairln (Bubylon temple*) rppairwd by Cyrus .„. .,*. 226 

Blnnford, W, T., K(>ogeoloj?y of Per«m reviewed „., „.. „„ ..,, H7B 
Boitard, M., ejtplaim pnjcespion cycle of 25,868 years, its effect on the city 

of PftriH , „ 8:j 

BcMMinqiiet, J. W., chronologic remarks, Esther and Ahusuera* (*Atossa and 



I 



Tana-Axores 
Boscawen, W. St. Chad, Legend of Tower of Babel 

,f a, ,p tmTtfllutioti of Annals of Shalmonester 

Bow of god Anil, taken by Bel 

Braas or bronze for binding of wood in Japanese templet „*, 
Breaks, 32 in Hebrew Scripttire MS., registered .... 
Bnnsen, Baron, work* on Bible md Egypt quoted 



a 



225-292 

803-312 

271--27i 

2 

,.„ 560 

.... 133 

76 



Cabala and Tradition : the Orient receives, Occident hands down.... .... B8 

Calculated Cycles wherein 43 ent^-rs as factor .... .... .... .... 313 

C&mel, brought by sea across the Feraiuoi Gulf, termed the ex^aea animal 

by the Accjidians .... „., .... .... .... ,... ,,.. 35 

CaniAi species of (byiena, etc.), in Assyria .... .... ,„. ..„ .... 328 

Canopii^, decree of, on the introduction of iutcrt-alary days „., .... 71 

Capridce, wild goatJi, common .... .... .... .... .... .... 841 

,, called artne, atudu, teapparu, yaeli .... ,„, .... .... 341 

Caracal in Assyria .... .... .... „., .... .... .... .... 321 

Carchemiah, fortress of Chemiab, a Moabite god ..„ .... ,„. *... 27 

„ a Hittite town.... .... .... I'H 

Cardinal points, flaming sword tumtsd to all ».,, ♦,.. .... .... 2 

C^n'idie, di?er tribe .,,, .... .... ,„. .„, ,.,. .... .... 343 

,, called dnra, or ai-lu .... .... .... .... .... .... 3 1 i 

Cesngla, General di, bis Kuriora-Cypms Babylonian Cylinder* (Sayce) 4^il— H 1. 

Cetn, "nakhiru te hamti/^ the nostril sea-animal, dolphin, or narwlml 351-3r2 

,1 possibly a seal .... .... .... , .. *.„ .... 37 N 

Chahas, Francois, notice snr stele Kgyptienne c!u Mu?6e de Turin 46r-IT l 

Chaldean account of the Creation. By W. H. Fox Talbot .... 426-1 10 

Cbampollion en pin ins rcgid name» in llif Aliyflos st^le .... .... ..., 5i^6 

Chariot of Bel, styled *' Deetroyer of the Impioua*' .... .... .... 2 

Chans in Asayrta .„. ..,» 321 

Cheetah in Afsyria 321 

Child-like explonitiou of Sacred History recommended .... .... 2-10-2^7 

Coincidence of Hehrew-Kfryptian chronologicail era 3892 B.C .... 75 

Combertigue, French translator nf Rydbi^rg'» Pixtriitrch Table .„. ..,. 65-8 1 

Crtation, Chaldt-an account ther<H>f, * By W. H. Fox Talbot .... 426-KO 

„ tradition of, begins the Sothiac period .... .... .... .... 71 

Cypriote inscriptions. By Mr, W. H. Fox Talbot 147- K^3 

„ palieography, notes on. By M. D. Fieri des .... .... .,.. 8>8-JJf> 

Cyrus the FiTBt (Kai-Khoara) reigned B.C. 538 .... .... 228 

„ C«mbyfleii and Darius ion of llyfitaspea were contemporaries (14 

proofs) 28i-236 



IXDEX. 

C^Toi repain Bitsaggathn and Bitzidtt temple 

.. selected tublete of, BritUh Miweum (i*6) ,. 

Cjthem* eitlicr Kjthera of Cyprwi, or Cliytie, or Cerigo .„. 



1>. 



I>AiDftscitis'ft vi?nu'ity defended 

Darius, inscription at El-Klinrgi'h. By Dr. Birch 

Darhis the MiMle, an LnutgiDArj king 

Darius of Pert^ia defeat* the deroocnitic conspiracy of Otnues 

I>«ioces, Pliraort*^, Cyaxare«, Aitjiigvs, dynarty fixed 

Davi<», licH'. J., di^eovors Htimathite ini«criptH>ns at Ibr<?e£ 

Dawkins, Boyd, idivniitleM bii«)n teeth in Lebanon „., 

Deer; hounda used in Ciipturing; tbtinij, net« oIho »,„ .... 

Deities when displaced fade* aa Imiiian heroes 



.... 432 
209, SOS 

.... ^49 

229-S»i 

22 

837-338 

.... HU 

68 



Delitxsch, Mff/riteAt Letestucke, veniion of Bel and Dragon and Flaming 

Sword 
Delitzsch says Btar of Biazi may be the rbeetah *... 
Deluge* Eg^j'pt's forethought against it« renewal in the Kil^ 

Valley 
Destroyer of the Impious, title of the chariot of Bel .... ,„♦ 

l>hu-Kibar, a priiu'e of El-\^emen .... 

Dhu-KholiU vide Midler 

Dhu'Wfttrim and Dhu-Samawi, Ilab-amrim 

Didymui Alexandrinus, the first who makes mention of liou'a tail*daw 



1 
327 

.... 77 

... 387 

..,. 387 
... 40$ 
.... 326 

Dog^ Egyptian, name of. By G. Ma*pero.... .... .... ...» 127-128 

Di-aeh, S. M., explanatory note on Mikoahls of Japun ,.,, ..., .... S63 

Drach*« chronogram of Hupcrpoliited eleven letter*. Dent, xxix, 29 n« (2)310, 

Or3761-L4&l ,„. 86 

„ were unpointed sacred phrases differently dissected for tUe popular 

polytheism and secret monotbeism? illustrated bj Qen. i, I .... 31B 

,t plaJK'tnry revolutions in Sothiac wnd Ner periods ,.., .... ..« 85 

„ hiK diftthiction of Enoch and Kadab, " hallowing '* .... .... 88 

Wliy is forty-three a basal Biblicftl nmiiber? 313^17, 550 

,p notes on M. Kydherg's paper .... ..„ .... .... .... 85-87 

Dragon » fight between Bel and, und Flaming Sword. Translated by II. Fox 

Talbot .... .... 1^21 

Dynasties of Egypt, hieroglyphic numbers of the LXX, 2262H|-1777H- 

1117. or 51&6 years...*. , .... ....77-80 



I 



» 



Ecllpsei solar, at Biiphu^ near Pduaium, lit November, 556 11.0., posatblj 

totaU elemente „.. 2ll2-fi&i 

„ solar, tiible, 610 — 555, in chronology .,., .... .... 2 68^ >M 

Ecliptic cycle of 6890 mean lunations; 657 year* 22 dayti 30-fold 

223 plus 200 (S.M.D.) * 287 

Egyptian dog^ its name. By G. Maspero .... .... .... .... 137^1^ 

,^ Archaic history, the builderfi of pyramida, dtarat^on 2262 

year* .„. .... 77 

„ mediiBval hintory, Deluj^e to Exodna, 1777 years.... .^ 78 

„ decadence, history, 1117 years .... .... 7&*-50 

Ehrentheirs bio|^rftphy of Jost and Zunz; hojE were tanght tliat evil 
angels catch erroneously prononuced Hebrew pniyers* in order to 
calumniate tbeir utterers at God*B throne .,., 816 




INTIEX. 



585 



^JLQM 

Elean iD»mption, A ^parpa .,.. .... ,,., .... .... «... 452 

EletnenU, the foar, tcuile uod female forms, £l-K1iargeh (mflcription of 

Dariua) .., , 295 

Elephant (ludian) on black obolUk of Shalmanester .„, „.. 819-349 

J, „ called buziat) 349 

Elicaser, Riibbi, aays 8aniar5tan4s impeded rcbnilding of temple kill Jablle« 

year 260 

El-Khargeh, Dariuii' inscription there. By Dr. Birch 298-302 

Oiiais (Cailkuit Ediiifjast4jn, Iteinek^ Kohlf) ,«. 293 

Elkt-Gula, queen, succeeded Nrtrara Sin ..,, .... .... .... .,.. 442 

Enwh (Henwh), hin nymber 365, an '* angel-taught afltronomer" .... 78 

Etitenainasluvj the star *' tip-tail,*' Great Bear Misterism ,..* ..,, ,,.. 333 

Enuuia eliah, name of creation tahlet« from first word« {ef. Heb. Deresith) 438 

Eponymous Archons, list n\\ in table, 929-818 B.C. ,, 285-291 

Eriv-Baga.3, servant of Ntrgnl (2nd Knrinin cylinder)* older than 1600 B.C.) 4i3 
Em, *' the crowning CJig^lc," a pijliir asttmnij Heb. Ayar .... ..,. .... 334 

Esther CAtossa) and Abasueros (T«no-Axarcfl), Chronology of* By 

Mr. J. W. Boaanqiiet .... 225-298 

Eteandroa, king of Paphot, on Kurinm gold armlet (Etearcb, Eteoclee, 

Eteonicufi, varidnts) .... .... .... .... .... .... 88 

Euerj^tes 1 (Utfjknny) intmdAices intcrcftlary duyf* intti ye«r .... .... 71 

Kuekiel (Speaker's Comiut'iitary) on Apriea-llophra, king of Egypt .„. 250 

Ezra jmd Neheinlah, crealiun*epcji!h ,„. ..., .... ,... .,„ 82 



Fight between Bel and the Dragxm, nnd the Flaming Swortl. TrauHlated 

by H. Fox Talbut .... l'-21 

FirkovitfTeh, hii* Karaite Hfhrew MSS 129 

Forty-three, a basal Biblical oumher. By S, M. Drach .... .... 318 -317. 550 

FoXt timy be the ii-ai .... .... .... .„. .... ,... ,.,. 329 

Fiincnd Papyri on the lower worlds tranilivted by Dr. Birch and M, Pierret 660 



O. 

Garbett, E. L. (Phil. Soc. Glasgow, 1873), " Sixty ** is beat rcdtiction- 

fact^jr .... .... 87 

Gcnett in MesopotMmia .... .... .... .... ..., .... .... 327 

Ginaburg, Dr., Babylonian Coclcx of Husea and Joel, a.D. 916, with 

Mftssoretic comparisons ..., . 129-176, 175-549 

„ Massomh Tablos of Hosca, Joel, and Jonah, printed M. Babylonian 

Codex, B.M. HarL 1528, 5711. Cainbridiro Add. IQb, B.M. Add. 

9399, 15250-15251, Arundel Orient. 16 143-175, 47&-S49 

Gohei, see Jewel. 

Gold armlet,^ fonnd at Knrion, Cyprn», 5th century b.c ,„. 8$ 

GofKlwln, Mr. i.'. W., translates a Hittite-Egyptlan treaty .... .... 28 

Greek letters cud in a, brought from Aramssan Antioch, not from 

PluxMiician Tyre .,„ ^... .... .... .... .... .,., 30 

Greek text of contract between king and city of Idabura, Cypras, of the 

one part and the ntedical faculty on the other part 451 



H. 



Hada<l (not ITadar), a Syrian deity (Macrohiui) 
Uodiinu ben SahUun, endows tublt^t 



25 
211 



586 



IKDEX. 



Haigh, Dr., urmngf^a sacred history in softsea of «ixtj jtiftrs, begin uing at 

903 B.C., solar ecltpde, 3rd Jiilj..„ , ^1 

,, ftpst to reooinnu^nd Clesia* as furuisUing the key to the As^ri&n..*. 

Canon .„. .... ». 2^50 

Hainaraut an<i iHale n^atives of Beim Arfnt^ under Beni Miirthiidifn, dedi- 

cateil a tablet fjr g<K>d hiirveat ,... „,. .... ,,.. „., 213 

Halnkiini, lady of Beni -^Abdim, dmiglitcr of Bin Day an, dedicated a tablet 210 
Hftlevv'« ** Etudei Sub^ennt-a" (Journal Asintlqiie, tor May- June, October, 

' December, ] 874) .... ,„ .,*. .... 177-'3a4 

HalU l>r. Isaiic U*, on an HUnyaritic teal loutid in tbe Hauran .... 4 1 6 44 6 

Hamatbite cbaract«rB are not alphabetical, but ideogi^pbic .... .... 2H 

ft lanj^iage not Semitic .... .... .... .... .... „.. 27 

„ inscriptiuna (Buckbardt^ Burton, Drake, Mr. Laviird« Dr. Hiiyea 

Ward) .... .„' 22 

„ inscriptions at tbe finperial MaaeuDi at CoUBtantmople, ivimI 

bonstropbedon fnabion ,.., .... .... .... .... 3?3 

„ fifty -aix cbarai'ttre iti syllabary ... .... ..., .... .... 25 

Ham^atht, eon of Wazbbnn, servant of Samaba*ali, endows 'Atbtor, day of 

irrigating t;ink of two balsam tret.*s, endowment of Vehar .... 40 

Hapu, wife of iritisenj .\byclos stele .,.. ..,. .... .... .... 553 

Hauran, an Himynritic §eal found there (Dr. Hall) .... .... 445— H6 

H6 (fc^^J^), t'.tf.» ''fthc/^ found m Scripture only eleven timen Tersus Ha 656 

time* ,,. .... .... 139 

Heath, Mr. Dunbar, failed to reconcile HninatbUe and Egyptian writing .... 26 

Hebrew chronology, backward from Zfdtkiab to Solomon.... .... 255-266 

„ rc^l annals begin regularly with Solomon.... ... .... .... 65 

„ connection of primitive Eden with Arai'at .... .... .... ,..• 6» 

367-383 
28 

2a 

.... 102 

„., 651 

.... 367 

230-231-239 

26 

663 

445-446 

,... 420 



•v-vH 



Semitic namea of Assyrian animals, 
Hebron, a Hittitc town 

„ formerly called Kirjnth Sepber 
Hecate, daughter of Ast-eria (Isbtar) 
Hempen cloth a primitive Japauese saenflce 
Herodotus gives the Eg^yfvtian name of crocodile .... 
Hezekiah and degree* of the sun-dial of Abrtz, lltb Jan., B.C. 6SSI 
Hieroglyph ic3, their use requisite in inliexiomii hinguagca..., 
Himalaya Ark ct'remonica .... 

Himyarltic seal found in tbe Haamn (Dr. Hall ), in Briii§h Museum 
Himyar OS "country*' not proved .... *... 

Hian^Ghorpib furnishes key to iuscriptiou .... 
Hittitea, costume detailed .... 

„ at Hebron.... 

„ royal dynaiity 

„ in Egypt called Kbeta, Khalti iu Assyriis temp. Tliotbtnes III 

„ rephices Kaharnim when Seti 1 was with llameaea II 

,, paramount in Syria, temp. Tiglftth-l*jltaer 1 

Hor»es in Egypt first sculptured B.C. 1500 

Hoiea and Joel, Babyloniau codex, a.I). 916 (Dr. Giushurg) Maasornh tables 

129-176,475-619 
Houghton, Ri»T. W., mammalia of A&ayrian iculptnrea .... 83-64, 310-383 

Hykaoa ruling when Hebrews settled iu Egypt ; cause of LXX'a variant 

numbers ,.„ 73 



D^reez inscriptions (Hamatbite), by HeT. J. Davies 
Icbnevvmon in Mesopotamia 





INDEX. 



587 



k 



Il-Mttkab of Hirran, a great Sabipiin deity 205. 240, 384* 402 

Il-Sharalka Yahdhab, bi-ytli*}r YazhI Bciyyan, lil. Tamm Yanbftb, n^x Saba, 
Akbarwiiakiiiiiu. tribi3 Hnkiliiu, Bin Wal, Betiu-Kabirukiiiuin, 
periDitft purchnfl© of femalp •laved .... .... ,„, .... .... 412 

IriiiBeti, aculptor ftiid pHintcr in Efjjypt „.. .... .... .... 557-558 

,j hb tttitotrrapbiL' aecomplislimenta .... ..„ .... .... 559-562 

„ fton of dume Ad .... .,.. .... .... .... .... .... 562 

t, his irldi'St legitiniftte 9on an artkt and jiiWi'ller .... ... .... 562 

„ family ftinend offerings, wife Hapu, w.ms Usorteteti, Mentiikotepj 

Si-Mentu, dutii^bter Qiiii, grandHim Temnen .... .... .... 56G 

„ lived in time of Aleut lib otep .... ,,.. .... .... .... 555 

Iditar aod Izdubar, 6tb tablet. Traualnted by H. Fox Talbot .... &7-121 

hlitar'a promlsetl jjiumage, liousehold gifts tu Izdubar rejeclud by bim .... 9S 

„ deadly cruelty to bex lovera and pet animals .... ...» .... 9^ 

„ same as Dinna of Epbesu», Bolloim, Hekate» full moon, etc. .... 101 

Itnander, temp. Auuarbanipal, v. EU^tidros .... ..„ .... .,.. 89 

Izdubar and labtar, 6tb tablet, tmnslated by W. H. Foi Talbcjt .... 97-121 

„ CMindemiifl Ishtjir'n conduct to Uer former huaband and ber animal 

pets „ .., 99 

diBguiaed fid a b&gg^r (ct Htjmt?r*i Odysseus) .... .... ,... 97 



Japanese Ark-Bbnnt?s .... .... .... „.. .... ..„ .... 560 

Jerusalem tidicn by Nebucbadnczzar, Aug. 563 B.C. .... .... .... 255 

J(?wol (in Japanese SbititoismJ^ a wand with paper spread to represent clotb, 

is called Oobei .... .... ..., .... .„. .... .... 551 

Joel and Uoscn* Bubyloni&D Codex, 916 a.d. (Dr. Oinsbarg)j Massortib 

tables 129-176, 475-^549 

Jonab, MaAiorah tables and codei: .... .... .... .... „„ 532-549 



ttb, holy city of PhcsnicmD goddess Ken, or Kesb ...» »... .„» 2S 

Karaite codiciW from Tzufutkalle, Karassubazar, and Peodosia .... ..». 129 

Kaui-aar or Kirep'sar, Egyptian for Klicla-sar .... .... „,. .... 28 

Kabui or Kuan of Assyria .... ..., .... .... .... .... .... 28 

Ken or Keab» Pbcenielan consort of god Reslieph, the San 28 

Key to G<.niC9is Patriarch Table, ami Septiiagint chronology ».,. .... 65-84 

Kbeta*sar (aira), brother and succcsBor of Muutenanr .... .... .... 28 

,1 son of Maur*8af (Mara-sara) .... .... .... .... 28 

„ son of Sapulel (SapalaluK Hitlite king .... 28 

Khirbu is Egyptian fur Helbon or Aleppo .... .... .... .... .... 28 

Kurinuif Cy^^nis, on Babyloiiian eylindors fonnd there (Cesnola-Sayce) 4-il*14-4 

Kypvagorao, from seal at Golgos .... .... .,.. .... .... .... 92 



Lahiatbt and Sar Thawwabd, and male relative* of Bcnu Wabran (clau 

Beni- Mart hfl dim) dedicate? tablet for prosf>4irity and malo progeny 218 

LakbtTiu and Lakbamn, oldest dtfitits .... ..,. ,,,, .... ... 426 

Ltiytird, bU opiniau of tlie genes of monkoy on Bbick Obelisk of Sltahnanezer 820 

], found lions nt Kalab Sbergbal, Bir, and Nifl> r .... 323 



mmst. 



h&yatdi found beavers .,„ „.. „,. „„ 

„ dbcovtTtd five HHinutbito *eal» in Seniifleherib'd paluoe .... 

„ on the white ajjji of ilHgdad 
Legend of Towev of Babel, truo^Uitr^d b)^ W. St. Chnd Bcwcawen 3' 

Leopianl In AssyriA „.. ..,. ..„ „„ .... „,. 3; 

^, found by Aiusworth at Mumsli, in tlio Amanus and Tknrm 
Lepsius tliifiks Jewisb eiodua wui* 1322 B.C., Sotliiac cpocb ..,. .„, 

Lig-lmi"-m not leopard*, but a-kliu (Isniab xilu 21) okbim,,.. 
Lik-EDulfb, the Accadian name for Lion .„. .... ,„, .... ...^ 

Llon» in Assyria 

„ libiitions to gods when succ^^ssful in killing them 

„ 120 kiUud by Tiglatb^Pileser 

„ tbt) tail-cbw Bcalpttirt*d .... ..„ ,,.. 

p, described ,... .... „., .... »„. 

„ cut mutton off a boy's clie«t ..,. 

t, not tmined by A^^i) Tjana to the ehiue 

Lunar cycle, 494t7 dor.ens of lynodie mcjiitba — 4800 »obr ye&rfl „ 

LuyuM, Due de, his Noiulstii. et Inscrip. C^priot-e, 1852. Roth, German^ 
Heidelburg, 1855, corrected by Mr, Talbc?t 



453 



^trtcaeua sllenun (Wandcroo) on Niinrud obelisk .... 

MBidiin Arabs, tbeir raetliod of lioii-killing., „, 323 

Mide fowl (gilt) stirtnonnts the Mikoahi us sun-bcndd .... .... .,„ 552 

Miiinmidia of Assyrinii fcit'ulptureij. By Rtiv. W. Hou|^btuu 33-<>4j 81i)-383 

Altirdonius ordered to loniu before expedition to Mamtbon .... .... 243 

Marriette's S^rapt-um de Memphis, A[ym tablets , .... ,.., 251 

MiiKpero, Q.f on name of Egyptijin dog .... .... .... .... 127—128 

„ on the Abydos etlle in the Louvi^, C 14 (Dr. Lepsins) 555-563 

Maesorab Parva, HoiM?a .... 166-175 ; -176-573 

„ „ Jmd 514--531 

„ „ Junah 632-543 

„ Magna, Hosea 142-159 

Joel .... „ lCO-165 

„ Jonah 544-549 

Mnur-Bor (sin) father of Kbeta^sar, and son of Sapalel, a Hittite king .... 28 
Muutenaur, son of Mau-sar, and brother and prt'dtcessor of Kh^ta-siir, a 

llittitL' dynasty .... , 28 

Medos and Kitians besiege Idalinm .... .... .... .... .... 498 

Menephtah, Bunsen's es plana tion of period of .... .... .... .... 83 

Merefset of Nebelset, name of the StnUurd Ilonae Mnmtny .... „., 125 

Mi-di-ni (tiger p) killed in the Hittite country .„ 322 

Mikosh, ** precious/* Jupancfie ark-shrines „.. .... ,.,. „., ,.„ 550 

AI ties, Lieut. Co!,, ralla Dbu'SamHiwi lord of oxen.... .... .... .... 403 

Mimmiitioji fonnd in Siibn?an a« in Assyrinn .„. ..,. ,.„ .... 419 

Mirror (sacred) of Japan, circular, original fron> iitinefl in Heaven by a 
mystic bbicksmith (? meteoritt^) ; has 24 siTall ones attached to ita 
doors .... .... ..., ..*. .... *... .... ,... 651 

„ Sword, and Jewel, thn?€ embk'roa of a Shiuto temple in Japan .... 551 

Mitaknm, the three precious thijiK". the Mikado's insTg^nia .... „„ 561 

Mitztomoyc, tlucc t^Limoyes, triple syaibols in a circle, decorating Japanese 

ark &52 

Modem Cypriotista (Schmidt, Dcake, Siegismund, Rodet, hung, Geo, Smith, 

Brandia) ..,. 447-418 



INDEX. 



589 



1*408 

MmUBiym on Bimk Obelisk of Shiilmanezer 3X9 

gp tilbuie of Mwxi of Armenia ,„. .... .„ .„. „., 820 

„ probablj the Presbyter Eiitelltia or Houimman .,., ... ,.., 320 

», Miit'ucus Hiletiuis, or \^'illlde^^:KJ, on Nimnid obcli«k .,„ ,.,. 880 

Moon completer lier hunj>> in ftmr quart its... .,,. ,„. ,,., ,„, 440 

fifo^iaic ark, its Afghiin, Himukiyaii, and Jiipancat* itiiftligucn ...* bS0-5h4t 

Mammj (Stafford HoubuJ opened 15th July, 1875, by Dr, Birch .... 122-126 

,1 „ „ vignettei Ritual, chap, 125, deiailfl of it* fanL>ml 

decorations .».. .... ,.„ „o .... 1«^ 

,1 M 1* flpceimcn of cloth .... ,.„ ,.,. ,.., 318 

MuBa'dam dedicatoB tablet for Ma'lMiii, invoking ].>rosperity to Beni Dhabahii 224 

Muatt'k gcims in Me?o]:KitaiT»3a .,.. .... »„. .... ... .... 327 

,, foma (wliitti-brcastcd mui'ten) usyd as mouse* kiUer, lik^a our 

domestic cat.... ..,. „,. ,.„ .„. .... ..,, .... 64 

Muwaddadam of Beni-Ashyab ondowtnent m 'Amroti to diBtribate to 

Kuabbat Dhat-Martbadiiu .... .... .... .... .... .... 899 

Mnzri of Anne nm, its tnbtito of monkeys (Black Obelisk of Sbttltnanezcr) 320 

,, Bactriu (M. Qortacbmid) .., .... ., , .,., 820 



Naharaim (Me»npot&U)ia — ^Nahri, Assiyria), head-town, tetnp. Tliothiiies I 27 

NanimsiTi, Babylon's king god, son of Sftrgon of Agane, B.c. 1600 (ScmiteJ 4-12 

Ne^KH, the A8>+yriau name tor lion .... .... .... .... .... .... 326 

Nimer, or m*lm-rnj the leupiird „♦. .... „„ ... .... .... 826 



Onasikyproa, on a &c«l from Puphos .... .... .... .... .... 90-91 

Onasiluft, bead physician at Idalitim, Cyprus, contract with a freeh older, in 
lieu of fees for curing the wounded besieged. Part I, wiLb the 

doctor's brethren ; Part II, with him alone 449 

OnuHithemis^, first ocenrs, Cyprus .... .... .... .... .... .... 95 

OfvilMlMmum, the Hebrew Zari .... .,.* .... .... 4CM> 

Oppert, M,, translates annnk of Sargon (Records of the Past, toI. vii) .... 378 

Otter (lutra vulgiiris) teen id Mcsopotiimin.. 328 



Paehon, the Egyptiim water season, July to October .... .... .... 74 

Pfltriorohal genealogy, 8eptuagint chronology, key to (KydlxTg — Droch).,.. 6B-87 

Plicenidan alpbabot introduced Into Greece, Bth century B.C. ,.,. .... 32 

„ „ origin obscuTe, probably derived from Egypt' hiero- 

glypbica ' .... .... 29 

PhiBnieian alphabet, '* a^' is Ahom (Egyptian eegle), Semitic ox SO 

rhirfluihs had to swear to keep to the uncestnd vogue year „.. ..^, 70 

Philokyvriis, a stt'le from Poli-tis-ChTysoebou (Ardnoe) .... .... ..„ 90-91 

Philoknpr^Jij, stm of Onasaiforas, be^irgcd in Ichilium hy Hides and Klttaui 44B 

Pieridch. D.. notes on Cypriote pnla'ograpby .... .... .,„ .,., 88-96 

Pigs, stabltdp their presence averts tfie evil eye .... .... .... .... 380 

Porcupines (liystrix) abundant .... .... .... .... .„. .... 335 

Postdiluvian patriarchal chronologic table (Dnu'h) , 314 



590 



INDEX. 



Preabjter entdUut the Hindoo monkey » on fiUuk Obeliiik of Sbalmajjcoer SlO 

Pridcmux, Captain W. F., on an AruntMui i«al , .... 456^-468 

t, It iketcli of Sabsati grmromaTj with examples 

177-224, 381-4SS 

Prior- Pa triarcb, table of tb« three texts comp&red,.., . .„^ .... 0S 

Prototimoa on «tone tablet^ firat occurrence ,.„ .,.. .... ..„ M 

PBainmfitichtifly Egyptian inacrlption of at Florence .... ..^ .« iSI 

„ „ „ „ Leyden, tenip. Auiaals ,. , 253 

Pyramua and Thbbe, originally a Babylon love-tale. (Ovid) 103 



Rabflbum YazAin Bin Akhraf» endowment, protection in M^aLsan, under diief 

Yafra', Bin'Marthadim* from ^Araban of the West..,, 
Raibum and bis brotbora Bepu-Mi*rtliadtun (tribe of * Araran), tablet and 

LUght gold ring^s, iuiuo 'Aiu-Ktuub ben Sumabu-Karib ben HatafkriuiA 

lady of Tbaunin 
Barneses II, bts treaty with Uittite prince Kbeta-«ar (lira) .,„ .._ 

BmwUu40D'a Assyrian Cunon, 10S7-668 B.C. „, ^, 

Bethepb, the Pbmnician aun-gad .... ... .... .... .... .., 

RbuiOL*<;ros found in Assyria, called *' alnp-nubr '* itj the 'Sadeja .... 

Rimmon, the air^god, on a cylinder found at Euriuiu 
Kimmon'» furt^ car Himintiu (Assyria) 

,, „ Sbalinauezer'^ g»d Riinmon of Kholman (Aleppo)..,, ..« 

Eofsi, Fr., aids CbabaB in procuring an impresaion of a at^le .... .». 

Botenuu (Syriiiiis), temp. Tliotbmea II 

Honge falU tliu Turin atMe the Queeu-sti^le ..„ .«. 

Rydberg'a, Vict^jr, key to Piitrianib Table, and LXX chronology, 

Combertigue (Drjicb) ,.„ .... .,., .,„ .... .... 6 

Kydberg'a rules for reconciling patriarchlal life- ages 
„ bis fusion of the doubb genealogy 

bis anal 1461, 4947. 5 i08 year* 

j^ states Jemboatn ordered the calf-worship 




S:iba*a capital MiLryab, palace Raldmi, near Zbafar .... .... .... .... 180 

Sabiean ulpliabet has 29 letters, clasaiHed according to the emitting organs ISl 
„ grammar ... .... .... .... .... .... .... 177—200 

„ eiamples of tnmslation, .... 203-224; 384-425 

„ tongue, Semitic, Ethiopic, Geez, Miv'n .... .... .... 17S-180 

Sabhatb dujp king of Babylon dared not drive out upon ; sandry meats 

forbidden on .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 427 

Siible, the, found in Mesopotamia .... .... .... .... ,... .... 32T 

Haeeya river contains rhinoceros 

Bttdik-dbak»ra, alavc nf king Hitdbmmaut, Bin llSbirabar, endows Sin 
of Alam in Sbabwat city, recording Miirthadim and Addanam of 
Yen^ara 
SadiUfa and Beuu-Marthadim endowment, Il-Makab, lord of Awwam 
Dbu-Mraa Alui ; descent to Arhakim, b invoked to protect lands 
from Imil and other evila .... .... .... .... ... .... 409 

Sakh^ Aecftdiau name of bear . .... 930 

„ tlam-aakh or gimsakb, the slie-bcar .... .... .... .... .... 330 

mngmij is it bear ur hipixipitamixs ? .... 330 

Siikb-inas luv, or SkklM*i-kbur-m are Uran Mejor, " the horn of h«ven" 333 

fesamaba karib, son of Tobba'n Kivrib, sun of Fadbibim 390 



327 

4ieH 



INDEX. 591 

rAOB 

Samman poiion, holy inconBe of Exodus xxt (?) 118 

Hardanapalus, revolt of. Mr. Boscawen's transliteration of cylinder of .... 274 
Sarium the Minroan's endowment of tablet to Il-Makah of Hirran rescued 

from the tribe of Asad in house of Bin Saufan 885 

Sayce, Rev. A. H., on the Cosnola cuneiform cylinders found at Eurium, 

Cyprus 441-i44 

„ Rev. A. H., Hamathite inscriptions 22-32 

Schliemonn, Dr., finds at Hissarlik Cypriotic inscribed disks 81 

Senkereh, brick of, iiincriptiou of Cyrus .... .... .... .... .... 236 

Sennacherib's palace, Hamathite seals found by Mr. Layard .... .... 22 

Septuagint chronology, key to (Rydberg — Drach) 65-87 

„ alterations owins^ to Greek- Alexandrian enmity of Jews there, 

temp. Ptolemy Philadelphus .... .... .... .... .... 76 

Seth myth, his sacred animals selected by Job .... .... .... .... 68 

Seven to eight Mikoshi in the temple of Hachiman at Kamakura 658 

Seventh day and new moon, both were strict holidays, coeval with creation 427 
Shalmanezer's chronology ; Mr. W. S. Boscawen's transliteration of the 

inscription of 271-274 

Shalmanezcr, monkeys and elephant on his Black Obelisk.... .... .... 819 

Shammar Bin Kumin's endowment of tablet .... .... .... .... 888 

„ Yakub, son of Washkim, endowment, booty from Nabshim, under 

Yathium Bin-Marthadim 392 

Shamshad wood, niat<>rial for an Afghan holy ark 658 

Shintoism, Japan's primitive iconoclastic religion .... .... .... .... 651 

Shkr Chrf, *' thankful lamb," Himyaritic seal found in Hanran 446 

Simpson, W., on Japanese ark-shrines (Tenno-Sama, Mikoshi), resembling 

Mosaic ark .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 660-554 

Sineh, his life referred to 557 

Smcndes and Psousemes, kings on Abydos st^le .... .... .... .... 655 

Smith, George, found a Cypriote inscribed cone in Assurbanipal's palace .... 31 

Solar eclipse of 819 B.c 292 

„ „ 703 B.C., temp. Budsagale and Edusarabe at Nineveh .... 258 

763, 689, 585, 36, 3 B.C 261-262 

Solomon's temple founde<l B.C. 990 256-257 

Solomon, king, Hebrew n»gal annals begin with his reign .... .... .... 65 

Sothiac cycles originally celestial .... .... .... .... .... .... 65 

„ „ introduced 3300 B.C 70 

Sothis, queen of the new year ; her fete .... .... .... .... .... 70 

Stafford House, mummy opened there by Dr. Birch, 15th July, 1875 122-126 
Stanton, General, U.B.M. Consul -General, presents a mummy to Duke of 

Sutheriand 122 

Stasikupros, king of Idalium, orders Onasilus son of Onasikupros and 

brethren to heal the wounds without fees, paid by royal bounty .... 449 

St^le Egyptienne du Mus^ de Turin. By Frangois Chabas .... 459-474 

Striped feline on Assyrian gem .... .... .... .... .... .... 822 

Suidae (pigs) found in Assyria .... .... .... .... .... .... 851 

Sutherland, Duke of, invites party to unroll mummy given him by General 

Stanton on 15th July. 1875 122 

Sword, Flaming, whicli turned every way (Talbot) 1-21 

Syllabary, how to be used to find names of anlmids 89-40 

Syncellus counts 1460-1 years from Belus to Arbaces, Sardanapalus .... 229 
Syrian and Israelitish chronology .... .... .... .... ... .... 267 



Talbot, H. F., Chaldean account of the Creation 426-440 

„ on Cypriote infcriptions 447-456 

Vol. V. 3S 



592 



INDEX. 



Tnlbotf H. F., figtit between Bel and the Dmgon ; the Fkmmg Sword wbich 
turned every way.... 

„ Islitar and I zdubtir, 6tli tablet translated 97-121 

Tanu-Aiarei (AbasucraB) and 'Atossa (E«ther). cbponology. By Mr. J. W. 

Bosanquet , 226-2912 

Tunuf, Imly of Glmdhmii, endows twenty-four imager to save Silhin .... 412 

Taylor, Colonel, of Bii^lidud, his brown lion .„, „„ ..„ „„ 826 

Tazena, king of Ethiopia, destroys VrttiRtt^d houses (A xutn)..., .... ,... 402 

Tenno-Stinm ("* lumvenly hird ''). Japanese ark-sUrine .... .... „.. 660 

Tcumman, king of Ktaui, ilcmundii of Uiumun-aldns the return of Knnft statuo 264 
Thiimuni nnd UsHidtini and male relatives of Benu Arfkt^ of the Bin 

Mjirtbadim, endow talik't for jtrood barveat .,„ ,„^ ..„ .... 212 

Tbcodnros wud Tljeotunos, tsUma in Cyprus ..., ,^. „„ „„ 92 

Tbotbmeft HI, Babylon^ Assur, and Ninevcb tributary to Kgypt .„, .... 27 

Tbnnderbi)Rs, quadiiiple and septuple, of Bel ..,. ..„ .... .... 2 

Tiger, probably in ancient Assyria (Blytb and Murrny) .... ... 831-322 

Tiglatb-Piltsor I (B.C. 1130), Hittite-s paramount in Syria „ 28 

*1 iniorotTKss, oti »teie from Poli-tis-CkrysoebtjU (Arsinoti) ,.„ .„, „., 90-91 

Totb, Ej^ypt'fl sprouting season, Xoveiuber to February .... .,„ „.. 74 

Toby, Egypt^ti harvest season, Mareb to Juno .... .... ,„, .... 74 

Torii, or bird rest, JSliinto outer gateway (Chinese PaLlowB), fh»m ft dove 

nesting on origi,',ia! ark .... .,.. .... „^, ..„ „,. &&2 

Toutmostrs valour diaebiiied tbc surrounding oomitriea ,... .... .... 77 

Tril>e5, eleven, gazed at dead dnigon ».„ ,.,, „., ., S 

Tristniin, Dr., finds fossil bison teetb in tbe Lebanon .... .... 237—338 

Tunauiitt, mii of Paro^ third Kurium (rock orystAl) cylinder, temp. Esar* 

baddtm .„. .... ..., „., ..,. .... ..„ ..,. 444 

Tui in, ]^l. Cbabaa but une sti^k ^gyptienni^ du MuBe« die .... .... 469-^74 

U*du-mu, mnn-monkey, human-like portraits by A&syrianfl .... .... 321 

Ukbtunibu and Shafanram, cottagers, endow idol .... .... .... .... 207 

Ung<dat4e, Bovidic, etc., in Assyria.... .... .... .... .... ... 337 

Ursidffi (Bears) in Assyria .... .... .„, „„ ,».. .„, ,.„ 329 

Urns (Anerocbs) horuft m requeit at Bome and Nineveh ..., ,. 839 



V. 



TagUG year uf Egypt superior to other national cycle* 



70 



W. 

<Mp|dctda-ll, eon of Yekah-mutiki Kiibir Kbulll .... , ... .... ^.. 888 

Wabbabuui and brothcn*, Benu Kalbuf, dedicat-e a tablet .... .... .... MS 

Wanderoo monkey known to tbe Assyrians ,.„ .... .... .... 820 

WatruiM of Bin Martbadim dedicate tablet Samaba-Karib ben Toba*a*Kiirib 

Iwn Hndbiniiat 220 

Wolf (num ma), the hi gblnnd beast, a-ki4uv 35 

Wolf eddied •' tbe eater" by the Acc^diuns .... .... .... ,.„ ..« 36 

VVooik u»cd in Jaj>anetie and Afglian temples ..*, .... .... 650-554 



Xtsutbms^ flA>od, B.C. SSTdj aamo dute as Mo«es' Noachic de\ngt 



INDEX. 



593 



Y. 

rAOK 

Yeslinf Hnd the male relatives of Bcnu Kathabim, of the tribe Bin Mar- 

thadin, dedicate tablet for II Makah's prospering them .... .... 214 

Yinyang, the Chinese daal symbol, compared with the Japanese triad .... 552 



Ziggarati, temple tower of Babel, overthrown in a night by the angry gods, 

who confounded the speech of the builders, and scattered them .... 803 
Zoological names of Assyrian animals 367^388 



594 



INDEX. 



LIST OF BIBLICAL TEXTS. 









TkQK 








PAOS 


GenesU 


i. 


1-5 .... 


.... 317 


1 Kings xviii, 


1 .... 


.... 286 


»» 


h 


9 .... 


.... 431 


»* 


XX, 


34 .... 


.... 288 


»» 


i. 


21 .... 


.... 430 


tt 


xxii. 


1 .... 


.... 288 


»» 


ii. 


8 .... 


....• 68 


2 Kings iii. 


24 .... 


.... 138 


»* 


iv, 


16-17 .... 


.... 67-8 


>9 


iii. 


41 .... 


.... 288 


„ 


V, 


.... 


65 


f» 


vii. 


6 .... 


28 


» 


V, 


14-15 .... 


.... 66-77 


» 


ix. 


6 .... 


.... 288 


>» 


vi, 


4-13 .... 


77 


*» 


liv. 


23 .... 


.... 267 


»» 


vii. 


7 .... 


82 


»» 


xiv. 


25-26 .... 


84 


»» 


viii> 


2 .... 


.... 77 


»> 


XV, 


29 .... 


.... 278 


» 


ix. 


22 .... 


.... 815 


»» 


xxiii. 


29-33 .... 


83 


»» 


X. 


6 .... 


.... 65-66 


2 Chron. xii. 


2 .... 


.... 283 


» 


X, 


21 .... 


.... 676 


»» 


xiv. 


9 .... 


.... 285 


»» 


X, 


26 .... 


.... 458 


$t 


XV, 


10 .... 


.... 284 


tt 


xi. 


13 .... 


316 


Ezra 


iv, 


5 .... 


.... 245 


»» 


xi. 


2-13 .... 


65 


** 


iv, 


5-24 .... 


.... 236 


>* 


xii. 


10 .... 


65 


»» 


vi. 


14 .... 


311-246 


»» 


xiv. 


13 .... 


77 


»$ 


vi, 


22 .... 


241-246 


»i 


xvii. 


10-13 .... 


.... 268 


»» 


xi. 


16 .... 


.... 243 


„ 


xxiii, 


3 .... 


28 


Job 


iv. 


17 .... 


.... 431 


»» 


xxlx. 


27 .... 


.... 260 


>» 


X, 


6 .... 


.... 431 


*> 


xxxi. 


19 .... 


68 


1* 


xi, 


28 .... 


.... 337 


„ xxxiii. 


4 .... 


86 


„ xxxviii, 


31 .... 


.... 432 


Exodus 


vi. 


16 .... 


84 


Psalm 


xxiii. 


1 .... 


45 


»> 


xiii. 


14 .... 


65 


»f 


Ixxx, 


13 .... 


.... 432 


»» 


xxxii. 


3-5 .... 


68 


Prov. 


viii. 


26 .... 


.... 431 


Levit. 


XXV, 


1-8 .... 


.... 260 


Cantic. 


ii. 


15 .... 


.... 329 


„ 


XXV, 


4-5 .... 


.... 269 


Isaiah 


iif 


2 .... 


.... 265 


f» 


XXV, 


9 .... 


.... 268 


»» 


xiii. 


21 .... 


.... 328 


Numb. 


xiii. 


23 .... 


76 




xiv. 


9 .... 


45 


Deut. 


iv, 


34 .... 


.... 430 


„ xxxvii. 


30 .... 


.... 269 


» 


xxix. 


29 .... 


86 


J, 


xlix. 


24 .... 


.... 393-5 


„ 


xxix. 


29 .... 


.... 316 


f» 


Ixii, 


6 .... 


.... 267 


„ 


XXX, 


17 .... 


.... 330 


Jerem. 


V, 


8 .... 


45 


Joshua 


ix. 


4 .... 


.... 116 


»> 


xvii. 


7 .... 


.... 431 


Judges 


V, 


10 .... 


49 




XXV, 


1 .... 


.... 250 


»» 


viii. 


24^27 .... 


68 


^, 


xliii. 


8,9 .... 


.... 252 


1 Sara. 


xix. 


13-14 .... 


68 


j^ 


xlvi, 


2 .... 


.... 250 


1 Kings vi. 


1 .... 


84 


tt 


Iii, 


30 .... 


249 


i» 


vi. 


1-38 _ 


.... 265 


Ezekiel 


iv, 


4 .... 


.... 259 


„ 


viii. 


2 .... 


.... 265 


„ 


xxiii. 


23 .... 


.... 424 


„ 


x» 


22 .... 


... 280 


tt 


xxvii, 


14 .... 


51 


„ 


X, 


29 .... 


28 


tt 


xxix, 


11 .... 


... 250 


„ 


xi. 


6-7 .... 


68 




xxix. 


17-18 .... 


262 


,, 


xi, 


40 .... 


.... 283 


tt 


XXX, 


18 .... 


252-262 


»» 


xii. 


29-30 .... 


.... 257 


tt 


xxxii. 


6, 11 .... 


.... 252 


»» 


XV, 


18 .... 


.... 288 


tt 


xxxii, 


7-8 .... 


... 262 



INDEX. 



595 



LIST OF BIBLICAL TEXTS^-^ontinued, 



Daniel 


h 


17 


»» 


V, 


28-31 




V, 


36 


** 


vi. 


1-2 


»> 


vi, 


3 




vi, 


28 


,, 


viii. 


3 


»» 


viii. 


13 


>• 


viii, 


5-8 


*t 


viii, 


14 


„ 


ix. 


1 


» 


ix. 


2 


»» 


ix. 


24 


»» 


X, 


13 


Hosea 


var. 




>» 


xiii. 


7 


Joel 
Amos 


var. 
i. 


1 


,, 


V, 


26 


» 


vii. 


11 




viii. 


8-9 


Kahum 


iii. 


2 



66 


Hagg. 


ii. 


18 


.. 241 


„ 


ii. 


20 


.. 226-7 


Zachar. 


i. 


7 


.. 242 


** 


i. 


7.12 


.. 247 


J, 


i# 


8 


.. 236 


»» 


i. 


16 


245 


,» 


ii. 


1 


.. 268 


n 


X, 


8 


46 


,» 


xiv. 


4-5 


257 


Matt. 


i. 


17 


.. 226-7 


John 


i, 


1 


.. 249 


Acts 


Tii. 


2 


24r-266 


»» 


vii, 


43 


.. 236 


Romans 


iii, 


29l^1 


131-176 


lEsdras 


iii, 


1-2 


.. 327 


,. 


iii. 


7 


181-176 


»» 


iv. 


48 


.. 258 


tf 


V, 


2 


68 


»» 


▼, 


9 


.. 257 


Jadith 






.. 257 


Daniel, Apoc. 




51 


Enoch Bk., Apoc 



rAOB 

266 
247 
227 
227 
247 
248 
245 
45 



481 



68,86 
268 
246 
247 
246 
248' 
245 



260 



INDEX. 



CLASSICAL AND MODERN (M) AUTHORITIES. 









rAOk 




P4AS 


Abiilpharft^UB, i, 31, 46 


(M) 


... 


257 


JoflGphuH, Atit., xi, ill, 2 


.... 215 


Abjdemis 




»■»• 


276 


Xt «, 7 


...* 260 


Aratiifl (Soboliaiit) 




... 


70 


„ xvii, vi. 4 


.... 262 


Arrian 




... 


235 


„ con Apbn i, 18 


.... 256, 


CKWir, Julmfi, BeU. GaU, 


1 vi, 


ZS 


337 




281-282, 290 


Castor 




,.. 


232 


Jtilitia AMcaDiM 


...*76. 232 


Clement (Alexnndriu) „„ 






235 


ii, 260 


.... 262 


amton, i, 2G0 (M) .,.. 




... 


232 


LepsiuB, Zeitscli., '69, p. 78 (M) 70 


Cte«ia». 


229, 


232 


, 235 


LiehleiiMM) ,„ 


.... 71. 7d 


» P-49 






241. 


Llttm, Diet. (M) 


81 


DemetriuB 




... 


249 


Livy 


.... 256 


Didyro iw { Alcxuri driii) . . „ 






325 


Lndan, 190 


... 235 


Diodoma 


230, 


232 


, 2G3 


Lubker (M) .... 


81 


Engcl, 1.265, 147, 154 (M) 


.... 91, m 


Lueretiiw (v. 1301) .„. 


.... 350 


Eratosthenes .„» 




*». 


74 


Maliilas, 168, 160 


235. 2-16 


EuBcbiua, IIM) 




... 


235 


Manetho 


.... 78, 79 


37 ... ... 




... 


276 


MegRstbcne* .... 


229, 235, 291 


Fr^r^t (M) 




... 


71 


Mfuinnder 


... 281 


Qimti, 56(M) 




... 


2'J8 


OTOfiiUB (M) 


.... 256 


Gregory (Nazianzen) .... 






64 


Oi-id, 141 


102. 234 


Herodotus 






74 


Pjipo, Diet., 1320 (H).... 


.... 89. 91 


i, 130 .... 




... 


231 


Fhlegon, ii, 271 


.... 232 


i, i<:>6 






233 


Pliny 


.... 232 


iii. 133 .... 




.•» 


231. 


Plutarch, 49, 62, 31 .... 


68 


i, 209. 214 




«.i 


235 


PolybiuB 


232, 256 


VI, 43 






243 


Porphyry 


70, 71. 93 


vl 3 




... 


244 


Sukelkriofl. i, 191 (M). .. 


93 


u, 31 




..* 


246 


j Soliiiiis 


.... 266 


ii> 161 




... 


262 


Suidng .... 


.... 250 


V. 113 




• >. 


452 


Syncellu* 


.84, 281 


Heaiod (Scholiast) 






93 


„ i, 181 


.... 229 


Hesychius 




462 


,454 


ThftUus 


232 


Josephm ,., 




... 


78 


VelUeua Valew 


70 


Aut, X, n, 1 




... 


331 


Xenophon 


... 23S 


„ .* X. xi. 2 




... 


235 







vjikiuaDii AJTS muB^ fuhtsu m oifti>iJtjiBV to vu MA#im, it. ilabtui « uKr. 



597 



EBBATA. 



Page 813. — For First Paragraph substitute — 

In addition to mj notes on M. Bydberg's Memoir, I find 
Ezekiel iy's 890 plus 40 are 480; that 43 Biot's archaic year 
of 366 X \i%i, is 15,705* 10>^ 17« 08-6" ; that 531 J Herodotian 
months of 365 x ^ is 15,705* 10*> 25" 14*6" ; and that our 
modem solar year is ^m^^ days, or 14 x 27 { 1 - -^ }• 

Page 814, Line 5. — Paragraph after Table, — omit "As Noah, Ac, to post- 
diluvian tents." 

„ „ After " columns," add " is noteworthy.** 

Page 815, Line 4. — After "impropriety,** read "Moabite god Chemish K^^D3 
is 866 in value. Does the peculiar poetic style indicate 
the words being acrostics in initials or finals? Thus 
Deut. iixii, verse 24, IITD, and verse 25, riDID nD; 
verse 38, P^ nHK. Lam. i, 1, JHH 3^K ; iii,27, 2V ^3 i>tD." 

Page 316, Line ll.—After "God?** OfnU " The super-pointed, &c., to (Eabb),'* 
substitute, " Did Henoch's learning make his name the 
type of instruction, like * Mentor* (Prov. xiii, 6) ?" 



H 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



LIST OF MEMBERS, January, 1877. 

Marked thus f are Members of the Council. 

A1N8WOBTH, W. F., F.S.A., F.E.G.S., RavenBcourt Villa, Ham- 
mersmith, S.W. 

Alexakdeb, Geo., 1, Ulster Terrace, Eegent^s Park, N.W. 

Allen, W. C, 72, Albion Eoad, Stoke Newington, N, 

Allen, Edward, Alnwick. 

Amhubst, William A. Tyssen, F.S A., F.R.S.L., F.E.S., Ac., 
Didiington Park, Brandon, Norfolk. 
tANous, Ret. Jos., D.D., Regent's Park, N.W. 

Anderson, J. Corbet, Croydon, Surrey. 

Appleford, William, 8, Park Street, Victoria Park Bead, N.B. 

Appleton, Rev. R., M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Arnold, Rev. Dr. Muehleisen, 27, Bristol Gardens, W. 

Attwood, Rev. Geo., Fraralingham Rectory, Wickham Market. 
Babington, Rev. Cuubcuill, D.D., F.R.S.L., Cockfield Rectory, 
Sudbury, Suffolk. 

Backhouse, James, York. 

Baqstbr, H. Theodore, 15, Paternoster Row, B.C. 

Baoster, Robt., 14, King's Road, Gray's Inn, W.C. 

Baker, William, B.A., 6, King's Bench Walk, Temple, B.C. 

Barclay, J. G., Knott's Green, Leyton, Bssex. 

Barker, Rev. P., M.A., 2, Duke Street, Adelphi, W.C. 

Barton, Col. N. D., 64, Regency Square, Brighton. 

Battersbt, Rev. T. D. Habford, St. John's Parsonage, Keswick. 

Beale, D. Chauncet, 1, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

Beardslet, Amos, F.L.S., F.G.S., Bay Villa, Grange-over-Sands, 
Lancashire. 
IBeeoiiey, Rev. Canon St. Vincent, M.A., Hilgay Rectory, 
Downham, Norfolk. 

Bertin, Charles, 4, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, B.C. 

Bevan, William, 12, Bolton Gardens, South Kensington, W. 
Vol. V. 39 



u 



Jjist of Memhevs* 



BiNioK, SAjftTEL A., 6, Duke Street, Adelpbi, W.C. 
tBiacH, 8aku£L, LL.D., &c., Britiah Museutii. W.C. {Pnsideitt)* 

BiEDWooD, Dii., F.aS., India Office, Wbitehall, SM. 

Black, IMajob R. S., 54, Albion Road, Stoke Newingfcon, N. 

Blackett, Rev. W» R*, M*A*, 65, Bedford Street, LiverpooL 

Bold EN, Ret. C, Preston Bissett Rectory, Buckingham. 

Boxoiii, SiONOB R,, Camera Dei Deputati, Rome, 
fBoNoMi, JosEPiJ, Sir Jolm Soane's Museum, W.C* 
tBosANQUET, James W., F,R.A.S,p lU.K.A.S., &c.» 73, Lombard 
Street, KC. (Trcamrer.) 

BosjjfQUET, Samuel B., Dingeston Court, Monmouth. 

Boscawex, Rev. W» II., B.A., March weil, Wrexham. 
tBoBCAWEK, William St. Chad, British Museum, Bloomsburf, 

w.a 

BowuEir, Rev. Chabx^es H., The Oratory, Bromptoii, 8.W. 
Boyd, Ret. William, F.S.A., Scot., St. John's Manae, ^oresi 

Hill, S.E. 
Bbamley-Moore, Ret. W,, M.A., 19, Wobtirn Square, W.C 
Bbewsteb, Ret. Waldeobave, MiddJetou Rectory, Manchester. 
Bkock, Rev. Mourakt, M.A., 4, Glouceiiter Row, Clifton, 
BfiOWN, J., F.R.A.S., Brautholme, Kendal, Westmoreland. 
BhowNi J. RoBKRTS, SIi, Ctiversham Eo:id, 'SAY. 
Beown, Wm, Hehht, 35, Charlewood Street, S.W. 
Bbowt?, R., Jun., F.S.A,, Barton-on-Humber, Lincolnshire. 
Bbowk, Alfred Kemp, Norwich. 
Brownen, Geo., F.O.S., Althorpe Road, Wandsworth Common, 

S.W. 

BuGBT, Wm., 3, Wilton Villas, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

Bullock, Rey. W. T., M.A., Keosington Palace, S.W. 

BgKSEK, Ebnest Be, Abbey Lodge, Hanover Gate, N.W* 

BgBTOK, SittWiLLiAM W., 54, Chepstow Villas, Nutting Hill, W. 

BiTBTOTf, Rev. R. Clerke, Taversham, Norwich. 

Burton, Thomas, M.D., Westport, co. Mavo. 

Bute, The Marquis of, KG., K.T., 83, Eccleston Square, S.W. 

Burr, R. M , 44, Eleanor Street, Campbell Road, Bow, E. 

Buxton, Wilmot, F.R.A.S,, 77, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

Cameron, Alexander Mack:enzie, Borneo. 

Camps, R., M.D., 

Campbell, Professor John, M.A., Presbyterian College, Mon- 
treal, Canada* 

Cafel, Very Rev. Monsignur T. C, D.D., Kensington College 
Cabb, Bkv. Arthur, Wellington College, Wokingham. 



Lhl of Memhei'n, 



m 



Cahpenter, Eev. J. Edlik, 4, Oppidan Road, Primrose Hill, N.W. 

Careuthers, Rev. Chhistopheb, 4, Spencer Villas, SoutUfieldSp 
WandBvvortb, 8.\V. 
tCATEa, Arthur, F.RJ.B.A., 7, Whitehall Yard, S,W. {Sccrdanj), 

Chalmers, John, Castle Bank, Merchiston, Edinburgh 

Chappeh, William, F.S.A,, Oatlatids Park, Waltoii-on-Thfimes. 

Chaetebis, Pbof. a. H,, D.D., 1, Salisbury Komi, Edinburgh, 

OffEVALLLEB, Edgecumbb, F.R.A.S., Kiiysna, Cape Colony. 

CttETifE, Rev. F. K., M.A., Balliol College, Oxtbrd- 
tCHBiSTY, Toos., Jun,, 155, Fenebureh Street, E.G. 

Cmristt, Thos. II ward, 64, Claverton Street, GroBvenor 
Road, S.W. 

Clabk, John, 133, Upper KenoingtoD Lane, S.E. 
Clarke, C. Haewood, B.A.. F,S.A., Westfield, Bromley, Kent 
Clarke, Rev. Prof, Tnos., Kensington CoUego, W, 
Coles, Eev. J, B., M.A.» Woodbam Walter, Maldon, Esse? 
C0LE8, Bev. Y. S,, M.A,, Skepton Beauchamp, IlminBter, 
Collins, Jameb, F.R.P*S., Singapore. 
C0LLIK8, Ebv. Cakon, M.A,, Lowick, North amp to nsh ire. 
CoMFABTH, J,, Birmingham. 
fOooz, Rev. Fbahcis C*,M.A., Canon of Exeter, Devon* (Ficf* 
President,) 
CooPEK, Eev. Basil II., B.A., F,R.S.L., ^^, Horncastle Terrace, 
Fon thill Road, N. 
tCooPER, W. K., F,Il.A.S., M,E.A,S., 6, Richmond Grove, Barns- 
bury, N. {Secretary,) 
CoRNTitWAiTE, Rev. Tullie, M.A., The Forestj Walthametow, 

N.E. 
CosaoK, M. Le Baron C. A. De, F.E.G.S., L'llermitage, Am- 

boiae, Indre et Loire, France. 
CouBTNET, EiouT Rev. Bishop, D.D., Kingston, Jamaica* 
Cox, DAvro, 2, New Park Road, Brixton, 8. 
Cranage, Dr. J. E,, Old Hall School, Wellington, Salop. 
Crawford, Major-Genera l. United States America, care of 

B. F. Evans, 4, Trafalgar Square, W*C. 
Crewdson, Eev. Geo., St. George*8 Vicarage, KendaL 
Cbothsbs, Capt. Wallace G., Chew-Magnn, Somerset 
CcTLL, ErcilAB0, F.S.A., 13, Tavistock Street, Bctlfor<i Square, 

W.C. 
CuifiNO, H. Sver, F.S.A., Scot, 63, KenniogtoD Park Eoad, S.E* 
tCrBRBT, Rev. George, D.D., Master*s Lodge, Cbarterhouae, 

Aldersgftte Street, E.C. ( Vice-Presidait.) 
tCusT, Egbert, F.R.A.8., 64, St. George's Square, S.W. 



IV 



Lint of Afembers. 



Dale, Bev, Thomas Peluam, M.A., 6, Ladbroke GardenB, W. 
Dale, Ekt, Beya.n, MA. Halifax. 

D ALTON, Rev. J. N., M*A,, Marlborough House, St. James's, W. 
Darbtbhibe, Kobt, D., B.A,, F.R.S., F.S.A,, Victoria Park, 

Manchester* 
Datid, Rev, Wm,, M.A., Colleton Creaeent, Eieter. 
Datib, Rev. E» J., Ash Villa, Link, Malvern. 
Day, St. John Vincent, C.E., F.H C.S., S.E., Garseadden, 

Duntot'her, N B. 
Be La Hue, Wabren, RE.S., D.C.L., F.E.A.S., 73 Portland 

Pkee, \\\ 
Delitzsch, Foiedrioh, Ph.D., 54, Ntiniberger Strasse, Leipzig. 
Denton, Eev. Wm., M»A., 22, Westbourne Square, W, 
DiSMOHB, J. L., Stewart House, Graveyend. 
Donaldson* Professoe T. L., K.L., Ph.D., Ac., 21, Upper 

Bedford Place, W.C. 
Douglas, Rev. Dr., Free Church CoUege, GlaBgow. 
Dbach, S. U., F.E. A,S., F.R.G.S., 23, Upper Barnsbury Street, N, 
Devden, James, 12* Priuces 8trcet, Conibrook Park, Manchester. 
Dykes, Rev. J. Oswald, D.D., 74, Oakley Square, N»W. 
Eddie, William H., Barton-on-H umber. 
Edwaeds, K- B., Burhage Hall, Hinckley. 
Ely, TALFoirnD, ID, El don Road, Hmupatead, N.W. 
EsPiN, Rev, Canon TnoMAa, B.D., Wallasey Rectory, Birkeiihead«